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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 65.03°N
  • 16.75°W

  • 1516 m
    4972 ft

  • 373060
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

There are no activity reports for Askja.

 Available Weekly Reports

There are no Weekly Reports available for Askja.

Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1961 Oct 26 1961 Dec 5 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations North of Öskjuvatn lake (Vikraborgir)
1938 Dec 19 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations South shore of Öskjuvatn lake
1926 Jul 15 ± 45 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations South end of Öskjuvatn lake
1924 (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations South flank of Dyngjufjöll massif
1923 Jan 15 ± 45 days Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations SE corner of Öskjuvatn Caldera
1922 Nov Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations 1 km SW of Öskjuvatn Caldera
1921 Mar Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations NE caldera wall, 0.6 km SE of Viti
1919 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Dyngjufjöll
1875 Jan 1 1875 Oct 17 Confirmed 5 Historical Observations Öskjuvatn Caldera, Viti, Sveinagja
1797 (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations Holuhraun
1300 (?) Unknown Confirmed 1 Tephrochronology South of Dyngjufjöll Ytri
1250 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Litladynga and Askja
2050 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Flatadyngja, other areas NE of Dyngjufjöll
8910 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) SE part of Askja caldera

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Carey R J, Houghton B F, Thordarson T, 2008. Contrasting styles of welding observed in the proximal Askja 1875 eruption deposits I: Regional welding. J Volc Geotherm Res, 171: 1-19.

Carey R J, Houghton B F, Thordarson T, 2010. Tephra dispersal and eruption dynamics of wet and dry phases of the 1875 eruption of Askja volcano, Iceland. Bull Volc, 72: 259-278.

de Zeeuw-van Dalfsen E, Rymer H, Sigmundsson F, Sturkell E, 2005. Net gravity decrease at Askja volcano, Iceland: constrainsts on processes responsible for continuous caldera deflation, 1988-2003. J Volc Geotherm Res, 139: 227-239.

Gudmundsson A T, 1986b. Iceland-Fires. Reykjavik: Vaka-Helgafell, 168 p.

Hjartardottir A R, Páll Einarsson P, Sigurdsson H, 2009. The fissure swarm of the Askja volcanic system along the divergent plate boundary of N Iceland. Bull Volc, 71: 961-975.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Sigbjarnarson G, 1988. Krepputunga and Bruardalir--Explanatory Text to Geologic Map. Reykjavik: Orkustofnun OS-88038/VOD-06, 44 p (in Icelandic with English summary).

Sigurdsson H, Sparks R S J, 1978. Rifting episode in North Iceland in 1874-1875 and the eruptions of Askja and Sveinagja. Bull Volc, 41: 149-167.

Sigvaldason G E, 1979. Rifting, magmatic activity, and interaction between acid and basic liquids. Nordic Volc Inst Univ Iceland, no 7903, 43p.

Sigvaldason G E, 2002. Volcanic and tectonic processes coinciding with glaciation and crustral rebound: an early Holocene rhyolitic eruption in the Dyngjufjoll volcanic centre and the formation of the Askja caldera, Iceland. Bull Volc, 64: 192-205.

Sigvaldason G E, 1992. Recent hydrothermal explosion craters in an old hyaloclastite flow, central Iceland. J Volc Geotherm Res, 54: 53-63.

Sigvaldason G E, Annertz K, Nilsson M, 1992. Effect of glacier loading/deloading on volcanism: postglacial volcanic production rate of the Dyngjufjoll area, central Iceland. Bull Volc, 54: 385-392.

Steinthorsson S, et al., 2002. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World - Iceland. Unpublished manuscript.

Sturkell E, Sigmundsson F, 2000. Continuous deflation of the Askja caldera, Iceland, during the 1983-1998 noneruptive period. J Geophys Res, 105: 25,671-25,684.

Thorarinsson S, Sigvaldason G E, 1962. The eruption in Askja, 1961, a preliminary report. Amer J Sci, 260: 641-651.

Askja is a large basaltic central volcano that forms the Dyngjufjöll massif. It is truncated by three overlapping calderas, the largest of which is 8 km wide and may have been produced primarily from subglacial ring-fracture eruptions rather than by subsidence. A major rhyolitic explosive eruption from Dyngjufjöll about 10,000 years ago was in part associated with the formation of Askja caldera. Many postglacial eruptions also occurred along the ring-fracture. A major explosive eruption on the SE caldera margin in 1875 was one of Iceland's largest during historical time. It resulted in the formation of a smaller 4.5-km-wide caldera, now filled by Öskjuvatn lake, that truncates the rim of the larger central caldera. The 100-km-long Askja fissure swarm, which includes the Sveinagja graben, is also related to the Askja volcanic system, as are several small shield volcanoes such as Kollatadyngja. Twentieth-century eruptions at Askja have produced lava flows from vents located mostly near Öskjuvatn lake.