Erebus

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 77.53°S
  • 167.17°E

  • 3794 m
    12444 ft

  • 390020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

12 October-18 October 2005

According to the Mt. Erebus activity log, several "small- to medium-sized" eruptions occurred during 12-18 October, with a "very large" eruption occurring on 14 October. The eruption sizes were based on comparisons of seismic data for known Erebus eruptions.

Source: Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory



 Available Weekly Reports


2005: October
2001: May | November


12 October-18 October 2005

According to the Mt. Erebus activity log, several "small- to medium-sized" eruptions occurred during 12-18 October, with a "very large" eruption occurring on 14 October. The eruption sizes were based on comparisons of seismic data for known Erebus eruptions.

Source: Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory


21 November-27 November 2001

As of 23 November, frequent Strombolian eruptions (~1-10 per day) occurred from a persistent ~15-m-diameter summit lava lake at Erebus. In addition, infrequent small ash eruptions took place at a vent adjacent to the lava lake.

Source: Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory


9 May-15 May 2001

Geologic Summary. Mount Erebus, the world's southernmost historically active volcano, overlooks the McMurdo research station on Ross Island. The 3,794-m-high Erebus is the largest of three major volcanoes forming the crudely triangular Ross Island. The summit of Mount Erebus has been modified by several generations of caldera formation. A summit plateau at about 3,200 m altitude marks the rim of the youngest caldera, within which the modern cone was constructed. An elliptical 500 x 600 m wide, 110-m-deep crater truncates the summit and contains an active lava lake within a 250-m-wide, 100-m-deep inner crater. The glacier-covered volcano was erupting when first sighted by Captain James Ross in 1841. Continuous lava-lake activity has been documented since 1972, punctuated by occasional Strombolian explosions that eject bombs onto the crater rim.

Source: Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1972 Dec (in or before) 2011 (continuing) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1972 Jan 3 (?) Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1963 Nov (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations
[ 1957 ] [ 1958 ] Uncertain    
1955 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1947 Feb Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1915 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1915 Mar 22 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1912 Dec 12 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1911 Oct Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1911 Apr 1911 Jun Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1908 Mar 1908 Nov Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1903 Jan 1 ± 730 days Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations
[ 1900 Feb ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1841 Jan 28 (?) 1841 Feb Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
0950 ± 1000 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Ar/Ar Northwest lava flow
2050 BCE ± 1000 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Ar/Ar Western Crater (Upper Ice Tower flow)
2950 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Surface Exposure North flank (Lower Hut lava flow)
4050 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Surface Exposure Lower Ice Tower Ridge, S lava flows
4550 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Surface Exposure NE flank
7050 BCE ± 1000 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Ar/Ar NW flank, Tramway lava flow
8050 BCE ± 1000 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Ar/Ar NNW flank, Nausea Knob lava flow

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Aster R, Mah S, Kyle P, McIntosh W, Dunbar N, Johnson J, Ruiz M, McNamara S, 2003. Very long period oscillations of Mount Erebus volcano. J Geophys Res, 108(B11), 2522, doi:10.1029.2002JB00201.

Berninghausen W H, Neumann van Padang M, 1960. Antarctica. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 10: 1-32.

Csatho B, Schenk T, Kyle P, Wilson T, Krabill W B, 2008. Airborne laser swath mapping of the summit of Erebus volcano, Antarctica: applications to geological mapping of a volcano. J Volc Geotherm Res, 177: 531-548.

Esser R P, Kyle P R, McIntosh W C, 2004. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the eruptive history of Mount Erebus, Antarctica: volcano evolution. Bull Volc, 66: 671-686.

Harpel C J, Kyle P R, Dunbar N W, 2008. Englacial tephrostratigraphy of Erebus volcano, Antarctica. J Volc Geotherm Res, 177: 549-568.

Harpel C J, Kyle P R, Esser R P, McIntosh W C, Caldwell D A, 2004. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the eruptive history of Mount Erebus, Antarctica: summit flows, tephra, and caldera collapse. Bull Volc, 66: 687-702.

Johnson J B, Aster R C, Ruiz M C, Malone S D, McChesney P J, Lees J M, Kyle P R, 2003. Interpretation and utility of infrasonic records from erupting volcanoes. J Volc Geotherm Res, 121: 15-63.

Kelly P J, Dunbar N W, Kyle P R, McIntosh W C, 2008. Refinement of the late Quaternary geologic history of Erebus volcano, Antarctica using 40Ar/39Ar and 36Cl age determinations. J Volc Geotherm Res, 177: 569-588.

Kyle P R, 1977. . (pers. comm.).

Kyle P R, Dibble R R, Giggenbach W F, Keys J, 1982. Volcanic activity associated with the anorthoclase phonolite lava lake, Mount Erebus, Antarctica. In: Craddock C (ed) {Antarctic Geoscience}, Madison: Univ Wisconsin Press, p 735-745.

Kyle P R, Moore J A, Thirlwall M F, 1992. Petrologic evolution of anorthoclase phonolite lavas at Mount Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica. J Petr, 33: 849-875.

LeMasurier W E, Thomson J W (eds), 1990. Volcanoes of the Antarctic Plate and Southern Oceans. Washington, D C: Amer Geophys Union, 487 p.

Newhall C G, Dzurisin D, 1988. Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1855: 1108 p, 2 vol.

Rowe C A, Aster R C, Kyle P R, Dibble R R, Schlue J W, 2000. Seismic and acoustic observations at Mount Erebus volcano, Ross Island, Antarctica, 1994-1998. J Volc Geotherm Res, 101: 105-128.

Mount Erebus, the world's southernmost historically active volcano, overlooks the McMurdo research station on Ross Island. The 3794-m-high Erebus is the largest of three major volcanoes forming the crudely triangular Ross Island. The summit of the dominantly phonolitic Mount Erebus has been modified by one or two generations of caldera formation. A summit plateau at about 3200-m altitude marks the rim of the youngest caldera, which formed during the late-Pleistocene and within which the modern cone was constructed. An elliptical 500 x 600 m wide, 110-m-deep crater truncates the summit and contains an active lava lake within a 250-m-wide, 100-m-deep inner crater. The glacier-covered volcano was erupting when first sighted by Captain James Ross in 1841. Continuous lava-lake activity with minor explosions, punctuated by occasional larger strombolian explosions that eject bombs onto the crater rim, has been documented since 1972, but has probably been occurring for much of the volcano's recent history.