Chaitén

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 42.833°S
  • 72.646°W

  • 1122 m
    3680 ft

  • 358041
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

18 May-24 May 2011

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 2011 seismic activity from Chaitén remained low and that no growth of the lava-dome complex was detected. Visual observations indicated low emissions. The Alert Level was lowered to Green, Level 2, on a three-color scale.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



 Available Weekly Reports


2011: January | May
2010: January | February | March | May | July | October | November
2009: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2008: April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December


18 May-24 May 2011

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 2011 seismic activity from Chaitén remained low and that no growth of the lava-dome complex was detected. Visual observations indicated low emissions. The Alert Level was lowered to Green, Level 2, on a three-color scale.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)


19 January-25 January 2011

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-14 January cameras installed around Chaitén's caldera rim, as well as cameras in Pumalin Park and Chaitén town, showed degassing from the lava-dome complex. Gas plumes composed primarily of water vapor rose at most 800 m above the complex. Incandescence on the surface of the dome was observed at night. The Alert Level remained at Yellow Level 3, on a three-color scale.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)


10 November-16 November 2010

On 11 November, SERNAGEOMIN reported that, although seismic events at Chaitén's lava-dome complex continued to increase in the previous weeks, the magnitudes of the earthquakes remained relatively low. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 300-400 m above the caldera rim. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and web camera footage, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 13 November a gas-and-ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 40 km SE. On 15 November ash plumes observed through the web camera rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. The Alert Level remained Yellow Level 3 on a three-color scale.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 November-9 November 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and web camera footage, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 4 November and drifted 25 km NE. Cloud cover prevented clear satellite views of the volcano in subsequent images.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 October-26 October 2010

Based on analyses of web camera footage, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. on 21 October. The report also noted a plume drifting ENE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 July-3 August 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and web camera footage, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that a plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex drifted 20 km ENE on 30 July. An 18-km-wide ash plume also drifted 45 km ESE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 July-27 July 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex drifted 70 km SSE on 24 July. Meteorological cloud cover in subsequent images prevented further detection of the plume.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 May-18 May 2010

Based on web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex drifted NE at an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 14 May.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 March-30 March 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that a plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex drifted 20 km SW on 29 March.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 March-23 March 2010

On 17 March SERNAGEOMIN reported that, during the previous few weeks, growth of Chaitén's lava-dome complex was concentrated in the W part. Gas-and-ash plumes, seen through the video camera located on the rim of the caldera, rose at most 1 km from the central area of the domes. Seismic activity persisted at a low level. The Alert Level remained at Red.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)


10 March-16 March 2010

Based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that a diffuse ash plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex, likely mixed with steam and gas, drifted NE on 15 March.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 February-16 February 2010

On 11 February, ODVAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that a camera, installed 800 m from the center of Chaitén's lava-dome complex in late January, showed incandescence and gas emissions on 28 January. Seismicity had also increased during 21 January-3 February. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that a steam-and-gas plume drifted 25 km NW on 11 February at an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 January-26 January 2010

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 5-19 January Chaitén's lava-dome complex continued to grow, although possibly at rates lower than during previous weeks. The magnitude and number of hybrid earthquakes decreased. The Alert Level remained at Red.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)


13 January-19 January 2010

Based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex drifted NNE on 14 January at an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. A steam-and-gas plume drifted NE at the same altitude the next day.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 January-12 January 2010

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 16 December 2009-4 January 2010 steam-and-gas plumes from Chaitén's lava-dome complex seen on the web camera during periods of clear weather rose 1.5 km above the lava domes. Seismicity, along with occasional block-and-ash flows, indicated that the lava domes continued to grow. Based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 6 January a plume drifted 50 km ENE at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. The next day an ash plume drifted SE and E at the same altitude.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 December-5 January 2010

Based on web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that a plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex drifted SE on 30 December at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 December-22 December 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-15 December Chaitén's lava-dome complex produced steam, gas, and ash plumes that rose 2 km above the lava domes. On 7 December emissions originated from the N and S areas of the complex. Block-and-ash flows were noted the next day. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views and SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 18 December an ash plume drifted SSE at altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 December-15 December 2009

Based on web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that a steam-and-gas plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex drifted SE on 12 December at altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 December-8 December 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that emissions from Chaitén's lava-dome complex drifted 15 km SE on 8 December.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 November-1 December 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 26 November a diffuse plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex drifted ENE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 November-24 November 2009

Based on web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 23 November a gas plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 November-17 November 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 31 October-1 November Chaitén's lava-dome complex produced steam plumes that sometimes contained gas and ash. The plumes were visible on the web camera and rose at most 1 km above the lava domes. The Alert Level remained at Red.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)


4 November-10 November 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that Chaitén's lava-dome complex continued to grow during 16-30 October. The Alert Level remained at Red.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)


