Available Weekly Reports
3 April-9 April 2013
Based on visual observations and seismic data, CVGHM raised the Alert Level for Tambora to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 5 April.
Sources: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM)
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Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|1967 ± 20 years||Unknown||Confirmed||0||Historical||NE part of caldera floor|
|1880 ± 30 years||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical||SW part of caldera (Doro Afi Toi)|
|1812||1815 Jul 15 (?)||Confirmed||2||Historical|
|740 ± 150 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (uncorrected)|
|3050 BCE (?)||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (uncorrected)|
|3910 BCE ± 200 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (uncorrected)|
The massive Tambora stratovolcano forms the entire 60-km-wide Sanggar Peninsula on northern Sumbawa Island. The largely trachybasaltic-to-trachyandesitic volcano grew to about 4000 m elevation before forming a caldera more than 43,000 years ago. Late-Pleistocene lava flows largely filled the early caldera, after which activity changed to dominantly explosive eruptions during the early Holocene. Tambora was the source of history's largest explosive eruption, in April 1815. Pyroclastic flows reached the sea on all sides of the peninsula, and heavy tephra fall devastated croplands, causing an estimated 60,000 fatalities. The eruption of an estimated more than 150 cu km of tephra formed a 6-km-wide, 1250-m-deep caldera and produced global climatic effects. Minor lava domes and flows have been extruded on the caldera floor at Tambora during the 19th and 20th centuries.