Don Joao de Castro Bank

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  • Portugal
  • Azores
  • Submarine
  • 1720 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 38.23°N
  • 26.63°W

  • -13 m
    -43 ft

  • 382070
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

There are no activity reports for Don Joao de Castro Bank.

 Available Weekly Reports

There are no Weekly Reports available for Don Joao de Castro Bank.

Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1997 Jun 27 ] [ 1997 Jul (?) ] Uncertain 0   NW of Don Joao de Castro Bank
1720 Dec 8 (?) 1720 Dec 26 ± 5 days Confirmed 3 Historical Observations

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Cardigos F, Colaco A, Dando P R, Avila S P, Sarradin P-M, Tempera F, Conceicao P, Pascoal A, Serrao Santos R, 2005. Shallow water hydrothermal vent field fluids and communities of the D. Joao de Castro seamount (Azores). Chem Geol, 224: 153-168.

Machado F, Lemos R, 1998. Sobre uma possivel erupcao submarina no Banco D. Joao de Castro em 1997. Acoreana 8: 559-564 (in Portuguese with English abs).

Neumann van Padang M, Richards A F, Machado F, Bravo T, Baker P E, Le Maitre R W, 1967. Atlantic Ocean. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 21: 1-128.

Wunderman R W, Barriga F J A S, Nishimura C, Pacheco J M, Vogt P R, Gaspar J L, Queiroz G, Santos R S, 2003. Faults, post-1720 craters, and remains of a lava lake at Castro Bank seamount (E Azores) (abs). Eos, Trans Amer Geophys Union, 84(Suppl): F1559.

Don Joao de Castro Bank is a large submarine volcano that rises to within 13 m of the sea surface roughly halfway between Terceira and San Miguel Islands. Pillow lavas form the base of the volcano, which is capped by basaltic hyaloclastites. A submarine eruption during December 1720 produced an ephemeral island that attained a length of 1.5 km and an altitude of about 250 m before it was eroded beneath the sea surface two years later. The volcano (also spelled Dom Joao de Castro) was named after the Portuguese hydrographic survey vessel that surveyed the bank in 1941. Two youthful parasitic craters, one tephra covered and the other sediment free, are located on the NW flank. The submarine volcano has an impressive shallow fumarole field and remains seismically active.