28 October-3 November 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 30 October a diffuse ash plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex rose possibly mixed with steam and gas drifted SSE. On 1 November, a plume drifted 20 km W.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 October-27 October 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that Chaitén's lava-dome complex continued to grow during 1-15 October. Steam from the E part of the complex and ash-and-steam plumes from the center were seen on clear days using the web camera, S of the volcano. Small emissions originated from numerous areas. An explosion on 14 October produced a dense ash cloud that drifted W. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions on 21 October. Plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 October-20 October 2009

Based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 14 October an ash plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 150 km NNE. A diffuse plume was seen the next day drifting 15 km SW at the same altitude as the previous day. During 15-16 October, a thermal anomaly was seen. On 18 October, a possible plume drifted 50 km SE at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. Diffuse ash plumes possibly mixed with steam and gas rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 20 October and drifted NE and SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 September-6 October 2009

During 16-30 September, SERNAGEOMIN reported that Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 (Phase I) and Domo Nuevo 2 (Phase II) lava-dome complex continued to grow, generating block-and-ash flows from the collapse of unstable slopes. Gas plumes continued to rise from the complex and were visible using the web camera, S of the volcano.

On 29 September, people living in Chaitén town, 10 km SW, noticed that the eruption column was larger. A dark area in the plume seen on the web camera was interpreted to possibly be from collapse of part of the lava dome to the SW. Scientists conducted an overflight and saw a third lava dome (Phase III) in the SW area of the complex, which had filled up a depression left by a collapse on 19 February. They also noted a NNW-trending depression along the center of the lava domes with spines at the N end, and that the central spine complex had disappeared. Ash-and-gas plumes that occasionally rose 2 km above the lava domes had two sources: one from the new dome and one from the central depression. Several parts of the depressions circling the lava domes had been filled in by collapsed material, and the depositional area near the mouth of the Blanco River had also grown.

Based on web camera views, SIGMET notices, and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 30 September and 3 October diffuse ash plumes, possibly mixed with steam and gas, rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far away as 55 km SE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 September-29 September 2009

Based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 28 September a diffuse ash plume from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex, possibly mixed with steam and gas, rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted less than 40 km W and SW.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 September-22 September 2009

During 1-16 September, SERNAGEOMIN reported that Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex continued to grow. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views, SIGMET notices, and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 16 and 20-22 September ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 September-15 September 2009

Based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 15 September a diffuse ash plume from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex, possibly mixed with steam and gas, rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted NE and SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 September-8 September 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 20-31 August Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex continued to grow, particularly in the W area of the complex. Collapses originating from unstable slopes generated block-and-ash flows, and gas-and-ash plumes occasionally rose 1.5 km above the lava domes. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 6 September an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. The next day, a plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 August-1 September 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 4-20 August Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex continued to grow, particularly in the W area of the complex. Gas-and-ash plumes occasionally rose 1.5 km above the lava domes. Based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 31 August a 4-km-wide ash plume drifted 20 km NE at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 August-25 August 2009

Based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 19 and 23 August steam-and-ash plumes from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex were detected. On 19 August, the plume drifted SW.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 August-18 August 2009

Based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 13 and 18 August ash plumes from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 July-4 August 2009

Based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 29 July-1 August, and on 4 August, ash plumes from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, S, and SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 July-28 July 2009

Based on web camera views from the S, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 16-22 July gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.5 km from Chaitén's growing Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex. Collapses originating from unstable slopes generated block-and-ash flows, particularly in the W area of the complex. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 28 July an ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 July-21 July 2009

Based on web camera views from the S, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 8-15 July gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.2 km from Chaitén's growing Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex. Collapses originating from unstable slopes generated block-and-ash flows, particularly in the W area of the complex. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views, analyses of satellite imagery, and a SIGMET notice, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 16, 19, and 21 July ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE, SE, and SSW. Thermal anomalies were detected in satellite imagery on 16 and 19 July.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 July-14 July 2009

Based on web camera views from the S, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 3-8 July gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.5 km from Chaitén's growing Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex. Collapses originating from unstable slopes generated block-and-ash flows, particularly in the W area of the complex. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views and a SIGMET notice, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 10 July ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. A thermal anomaly was also seen in satellite imagery on 11 June.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 July-7 July 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 24 June-2 July unspecified activity from Chaitén's growing Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex was occasionally observed, and seismicity had decreased. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 4 July an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 June-30 June 2009

Based on web camera views from the S, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 16-23 June gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.5 km from Chaitén's growing Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex. Collapses originating from unstable slopes generated block-and-ash flows. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on SIGMET notices and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 24-25 and 27-28 June ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, S, E, and NE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 June-23 June 2009

As noted in an OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN report, eruptive activity continued during 8-16 June with sustained growth of the lava dome complex, from which block-and-ash flows were generated. Steam-and-ash plumes generally rose 1.5 km above the dome. Seismicity remained at typical levels. The Alert Level remained at Red.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)


10 June-16 June 2009

Based on web camera views, analysis of satellite imagery, and a SIGMET notice, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 11 and 14 June ash plumes from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SE. A thermal anomaly was also seen in satellite imagery on 11 June.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 June-9 June 2009

