Kick 'em Jenny

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 12.3°N
  • 61.64°W

  • -185 m
    -607 ft

  • 360160
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

12 December-18 December 2001

The Seismic Research Unit of the University of the West Indies reported that a minor eruption began at Kick-'em-Jenny on 4 December and ended by 8 December. The first signs of unrest occurred in October when a slight increase in seismicity was recorded near the volcano. The eruption began on 4 December when a burst of activity started at 0600, peaking at 1100. Following a short lull, activity again increased and culminated in bursts of T-phase signals (acoustic waves generated from an earthquake or underwater explosion that travel through the ocean). The signals were detected between 1918 and 2231 and were interpreted as explosions associated with a submarine eruption. There was no observed activity on the sea surface. The largest earthquakes associated with the eruption were felt in northern Grenada, ~ 8 km to the S. After 7 December, seismicity returned to background levels. During the eruption the Alert Level was raised from Yellow ("volcano is restless") to Orange ("highly elevated level of seismic and/or fumarolic activity") and returned to Yellow on 8 December.

Source: Seismic Research Unit, University of the West Indies



 Available Weekly Reports


2001: December


12 December-18 December 2001

The Seismic Research Unit of the University of the West Indies reported that a minor eruption began at Kick-'em-Jenny on 4 December and ended by 8 December. The first signs of unrest occurred in October when a slight increase in seismicity was recorded near the volcano. The eruption began on 4 December when a burst of activity started at 0600, peaking at 1100. Following a short lull, activity again increased and culminated in bursts of T-phase signals (acoustic waves generated from an earthquake or underwater explosion that travel through the ocean). The signals were detected between 1918 and 2231 and were interpreted as explosions associated with a submarine eruption. There was no observed activity on the sea surface. The largest earthquakes associated with the eruption were felt in northern Grenada, ~ 8 km to the S. After 7 December, seismicity returned to background levels. During the eruption the Alert Level was raised from Yellow ("volcano is restless") to Orange ("highly elevated level of seismic and/or fumarolic activity") and returned to Yellow on 8 December.

Source: Seismic Research Unit, University of the West Indies


5 December-11 December 2001

According to news reports, small earthquakes and submarine eruptions occurred at Kick-'em-Jenny beginning on about 2 December. The Seismic Research Unit of the University of the West Indies stated in the articles that "The premonitory earthquake swarms were more severe than any previously observed at Kick 'em Jenny but the size of the eruption .... has been very small so far." By 7 December the activity appeared to be calming down.

Sources: Reuters, Reuters


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2001 Dec 4 2001 Dec 6 Confirmed 0 Hydrophonic
1990 Mar 26 1990 Mar 28 Confirmed 0 Hydrophonic
1988 Dec 29 1988 Dec 30 Confirmed 0 Hydrophonic
1977 Nov 11 Unknown Confirmed 0 Hydrophonic
1977 Jan 14 1977 Jan 14 Confirmed 0 Hydrophonic
1974 Sep 5 1974 Sep 6 Confirmed 0 Historical Observations
1972 Jul 5 1972 Jul 5 Confirmed 0 Hydrophonic
1966 May 5 1966 Aug 6 Confirmed 0 Hydrophonic
1965 Oct 24 1965 Oct 24 Confirmed 0 Hydrophonic
1953 Oct 30 1953 Oct 30 Confirmed 0 Hydrophonic
1943 Oct 5 1943 Oct 6 Confirmed 0 Hydrophonic
1939 Jul 24 1939 Jul 24 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1000 ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Anthropology Ile de Caille

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Devine J D, Sigurdsson H, 1995. Petrology and eruption styles of Kick-'em-Jenny submarine volcano, Lesser Antilles island arc. J Volc Geotherm Res, 69: 35-58.

Lindsay J M, Shepherd J B, 2005. Kick 'em Jenny & Ile de Caille. In: Lindsay J M, Robertson R E A, Shepherd J B, Ali S (eds). {Volcanic Hazard Atlas of the Lesser Antilles}, Trinidad and Tobago, Seismic Res Unit, Univ West Indies, p 107-126.

Lindsay J M, Shepherd J B, Wilson D, 2005. Volcanic and scientific activity at Kick 'em Jenny submarine volcano 2001-2002: implications for volcanic hazard in the southern Grenadines, Lesser Antilles. Nat Hazards, 34: 1-24.

Robson G R, Tomblin J, 1966. West Indies. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 20: 1-56.

Sigurdsson H, Shepherd J B, 1974. Amphibole-bearing basalts from the submarine volcano Kick'em Jenny in the Lesser Antilles Island Arc. Bull Volc, 38: 891-910.

Sigurdsson H, Sparks R S J, 1979. An active submarine volcano. Nat Hist, 88: 38-43.

University of the West Indies, Seismic Research Unit, 1999-. Kick 'em Jenny submarine volcano. http://www.uwiseismic.com/kejtitle.html (20 April 2001, 25 Mar 2003).

Kick 'em Jenny, a historically active submarine volcano 8 km off the north shore of Grenada, rises 1300 m from the sea floor. Recent bathymetric surveys have shown evidence for a major arcuate collapse structure that was the source of a submarine debris avalanche that traveled more than 15 km to the west. Bathymetry also revealed another submarine cone to the SE, Kick 'em Jack, and submarine lava domes to its south. These and subaerial tuff rings and lava flows at Ile de Caille and other nearby islands may represent a single large volcanic complex. Numerous historical eruptions, mostly documented by acoustic signals, have occurred at Kick 'em Jenny since 1939, when an eruption cloud rose 275 m above the sea surface. Prior to the 1939 eruption, which was witnessed by a large number of people in northern Grenada, there had been no written mention of Kick 'em Jenny. Eruptions have involved both explosive activity and the quiet extrusion of lava flows and lava domes in the summit crater; deep rumbling noises have sometimes been heard onshore. Historical eruptions have modified the morphology of the summit crater.