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Mount Berlin consists of two coalescing shield volcanoes, Berlin Crater and Merrem Peak, each with a 2-km-wide summit caldera. Mount Berlin is located in the Flood Range of Marie Byrd Land, near the eastern coast of the Ross Sea. The two calderas are oriented along an east-west line, characteristic of Flood Range volcanoes. The westernmost and highest volcano, Berlin Crater, reaches 3478 m and is located 3.5 km ESE of Merrem Peak caldera. Berlin Crater displays active fumaroles along its western and northern caldera rims, producing the characteristic Antarctic fumarolic ice towers. The youngest dated tephra of a series of tephra layers in glacial ice at Mount Moulton that was attributed to Mount Berlin had an age of about 14.5 +/- 3.8 thousand years (ka), and a younger undated tephra layer was present. A lava flow at the base of an ice cave below a fumarolic ice tower was dated at about 10.3 +/- 2.7 ka.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|8350 BCE ± 5300 years||Unknown||Confirmed||0||Ar/Ar|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|Mount Berlin, seen here from Mount Moulton to the east, is located in the Flood Range of Marie Byrd Land, near the eastern coast of the Ross Sea. Mount Berlin consists of two coalescing shield volcanoes, Berlin Crater and Merrem Peak, each with a 2-km-wide summit caldera. The two calderas are oriented along an E-W-trending line, characteristic of Flood Range volcanoes. Berlin Crater displays active fumaroles along its western and northern caldera rims, producing the characteristic Antarctic fumarolic ice towers.
Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..
Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.
LeMasurier W E, Thomson J W (eds), 1990. Volcanoes of the Antarctic Plate and Southern Oceans. Washington, D C: Amer Geophys Union, 487 p.
Wilch T I, McIntosh W C, Dunbar N W, 1999. Late Quaternary volcanic activity in Marie Byrd Land: potential 40Ar/39Ar-dated time horizons in West Antarctic ice and marine cores. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 111: 1563-1580.