Based on web camera views, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 27 May-8 June gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.5 km from Chaitén's growing Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex. Collapses originating from unstable slopes generated block-and-ash flows that were sometimes seen from Chaitén town, 10 km SW. Ashfall was occasionally reported in Chaitén town and nearby areas. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, a SIGMET notice, and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 5-9 June ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-3.7 km (5,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW, SE, ENE, and NE. A thermal anomaly was also seen in satellite imagery on 7 June.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 May-2 June 2009

Based on web camera views, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 20-27 May gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.5 km from Chaitén's growing Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex. Collapses originating from unstable slopes generated block-and-ash flows that were sometimes seen from Chaitén town, 10 km SW. Seismicity remained elevated; the hypocenters of the large hybrid earthquakes were located under the W part of the complex at depths of 5-9 km. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 28-29 May and 1-2 June ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. Thermal anomalies were also seen in satellite imagery on all three days.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 May-26 May 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that time-lapse photographs of Chaitén taken during 12-19 May showed the continued eruption of the Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex. Gas-and-ash plumes that varied in color from white to gray rose 1.5 km above the complex. Collapses originating from unstable slopes of the lava domes generated block-and-ash flows. Growth was concentrated in the SW area of the lava-dome complex. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views, analysis of satellite imagery, and a SIGMET notice, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 21 and 26 May ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.7 km (8,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted SSE on 21 May and 45-50 km NE on 26 May.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 May-19 May 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 5-12 May gas-and-ash plumes rose up to 1.5 km from Chaitén's growing Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex. Collapses originating from unstable slopes generated block-and-ash flows. Seismicity remained elevated. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 13 May, a diffuse ash plume rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 May-12 May 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 29 April-4 May gas-and-ash plumes rose up to 2 km from Chaitén's growing Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex. Collapses originating from unstable slopes generated block-and-ash flows. An overflight on 1 May revealed a large central spine fractured into three main blocks. The surface of the lava dome complex was very irregular and several spines had grown 100 m above the dome surface. Seismicity remained high. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, SIGMET notices, web camera views, and information from the Puerto Montt Flight Information Region (FIR), the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 5 and 10-12 May, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-4.6 km (7,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and ENE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 April-5 May 2009

Based on web camera views and analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 29 April an ash plume from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 April-28 April 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.5 km from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex during 15-21 April. Seismicity remained elevated; the largest earthquakes recorded were M 4.5. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views, analysis of satellite imagery, and pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 25 and 28 April, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and N. According to a news article, one of about 70 people who had refused to evacuate Chaitén town (and stayed without basic services) died from hypothermia.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Herald Tribune


15 April-21 April 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 12-16 April, seismicity from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex continued to increase. M 4-4.5 hybrid earthquakes occurred every 2-3 hours. Web camera views showed increased incandescence from the lava domes and gas-and-ash plumes that were wider at their base than previously seen. The plumes rose 1.5 km (4,900 ft) above the domes. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views, analysis of satellite imagery, and a SIGMET notice, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 16 and 18-19 April, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and N.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 April-14 April 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that cloudy weather often prevented observations of Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex during 30 March-6 April. Occasional clear views revealed that collapses from the central spine continued, and a new smaller spine grew on the southern area of Domo Nuevo 1. On 8 April, seismic activity gradually increased. During 11-12 April, the numbers and magnitudes of earthquakes were the highest; magnitudes reached M 4.5. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 9-11 and 14 April, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, ENE, and ESE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 March-31 March 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 17-23 March Chaitén's lava-dome complex continued to grow from an area that includes the central spines and part of Domo Nuevo 1. This was also the main area where collapses from unstable slopes caused block-and-ash flows. Continuously emitted steam plumes with varying amounts of tephra and gas-and-ash plumes generated by block-and-ash flows drifted N and ESE. The block-and-ash flow volume was smaller compared to the previous week. The Alert Level remained at Red.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)


18 March-24 March 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 10-16 March Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex continued to grow. Collapses, originating from unstable slopes of the SE part of Domo Nuevo 1 and from a central spine complex, generated block-and-ash flows. Material from the collapses was channeled towards the Chaitén (Blanco) River valley. Ash-and-gas plumes drifted mainly SE. Based on web camera views and SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 20-21 and 23 March ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 March-17 March 2009

Based on web camera views, analysis of satellite imagery, and SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 11-15 March ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE, NE, E, and SE. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery on 15 March.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 March-10 March 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 28 February-3 March Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex continued to grow. Collapses, originating from unstable slopes of the SE part of Domo Nuevo 1 and from a central spine complex, generated block-and-ash flows. Material from the collapses accumulated in the basal ring depression surrounding the dome complex and throughout the Chaitén (Blanco) River valley. Ash-and-gas plumes drifted mainly SE. Data collected during an overflight on 3 March revealed that temperatures of deposited material in the Chaitén River valley remained elevated. A steam-and-ash plume rose 1 km above the domes and drifted S.

