Pelée

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 14.809°N
  • 61.165°W

  • 1394 m
    4572 ft

  • 360120
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

There are no activity reports for Pelée.



 Available Weekly Reports

There are no Weekly Reports available for Pelée.

Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1929 Sep 16 1932 Dec 1 ± 30 days Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1902 Apr 23 1905 Oct 5 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Rivière Blanche and summit crater
1851 Aug 5 1852 Feb 1 ± 30 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Upper Rivière Claire valley (900 m elevation)
1792 Jan 22 1792 Apr (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Upper Rivière Claire valley
1635 (in or before) Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations Tephra layer NRP3
1460 ± 20 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Tephra layer NRP2
1370 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Tephra layer NRP1
1340 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer P1
1260 ± 20 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) NRC2 tephra
1190 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0910 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0890 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) NRC1 tephra
0720 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0650 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0450 (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0350 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer P2
0300 (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0220 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) NMP tephra
0130 (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0050 (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0010 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer P3
0200 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0300 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
0440 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0590 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layers NAB2 and P4
0600 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0620 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0730 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0890 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer NAB1
1390 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer NRS3
2100 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer NRS2
2280 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
2360 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
2430 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
2460 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer NRS1
2660 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer P5
3020 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
3120 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) NPM tephra
3250 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
3290 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
3430 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer P6
3500 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology
3820 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
3930 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer NMR
4510 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
5500 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected)
5800 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
6220 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Vent slightly south of present summit
6450 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Vent slightly south of present summit
6610 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer P8
7050 BCE ± 1000 years Unknown Confirmed   Uranium-series ESE flank (Sans Nom lava dome)
7320 BCE ± 1000 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
7750 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Uranium-series ESE flank (Aileron lava dome)
8210 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer P9

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Boudon G, Le Friant A, Villemant B, Viode J-P, 2005. Martinique. In: Lindsay J M, Robertson R E A, Shepherd J B, Ali S (eds). {Volcanic Hazard Atlas of the Lesser Antilles}, Trinidad and Tobago, Seismic Res Unit, Univ West Indies, p 127-146.

Deplus C, Le Friant A, Boudon G, Komorowski J-C, Villemant B, Harford C, Segoufin J, Cheminee J-L, 2001. Submarine evidence for large-scale debris avalanches in the Lesser Antilles arc. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 192: 145-157.

Fichaut M, Maury R C, Traineau H, Westercamp D, Joron J L, Gourgaud A, Coulon C, 1989. Magmatology of Mt. Pelee (Martinique, F.W.I.). III. Fractional crystallization versus magma mixing. J Volc Geotherm Res, 38: 189-213.

Gourgaud A, Fichaut M, Joron J -L, 1989. Magmatology of Mt. Pelee (Martinique, F.W.I.). I: Magma mixing and triggering of the 1902 and 1929 Pelean nuees ardentes. J Volc Geotherm Res, 38: 143-169.

Lacroix A, 1904. La Montagne Pelee et ses eruptions. Paris: Masson et Cie, 662 p.

Le Friant A, Boudon G, Deplus C, Villemant B, 2003. Large-scale flank collapse events during the activity of Montagne Pelee, Martinique, Lesser Antilles. J Geophys Res, 108: 2055, doi:10.1029/2001JB001624.

Mattiioli G S, Jansma P E, Jaramillo L, Smith A L, 1996. A desktop image processing and photogrammetric method for rapid volcanic hazard mapping: application to air-photo interpretation of Mount Pelee, Martinique. Bull Volc, 58: 401-410.

Perret F A, 1937. The eruption of Mt. Pelee 1929-1932. Carnegie Inst Wash Pub, 458: 1-126.

Robson G R, Tomblin J, 1966. West Indies. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 20: 1-56.

Roobol M J, Smith A L, 1976. A pattern of alternating eruptive styles. Geology, 4: 521-524.

Smith A L, Roobol M J, 1990. Mont Pelee, Martinique--A study of an active island arc volcano. Geol Soc Amer Mem, 175: 114 p.

Tanguy J C, 1994. The 1902-1905 eruptions of Montagne Pelee, Martinique: anatomy and retrospection. J Volc Geotherm Res, 60: 87-107.

Tanguy J C, 2004. Rapid dome growth at Montagne Pelee during the early stages of the 1902-1905 eruption: a reconstruction from Lacroix's data. Bull Volc, 66: 615-621.

Vincent P M, Bourdier J L, Boudon G, 1989. The primitive volcano of Mount Pelee: Its construction and partial destruction by flank collapse. J Volc Geotherm Res, 38: 1-15.

Westercamp D, Traineau H, 1983. The past 5,000 Years of volcanic activity at Mt. Pelee, Martinique, (FWI): implications for assessment of volcanic hazards. J Volc Geotherm Res, 17: 159-186.

Zlotnicki J, Boudon G, Viode J P, Delarue J F, Mille A, Bruere F, 1998. Hydrothermal circulation beneath Mount Pelee inferred by self potential surveying. Structural and tectonic implications. J Volc Geotherm Res, 84: 73-91.

Renowned Montagne Pelée, forming the northern end of the island of Martinique, is the most active volcano of the Lesser Antilles arc. Three major edifice failures since the late Pleistocene, the last about 9000 years ago, have left large horseshoe-shaped calderas breached to the SW inside which the modern volcano has been constructed. More than 20 major eruptions have occurred here during the past 5000 years. Extensive pyroclastic-flow deposits, incised by steep-walled ravines, mantle the slopes of the volcano. The l'Etang Sec summit crater is filled by two lava domes emplaced during the 1902 and 1929 eruptions. Historical eruptions date back to the 18th century; only two modest phreatic or phreatomagmatic eruptions took place prior to 1902. The catastrophic 1902 eruption, which destroyed the city of St. Pierre, the "Pearl of the Lesser Antilles," became the type-example of pelean eruptions and marked the onset of modern volcanological studies of the behavior of pyroclastic flows.