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There are no activity reports for Madeira.
Available Weekly Reports
There are no Weekly Reports available for Madeira.
Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|4500 BCE ± 50 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (corrected)||Paul da Serra|
The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.
Geldmacher J, Hoernle K A, 2000. The 72 Ma geochemical evolution of the Maderia hotspot (eastern North Atlantic): recycling of Paleozoic (500 Ma) oceanic lithosphere. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 183: 73-92.
Geldmacher J, van den Bogaard P, Hoernle K, Schmincke H-U, 2000. The 40Ar/39Ar age dating of the Madeira Archipelago and hotspot track (eastern North Atlantic). Geochem Geophys Geosyst, 1: 1999GC00018.
IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..
Klugel A, Walter T R, Schwarz S, Geldmacher J, 2005. Gravitational spreading causes en-echelon diking along a rift zone of Madeira Archipelago: an experimental approach and implications for magma transport. Bull Volc: 68: 37-46.
Mitchell-Thome R C, 1976. Geology of the Middle Atlantic Islands. Berlin: Gebruder Borntraeger, 382 p.
Schwarz S, Klugel A, van den Bogaard P, Geldmacher J, 2005. Internal structure and evolution of a volcanic rift system in the eastern North Atlantic: the Desertas rift zone, Madeira archipelago. J Volc Geotherm Res, 141: 123-135.
Madeira Island is the emergent top of a massive shield volcano that rises about 6 km from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean and forms the largest island of the Madeira Archipelago, about 90 km in length. Construction of the volcano along E-W-trending rift zones from the Miocene to about 700,000 years ago was followed by a period of extensive erosion and possible edifice collapse. Two steep-walled amphitheaters open to south in the central part of the island. Late-stage eruptions are scattered throughout the island and lasted until the Holocene, producing scoria cones and intracanyon lava flows mantling rocks of the older eroded edifice. The youngest activity at Madeira lies in the west-central part of the island, and consists of cinder cones in the upper Sao Vicente valley, a series of intracanyon flows, and a tephra layer on top of the Paul da Serra plateau dated at about 6500 years ago.