Based on web camera views and analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 3 and 5-9 March ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and NE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 February-3 March 2009

On 24 February, SERNAGEOMIN reported that an overflight of Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex revealed that a large amount of material from the 19 February partial dome collapse had accumulated in the basal ring depression surrounding the dome complex and throughout the Chaitén (Blanco) River valley. Most of the collapsed material originated from Domo Nuevo 1. Steam plumes with little ash content rose from the N part of Domo Nuevo 2 and steam and brown ash plumes were emitted from a central spine complex. Steam plumes and sporadic explosions were noted from the S part of Domo Nuevo 1; producing four plumes that mixed and rose 1.5 km above the complex. Small collapses, originating from unstable slopes of the SE part of Domo Nuevo 1, generated block-and-ash flows.

On 26 February, observers in Chaitén town (10 km SW) reported that plumes rose 2 km above the complex. During 26-27 February, small collapses caused the plume to occasionally enlarge and turn brown. On 27 February, an overflight revealed that the S part of Domo Nuevo 1 continued to grow. Numerous fan-shaped deposits from collapses were seen on the S slope. Based on web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 27 February, and 2-3 March plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted E on 27 February and SE on 3 March.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 February-24 February 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 19 February a partial lava-dome collapse of the S flank of Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex generated lateral explosions, block-and-ash flows, and pyroclastic flows. A pyroclastic flow traveled S down the Chaitén (Blanco) River valley, stopping within about 5 km of Chaitén town (10 km SW). Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SE. Ash fell in Futaleufú (about 65 km ESE), and, according to ONEMI, accumulated to thicknesses of 3-5 mm. Overflights revealed that the tree leaves in a forest near the S flank were burned and steam rose from new deposits in the Chaitén River valley. Ash-and-steam plumes rose to altitudes of 7.1-9.1 km (23,300-30,000 ft) a.s.l. A 500 x 500 m scar from the partial dome collapse was seen on the S flank. Seismicity decreased to pre-collapse levels by the afternoon. The steaming from pyroclastic flow deposits was again seen in the channel and on the shores of the Chaitén River valley during an overflight the next day, but had greatly decreased by 21 February. Using photos taken during 19 and 20 February overflights, scientists estimated that 10 million cubic meters of material was removed from the S flank of the dome complex. According to a news article, about 200 people were living in Chaitén town on 19 February. ONEMI reported that many of those people self-evacuated, but about 46 people remained in the town, refusing to leave. On 23 February, lahars traveled down river valleys and an off-white plume was seen on the web camera rising about 1 km above the lava domes.

Based on SIGMET notices, analysis of satellite imagery, and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 23-24 February ash plumes rose to altitudes 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Patagonia Times


4 February-10 February 2009

Based on SIGMET notices, analysis of satellite imagery, reports from the Puerto Montt Flight Information Region (FIR), and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 4, 6, and 7 February ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes 2-3 km (6,500-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 January-3 February 2009

Based on web camera views, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 28 January-2 February Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 2 continued to grow and produce block-and-ash flows. On 28 January, a dense ash plume that rose 500 m above the lava dome was immediately followed by a block-and-ash flow that traveled W. The Alert Level remained Red.

Based on SIGMET notices and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 28 and 30-31 January, and 1 February ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 January-27 January 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 19 January spine collapses from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 2 produced block-and-ash flows that traveled down the SE and E flanks. An overflight on 21 January revealed landslide scars on the E flank of Domo Nuevo 2. Reddish-brown ash plumes rose from the active dome. A thermal camera showed that the greater temperature anomalies originated from the top of Domo Nuevo 2; anomalies were also present on Domo Nuevo 1 and on many block-and-ash flow deposits. The Alert Level remained Red.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 21-22 and 25-27 January ash plumes rose to altitudes 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 January-20 January 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity from Chaitén increased during 9-12 January. The unstable slopes of Domo Nuevo 2 and spine collapses continued to produce block-and-ash flows. Based on SIGMET notices, analysis of satellite imagery, and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 15, 17, 19, and 20 January ash plumes rose to altitudes 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE. A small thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery on 19 January.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 January-13 January 2009

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 29 December-9 January Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 2 continued to grow and generate a gas-and-ash plume. The plume rose to altitudes of 2.6-3.1 km (8,500-10,200 ft) a.s.l.; block-and-ash flows from frequent spine collapses tinged the plume reddish brown. On 2 January, observers in Chaitén town reported that a block-and-ash flow traveled E and produced a second plume. An overflight on 9 January revealed that Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 filled up the 3-km-wide inner caldera. Activity was concentrated on the S part of Domo Nuevo 2. The Alert Level remained Red. According to a news article, Argentine Airlines resumed flights into Esquel airport (about 120 km E) on 12 January, after suspending operations due to ash during the previous eight months.

