Krafla

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 65.73°N
  • 16.78°W

  • 818 m
    2683 ft

  • 373080
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

There are no activity reports for Krafla.



 Available Weekly Reports

There are no Weekly Reports available for Krafla.

Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1984 Sep 4 1984 Sep 18 Confirmed 0 Historical Observations Leirhnjúkur to 8.5 km north
1981 Nov 18 1981 Nov 23 Confirmed 0 Historical Observations Leirhnjúkur to 9 km north
1981 Jan 30 1981 Feb 4 Confirmed 0 Historical Observations 6-8 km N of Leirhnjúkur
1980 Mar 16 1980 Oct 23 Confirmed 0 Historical Observations Leirhnjúkur to 11 km north
1977 Apr 27 1977 Sep 8 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations 3 km north of Leirhnjúkur
1975 Dec 20 1975 Dec 20 Confirmed 0 Historical Observations 1.5-2.5 km north of Leirhnjúkur
1746 Jul 10 1746 Jul 10 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Leirhnjúkur crater row
1729 Jun 30 1729 Sep 25 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Leirhnjúkur crater row
1728 Dec 18 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Leirhnjúkur crater row
1728 Apr 18 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Leirhnjúkur, Hrossadalur, Bjarnarflag
1727 Aug 21 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations North end of Leirhnjúkur
[ 1725 Jan 11 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1724 May 17 1724 May 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Víti (1.5 km east of Leirhnjúkur)
1300 ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology Crater south of Víti
0850 (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Daleldar, Svortuborgir
0250 ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Kerlingarholar
0050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology Holseldar
0300 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (corrected) Threngslaborgir-Ludentsborgir crater row
0500 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology North of Hverfjall
0650 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Hverfjall, Jarbadsholar
3050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Hvannstód
4050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Ludent crater rows
5750 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Fjarborg
6150 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Drangagrundahraun
6500 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Kröfluhalshraun
6800 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology Hveragil
6850 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology Bondholshraun, Hveragil
6950 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Hraunbunga
7400 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Heidarspordur
7850 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Ludent, Namafjall-Krofluhals
8500 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Gjastykkisbunga

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Bjornsson A, Saemundsson K, Einarsson P, Tryggvason E, Gronvold K, 1977. Current rifting episode in North Iceland. Nature, 266: 318-323.

Calderone G M, Gronvold K, Oskarsson N, 1990. The welded air-fall tuff layer at Krafla, northern Iceland: a composite eruption triggered by injection of basaltic magma. J Volc Geotherm Res, 44: 303-314.

Eliasson S, 1979. Kerlingarholar, old eruptive fissures on the Krafla fault swarm. Natturufraedingurinn, 49: 51-63 (in Icelandic with English summary).

Gronvold K, 1984. Myvatn fires 1724-1729, chemical composition of the lava. Nordic Volc Inst Univ Iceland, no 8401, 24p.

Gudmundsson A T, 1986b. Iceland-Fires. Reykjavik: Vaka-Helgafell, 168 p.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Johannesson H, Saemundsson K, 1998. Geological map of Iceland, 1:500,000. Tectonics. Icelandic Inst Nat Hist, Reykjavik.

Jonasson K, 1994. Rhyolite volcanism in the Krafla central volcano, north-east Iceland. Bull Volc, 56: 516-528.

Jonasson K, 2005. Magmatic evolution of the Heidarspordur ridge, NE-Iceland. J Volc Geotherm Res, 147: 109-124.

Newhall C G, Dzurisin D, 1988. Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1855: 1108 p, 2 vol.

Saemundsson K, 1982. Excursion guide and road log for field trips A and B. IAVCEI/IAGC 1982 Sci Assembly, Reykjavik, Generation of Major Basalt Types.

Saemundsson K, 1991. The geology of the Krafla area. In: Gardarsson A and Einarsson A (eds) {Natural History of Lake Myvatn}, Reykjavik: Hid Islenska Natturufraedifelag, p 25-95 (in Icelandic).

Steinthorsson S, et al., 2002. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World - Iceland. Unpublished manuscript.

Thorarinsson S, 1979. The postglacial history of the Myvatn area. Oikos, 32: 17-28.

Thordarson T, Hoskuldsson A, 2008. Postglacial eruptions in Iceland. Jokull, 58: 197-228.

Tuffen H, Castro J M, 2009. The emplacement of an obsidian dyke through thin ice: Hraftntinnuhryggur, Krafla Iceland. J Volc Geotherm Res, 185: 352-366.

The Krafla central volcano, located NE of Myvatn lake, is a topographically indistinct 10-km-wide caldera that is cut by a N-S-trending fissure system. Eruption of a rhyolitic welded tuff about 100,000 years ago was associated with formation of the caldera. Krafla has been the source of many rifting and eruptive events during the Holocene, including two in historical time, during 1724-29 and 1975-84. The prominent Hverfjall and Ludent tuff rings east of Myvatn were erupted along the 100-km-long fissure system, which extends as far as the north coast of Iceland. Iceland's renowned Myvatn lake formed during the eruption of the older Laxarhraun lava flow from the Ketildyngja shield volcano of the Fremrinamur volcanic system about 3800 years before present (BP); its present shape is constrained by the roughly 2000 years BP younger Laxarhraun lava flow from the Krafla volcanic system. The abundant pseudocraters that form a prominent part of the Myvatn landscape were created when the younger Laxarhraun lava flow entered the lake.