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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 63.92°N
  • 19.17°W

  • 1259 m
    4130 ft

  • 372050
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

There are no activity reports for Torfajökull.

 Available Weekly Reports

There are no Weekly Reports available for Torfajökull.

Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1477 Mar Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations N of caldera (Namshraun, Laugahraun)
1170 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology W side of caldera (Hrafntinnuhraun)
0870 (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology W side of caldera (Hrafntinnuhraun)
0150 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology N of caldera (Domadalshraun)
1150 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology N of caldera (Domadalshraun)
1550 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology W side of caldera (Markafljot domes)
4550 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology N of caldera (Haolduhraun)
4850 BCE ± 1000 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology W of caldera (Laufafell domes)
5050 BCE ± 1000 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Hrafntinnusker and Domadalshraun
6050 BCE ± 1000 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology W side of caldera (Slettahraun)

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Gudmundsson A T, 1986b. Iceland-Fires. Reykjavik: Vaka-Helgafell, 168 p.

Gunnarsson B, Marsh B D, Taylor H P Jr, 1998. Generation of Icelandic rhyolites: silicic lavas from the Torfajokull central volcano. J Volc Geotherm Res, 83: 1-45.

Jakobsson S P, 1979. Petrology of recent basalts of the eastern volcanic zone, Iceland. Acta Nat Islandica, 26: 1-103.

Johannesson H, Jakobsson S P, Saemundsson K, 1982. Geological map of Iceland, sheet 6, south Iceland. Icelandic Museum Nat Hist & Iceland Geodetic Surv, 1:250,000 geol map, 2nd edition.

Johannesson H, Saemundsson K, 1998. Geological map of Iceland, 1:500,000. Tectonics. Icelandic Inst Nat Hist, Reykjavik.

Larsen G, 1984. Recent volcanic history of the Veidivotn fissure swarm, southern Iceland - an approach to volcanic risk assessment. J Volc Geotherm Res, 22: 33-58.

MacDonald R, McGarvie D W, Pinkerton H, Smith R L, Palacz Z A, 1990. Petrogenetic evolution of the Torfajokull Volcanic Complex, Iceland I. Relationship between the magma types. J Petr, 31: 429-459.

McGarvie D M, MacDonald R, Pinkerton H, Smith R L, 1990. Petrogenetic evolution of the Torfajokull Volcanic Complex, Iceland II. The role of magma mixing. J Petr, 31: 461-481.

McGarvie D W, Burgess R, Tindle A G, Tuffen H, Stevenson J A, 2006. Pleistocene rhyolitic volcanism at Torfajokull, Iceland: eruption ages, glaciovolcanism, and geochemical evolution. Jokull, 56: 57-75.

Saemundsson K, 1972. Notes on the geology of the Torfajokull central volcano. Natturufraedingurinn, 42: 81-89 (in Icelandic with English summary).

Saemundsson K, 1988. The geology of the Torfajokull region. Arbok Ferdafelags Islands 1988, p 164-180.

Soosalu H, Einarsson P, 2004. Seismic constraints on magma chambers at Hekla and Torfajokull volcanoes, Iceland. Bull Volc, 66: 276-286.

Soosalu H, Einarsson P, 1997. Seismicity around the Hekla and Torfajokull volcanoes, Iceland, during a volcanically quiet period, 1991-1995. Bull Volc, 59: 36-48.

Steinthorsson S, et al., 2002. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World - Iceland. Unpublished manuscript.

Thordarson T, Hoskuldsson A, 2008. Postglacial eruptions in Iceland. Jokull, 58: 197-228.

Tuffen H, Gilbert J, McGarvie D, 2001. Products of an effusive subglacial rhyolite eruption: Blahnukur, Torfajokull, Iceland. Bull Volc, 63: 179-190.

Wilson L, Fagents S A, Robshaw L E, Scott E D, 2007. Vent geometry and eruptions conditions of the mixed rhyolite-basalt Namshraun lava flow, Iceland. J Volc Geotherm Res, 164: 127-141.

The Torfajökull central volcano, located north of Myrdalsjökull and south of Thorisvatn lake, is cut by a 12-km-wide caldera that formed during the Pleistocene. Torjajökull consists of the largest area of silicic and intermediate volcanism in Iceland; about 225 cu km of silicic extrusive rocks are exposed. The dominantly rhyolitic complex rises about 500 m above surrounding basaltic plains and is elongated in a WNW-ESE direction. Most rhyolitic lava flows were erupted subglacially, forming silicic hyaloclastites that form ridge and dome-shaped breccias. During postglacial times only a narrow fissure zone at the western end has been active, producing mostly silicic lava flows, lava domes, and tephras. The most recent silicic eruption produced the Hrafntinnuhraun lava flow about 900 CE. The fissure system is along trend with and was active at the same time as the basaltic Veidivötn fissure system of Bárdarbunga central volcano in 1477 CE. The small Torfajökull icecap lies mostly outside the SE rim of the caldera, which is the site of vigorous thermal activity over a broad area of 130-140 sq km.