Based on SIGMET notices and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 10 and 12 January ash plumes continuously rose to altitudes 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE and E.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Infobae


31 December-6 January 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, pilot observations, and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 31 December-2 January and 4-5 January ash plumes from Chaitén continuously rose to altitudes 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, N, NNE, and SE. Ash plumes were visible through the web camera on 3 January.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 December-30 December 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reported that, although inclement weather mostly prevented observations of Chaitén during 24-29 December, a gas-and-steam plume was seen on a web camera rising above Domo Nuevo 2 on 25 and 28 December. The plume was brown mainly at the base and rose to an altitude of about 3.1 km (10,200 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained Red.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 25-26 and 29 December ash plumes continuously rose to altitudes 2-2.1 km (6,500-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 December-23 December 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, web camera views, and pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 18-19 and 23 December ash plumes from Chaitén continuously rose to altitudes 1.4-2.1 km (4,500-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE and SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 December-16 December 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 25 November-15 December gas-and-steam plumes with variable amounts of ash rose from Chaitén to altitudes of 2.6-3.1 km (8,500-10,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Intense gas emissions came from the S flank of the first new lava dome (Dome 1), and from the NE part of the second new dome (Dome 2). On 4 December ash ejections originated from the WNW area of the dome complex. Ash plumes rose from Dome 2 to an altitude of 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

An overflight on 6 December revealed that the old lava dome was almost completely covered by Dome 1 (reddish to brown in color). Most of the eruptive activity was concentrated at the site of Dome 2, NE of Dome 1. Dome 2 was grayish in color and exhibited pinnacles and a very uneven top. Constant rockfalls originated from the slopes. Gravitational collapses of the spines produced block-and-ash flows that traveled N, NW, and S, and towards the contact area of the two domes. Domes 1 and 2 both exceeded the height of the caldera rim; Dome 1 was about 250 m above the N rim of the caldera, and Dome 2 was about 350 m above the rim. During 9-15 December, Dome 2 continued to grow rapidly and generate block-and-ash flows. The Alert Level remained at Red.

Based on observations of satellite imagery and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 10-11 and 13-14 December ash and steam plumes continuously rose to altitudes 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, NE, N, and NW. Thermal anomalies were detected on satellite imagery on 10 and 14 December.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 December-9 December 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery, pilot reports, SIGMET notices, and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 3-8 December, ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes 1.8-4.6 km (6,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, NW, and SW. A thermal anomaly was detected on satellite imagery during 4 and 6-8 December.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 November-2 December 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery, pilot reports, SIGMET notices, and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 23, 25, 27, and 29 November, and 2 December, ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and NNW. A thermal anomaly was detected on satellite imagery on 25 and 29 November.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 November-25 November 2008

On 25 November SERNAGEOMIN reported that continuous emissions of gas and ash from Chaitén produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.6-3.1 km (8,500-10,200 ft) a.s.l. A lateral explosion was observed on the web camera on 17 November. Based on observations of satellite imagery, SIGMET notices, and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 19-21, 23, and 25 November ash plumes continuously rose to altitudes 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE, SE, and S.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 November-18 November 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery, SIGMET notices, and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 12-17 November ash plumes from Chaitén continuously rose to altitudes 1.4-3.7 km (4,500-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, NNE, ENE, and E. A thermal anomaly was detected on satellite imagery on 12 November.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 November-11 November 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 5 November the S bank of the Chaitén River (locally known as the Blanco) had overflowed and flooded local houses due to intense rains a few days before.

Based on observations of satellite imagery and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 9-11 November ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE, E, and NE. A thermal anomaly was present on 10 November.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 October-4 November 2008

On 29 October, SERNAGEOMIN received reports of an increase in activity at Chaitén characterized by several explosions that darkened the plume and caused it to rise from about 1.6 km (5,200 ft) a.s.l to about 3.1 km (10,200 ft) a.s.l. SERNAGEOMIN reported that variations in seismicity remained similar to patterns detected during the pervious weeks. A gas plume was continually emitted to an altitude of 3.1 km (10,200 ft) a.s.l. during the previous week. ONEMI reported that during an overflight on 30 October, scientists observed a landslide that had originated from the active lava dome. The next day observers described a plume emitted from multiple areas that rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (6,900 ft) a.s.l. The white component of the plume (steam and gas) emitted mainly from the center and S parts of the lava dome. Vents on the N and NE area produced a gray plume. The Alert Level remained Red.

Based on observations of satellite imagery, Puerto Montt Flight Information Region (FIR) notices, web camera views, SIGMET notices, and pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 29-30 October and 1-3 November ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes 2.4-3.7 km (8,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and E. Thermal anomalies were present on 30 October and 2 November.

