Agua de Pau

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  • Portugal
  • Azores
  • Stratovolcano
  • 1564 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 37.77°N
  • 25.47°W

  • 947 m
    3106 ft

  • 382090
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

There are no activity reports for Agua de Pau.



 Available Weekly Reports

There are no Weekly Reports available for Agua de Pau.

Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1564 Feb 10 1564 Feb 12 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Lagoa do Fogo caldera
1563 Jun 28 1563 Jul 26 ± 5 days Confirmed 5 Historical Observations Caldera, NW flank (Cerro Queimado)
0700 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) WNW flank (Mos)
0160 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) NW flank (251 m)
1290 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Lagoa do Fogo caldera
1850 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East flank (Lagoa do Congro)
2210 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East flank (East Congo maar)
2990 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Lagoa do Fogo caldera and north flank
4550 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW flank (449 m)
6750 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) West flank (Pico Joao Fernandes)

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Booth B, Croasdale R, Walker G P L, 1978. A quantitative study of five thousand years of volcanism on Sao Miguel, Azores. Phil Trans Roy Soc London, Ser A, 288: 271-319.

Capaccioni B, Forjaz V H, Martini M, 1994. Pyroclastic flow hazard at Agua de Pau volcano (Sao Miguel Island, Azores archipelago) inferred from the Fogo A eruptive unit. Acta Vulc, 5: 41-48.

Martins J A, 1982. Excursion guide for field trip V1, Island of Sao Miguel. Proc Internatl Symp Activity Oceanic Volc, Archipelago Univ Azores, 3: 315-328.

Moore R B, 1983b. Preliminary geologic map of Furnas volcano, Sao Miguel, Azores (1:15,000). U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 83-395.

Moore R B, 1986. Preliminary geologic map of Agua de Pau volcano, Sao Miguel, Azores. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 86-192.

Moore R B, 1990. Volcanic geology and eruption frequency, Sao Miguel, Azores. Bull Volc, 52: 602-614.

Moore R B, 1991. Geologic map of Sao Miguel, Azores. U S Geol Surv Map, I-2007.

Neumann van Padang M, Richards A F, Machado F, Bravo T, Baker P E, Le Maitre R W, 1967. Atlantic Ocean. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 21: 1-128.

Zbyszewski G, Moitinho de Almeida F, Veiga Ferreira O da, Torre de Assuncao C, 1958. Geologic map of Sao Miguel (Azores). Servicos Geologicos Portugal, two 1:50,000 scale maps with 22 and 37 p texts (in Portuguese).

Agua de Pau stratovolcano in central Sao Miguel Island contains an outer 4 x 7 km caldera formed about 30,000 to 45,000 years ago and an inner 2.5 x 3 km caldera that was created about 15,000 years ago. The younger caldera is partially filled by the Lagoa do Fogo caldera lake. Several post-caldera lava domes were emplaced on the northern and western flanks of the volcano, but activity in the caldera did not resume until about 5000 years ago. The 3-cu-km Fogo-A plinian pumice-fall deposit, the product of the largest-known Holocene eruption in the Azores, was emplaced at this time. Numerous flank cinder cones mark radial and concentric fissures, some of which have been active during historical time. The latest trachytic explosive eruption took place during 1563. Prominent hot springs are located on the NW flank.