On 4 November, SERNAGEOMIN reported that a recent overflight confirmed the presence of a second new lava dome. The new dome grew in the NE part of the first dome that started to form in May 2008, and had a diameter of about 300 m and a height of about 150 m. Spines protruded from the top. Seismicity was concentrated underneath that area.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 October-28 October 2008

Based on web camera views and analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 24 and 26-28 October, continuous ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes of 2.1-7.3 km (7,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E. A thermal anomaly was detected on 27 October.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 October-21 October 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 14-20 October a gas-and-ash plume from Chaitén rose to an altitude of 3.1 km (10,200 ft) a.s.l. The lava dome continued to grow, especially the E side. The Volcanic Alert level remained at Red. Based on web camera views, information from the Puerto Montt Flight Information Region (FIR), analysis of satellite imagery, and SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 14-18 and 21 October continuous ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes of 2.1-4 km (7,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and ESE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 October-14 October 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 7-13 October a gas-and-ash plume from Chaitén rose to an altitude of 3.1 km (10,200 ft) a.s.l. The Volcanic Alert level remained at Red. Based on web camera views, Puerto Montt Flight Information Region (FIR) notices, analysis of satellite imagery, and SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 12-14 October, continuous ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes of 2.4-4 km (8,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and E.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 October-7 October 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 23-25 September, Chaitén continued to produce two vigorous gas-and-ash plumes from separate locations on the lava dome that rose to an altitude of 2.6 km (8,500 ft) a.s.l. During 27-28 September, activity increased and the two plumes rose to an altitude of 5.1 km (16,700 ft) a.s.l. Later in the day on 28 September, the plumes rose to an altitude of 4.1 km (13,500 ft) a.s.l. During an overflight on 30 September, scientists observed the small lagoon that remained in a depression in the N area of the basal "ring" that lies between the new lava dome and the caldera rim. The base of the S flank of the old lava dome was still evident; fumaroles were noted along the contact of the old and new domes. The new lava dome had grown higher and laterally from the NE flank until it touched the caldera rim. The Alert level remained Red.

Based on pilot observations, analysis of satellite imagery, and SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 3 and 5-8 October continuous ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.5 km (8,000-11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, ENE, and E.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 September-30 September 2008

Based on web camera views and analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 25-30 September continuous ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, ESE, and SE. A thermal anomaly over the lava dome was detected by satellite imagery during 25-27 September. On 26 September, SERNAGEOMIN reported that Chaitén continued to produce two gas-and-ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.6-3.1 km (8,500-10,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 September-23 September 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 8-22 September two eruption columns from Chaitén rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.1 km (6,900-10,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NE. The plume emitted from an area to the S contained more ash than the predominantly steam plume emitted from an area to the N. The Volcanic Alert level remained at Red.

Based on web camera views, pilot observations, analysis of satellite imagery, and SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 17-22 September continuous ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.7 km (6,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW, N, ENE, E, and ESE. A thermal anomaly over the lava dome was detected by satellite imagery during 20-22 September.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 September-16 September 2008

Based on web camera views, pilot observations, analysis of satellite imagery, and SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 10 and 12-15 September, continuous ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, SW, S, and SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 September-9 September 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 3-5 September two moderately vigorous plumes from Chaitén were visible on the web camera and rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.1 km (6,900-10,200 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted NW, N, SE, and S. The plume emitted from the S sector was wider and contained more ash than the plume emitted from the N sector. Clouds prevented observations during 7-8 September.

Based on web camera views, analysis of satellite imagery, and information from the Puerto Montt Flight Information Region (FIR), the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 3-6 and 8 September, ash plumes rose continuously to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, ESE, and SE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 August-2 September 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reported that clouds obscured camera views of Chaitén's eruption plume during most of 26-29 August. Glimpses utilizing the web camera revealed that continuous ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (4,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. They also reported that seismicity had increased slightly during the previous few days.

Based on web camera views and analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 27-29 August ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 August-26 August 2008

Based on web camera views, pilot observations, and analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 20-23 and 26 August ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and NE. A thermal anomaly over the lava dome was detected on satellite imagery during 22-23 August.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 August-19 August 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reported that continuous emissions of gas-and-ash plumes from Chaitén were observed on 13 August, after three days of bad weather prevented visual observations. Plumes rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l., but later that day rose to greater altitudes of 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l. The increased activity did not correspond to any significant variation in seismicity. Plumes were emitted from two areas on the E and S flanks and were different colors; the area on the E flank produced steam plumes with minor ash content and the area on the S flank emitted darker ash plumes. The plumes drifted SW and caused ashfall in Chaitén town for several hours. The ash accumulation was 1.5 cm thick.

Based on web camera views, SIGMET reports, analysis of satellite imagery, and information from the Puerto Montt Flight Information Region (FIR), the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 16 and 18-19 August ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.4-2.4 km (4,500-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 August-12 August 2008

Based on web camera views, SIGMET reports, observations of satellite imagery, and information from the Puerto Montt Flight Information Region (FIR), the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 7-8 August ash plumes from Chaitén rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 July-5 August 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reported that clouds obscured camera views of Chaitén's eruption plume during most of 30-31July. A glimpse on 31 July revealed that a steam-and-ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (4,900 ft) a.s.l. Explosions were heard. A steam-and-ash plume was seen at an altitude of about 3.1 km during an overflight on 31 July and drifted NE. The plume was emitted from a fracture caused by a vertical collapse of the S flank of the lava dome. A horseshoe-shaped scar on the E side of the dome, about 500 m wide and 200 m high, formed on an unknown date within the previous several days. The scar was inferred to have formed by a lateral explosion rather than collapse because hummocky morphology typical of landslide deposits was not found below the scar. Material from the explosion was transported by rivers that eventually flowed N into the Rayas River, and also fell in small lagoons at the S base of the dome. On 4 August a small steam plume possibly containing some ash was seen through another quick break in the clouds and drifted E.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)


23 July-29 July 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reported that clouds obscured camera views of Chaitén's eruption plume on 21 and 22 July. The E-drifting eruption plume was weaker when observed on 23 July and only rose to an altitude of less than 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. In contrast, during 21-23 July earthquakes greater than M 2.6 increased in number and magnitude. The Alert Level was raised to Volcanic Alert Red Level 6.

An overflight on 24 July revealed a plume that rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. It vented from an area S of a previous emission point, on the S flank of the new lava dome. The plume intermingled with other plumes generated by explosions. A gas-and-steam plume was emitted from a depression, also on the S flank, that was possibly formed by an explosion or partial collapse the previous day or two. Gas-and-steam plumes were emitted from the base of the E flank. On 24 July, ashfall near the city of Chaitén was about 3 cm thick. During 24-29 July, clouds generally prevented visual observations; occasionally the plume was visible and rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. On 27 July, ashfall was again reported in the city of Chaitén.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)


16 July-22 July 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reported that after two weeks of inclement weather around Chaitén, clouds cleared on 18 July and ash plumes were observed. During 18-21 July mushroom-shaped ash plumes emitted from the S sector of the new lava dome rose to an altitude of 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. Occasionally, explosions would push the plumes to altitudes of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted N and NW, affecting several areas on the coast. The Alert Level remained at Red.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)


9 July-15 July 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reports through 12 July 2008 indicated that the eruption at Chaitén was continuing, although poor weather conditions made visual observations difficult. However, explosion plumes were seen on some occasions. Volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes continued, concentrated on the E and SE crater rim. Seismicity doubled during 10-12 July, and some VT events were greater than M 2.2.

Ash advisories issued by the Buenos Aires VAAC noted continuous emissions based on webcam observations during 9-11 July, but plumes could not be seen in satellite imagery.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 July-8 July 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 27 June-4 July, visual observations of Chaitén were inhibited due to inclement weather. During 27-28 June, lahars descended multiple drainages and were especially notable in the Chaitén and Amarrillo rivers. On 30 June, an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (6,900 ft) a.s.l. was observed by means of a video camera in the city of Chaitén. A photograph of the new lava dome revealed that it completely covered the S side of the old lava dome. Lahar deposits were seen in the W part of the caldera and a drainage in the S caldera was blocked by rockfalls, causing small ponds to form. On 2 July, ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.1 km (13,500 ft) a.s.l. originated from a previously active area on the S flank and from a new area farther W. The plumes drifted N and NE.

Based on web camera views, SIGMET reports, observations of satellite imagery, pilot reports, and information from the Puerto Montt Flight Information Region (FIR), the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 2-3, 5, and 8 July ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-4 km (7,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE, E, and SE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 June-1 July 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 23-26 June, visual observations of Chaitén were inhibited due to inclement weather. Based on web camera views, SIGMET reports, observations of satellite imagery, pilot reports, and information from the Puerto Montt Flight Information Region (FIR), the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous ash emissions on 25 June. They further reported ash plumes at altitudes of 0.6-4.6 km (2,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. during 30 June-1 July. Ash plumes drifted NE and NNW on 30 June, and NNE on 1 July.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 June-24 June 2008

Based on observations during an overflight on 17 June, SERNAGEOMIN reported that ash plumes emitted from the S contact between Chaitén's old and new lava domes rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW. An explosion temporarily propelled the ash plume to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and steam plumes rose from several other contact points along the S edge of the lava dome. Rockfalls from the active dome continued to descend the S flank of the old dome to the caldera floor. During 18-21 June, visual observations were inhibited due to inclement weather. During 18-20 June, possible ashfall was reported in Queilén (about 70 km W) and Quellón (about 80 km WSW). Ashfall was reported in Chaitén town (10 km SW) and other areas SE, W, and E. The Alert Level remained at Red.

Based on observations of satellite imagery, SIGMET reports, and pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 18-24 June ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.4-4.6 km (8,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted approximately NE, E, SE, SW, and W. Thermal anomalies were identified on satellite imagery on 19 and 22 June.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 June-17 June 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reported that visual observations of Chaitén were inhibited due to inclement weather during 10-12 June. Customs officers in the town of Chaitén reported noises on 11 June. They also reported the presence of two new craters to the S that emitted ash-and-gas plumes on 12 June. The plumes drifted S. Later that day in Chaitén town, an abrupt swelling of the river Chaitén was observed. Seismic events increased in number and intensity.

An overflight on 14 June revealed spines rising above the top of the new lava dome, which had grown in height to exceed the old dome. Gas, ash, and steam plumes were primarily emitted from a vent, about 100 m in diameter, at the SE contact between the old and the new lava dome. Previously, emissions came from the NW contact between the old and new domes. Continuous explosions produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Several other points of gas-and-steam emissions were seen along the contact. Small block-and-ash flows from the new dome had descended the S flank of the old dome and occasionally reached the caldera floor. The Alert Level remained at Red.

Based on observations of satellite imagery, SIGMET reports, and pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 11-16 June ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and E.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 June-10 June 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during an overflight of Chaitén on 3 June, the lava dome appeared more extensive and voluminous as compared to previous observations. About 2500 hectares (6,200 acres) of forest on the N and NE flanks of the volcano were burned by pyroclastic flows or lateral explosions. During 3-10 June ash-and-steam plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Abundant steam plumes were noted. The Alert Level remained at Red.

Based on observations of satellite imagery, SIGMET reports, and pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 4-9 June continuous ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-7.3 km (6,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE, NE, E, and ESE. According to a news article, commercial flights continued to be disrupted in multiple areas.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Diario El Chubut


28 May-3 June 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery, SIGMET reports, and pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 28 May-3 June continuous ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes of 3-6.4 km (10,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, and SE. Cloudy conditions occasionally inhibited observations.

SERNAGEOMIN reported ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.5-4 km (11,200-13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NNE, and W during 28 May-2 June. Beaches to the W and N (about 12 km away) continued to accumulate pumice up to 40 cm in diameter carried to the ocean by the Yelcho, Negro, and Chaitén rivers. On 28 May, the ash affected towns and caused airport closings hundreds of kilometers N. A dense layer of mist with suspended ash, about 1.5 km thick and continuous around the volcano on 31 May, resulted in poor visibility. An ash plume at an altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. was observed above the layer on 30 May. The Alert level remained at Red.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 May-27 May 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery and pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 21 and 23-27 May ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes of 3-6.4 km (10,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, and SE. Cloudy conditions occasionally inhibited observations. A thermal anomaly was present on 26 May.

During aerial observations on 21 May, SERNAGEOMIN scientists observed a new lava dome that formed in the interior of an active crater on the N flank of the older lava dome. Explosions from the new lava dome generated reddish plumes and small pyroclastic flows that descended the N flank. Steam plumes were emitted from the western part of the dome. Eruption plumes generated from an area in the S part of the active crater drifted SE. The Alert level remained at Red. An overflight conducted on 24 May revealed that the lava dome had grown slightly and was just above the top of the old dome. A crater about 200 m in diameter S of the new dome emitted ash and gas. Block-and-ash flows traveled mostly N. Many of the areas rivers were gray with ash and pumice. Lahars along the Chaitén river continued to affect Chaitén town. During 24-25 May, ash plumes rose to an approximate altitude of 4.6 km (15,100 ft) a.s.l.; explosions occasionally propelled the gas-and-ash column to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l.

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 23-26 May, the number and intensity of seismic events decreased, and explosions were less powerful and produced smaller volumes of material. On 25 May, ONEMI reported that the 50-km high-risk zone was reduced to 24 km due to the decrease in activity. Residents were permitted to retrieve property and animals from within the high-risk zone.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 May-20 May 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery and SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 14-19 May ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes of 5.5-9.1 km (18,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and E. Cloudy conditions often inhibited observations. A thermal anomaly was present in the crater on 19 May.

Based on estimates made during an overflight of the area, ONEMI reported on 14 May that about 90 percent of the town of Chaitén was flooded. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 15 May ashfall accumulated up to 1 mm thick on a ship and an island to the W, and several areas inland were white due to ash cover. Lahars continued to cause the Chaitén and Blanco-Rayas rivers to overflow, affecting new areas in Chaitén town. The Alert Level remained at Red.

According to news articles, the military evacuated small groups of mostly journalists and troops remaining in areas near Chaitén on 19 May. A court ordered police to use force if necessary to move the few remaining people that refused to evacuate to areas outside of the 50 km high-risk zone.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Reuters


7 May-13 May 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery, SIGMET reports, and pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 7-13 May ash plumes from Chaitén were continuously present and during 7-9 May rose to altitudes of 6.1-10.1 km (20,000-33,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted E and NE.

SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 7 May, seismicity from Chaitén increased and a large explosion was registered. On 8 May small pyroclastic flows traveled E and contacted the Rayas River, possibly causing steam plumes. During a break in the cloud cover, the ash-and-gas plume, present since 2 May, was seen rising to an altitude of 15.1 km (50,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting NE. The W side of the plume was darker and denser. ONEMI (Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior) reported ashfall in multiple areas on 7, 8, and 10 May.

On 12 May, the plume rose to an altitude of 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. During an overflight conducted by SERNAGEOMIN, four more plumes of a similar altitude were generated by explosions and drifted NE. Several hectares of burned vegetation, likely from pyroclastic flows or lateral explosions, were noted on the N flank of the dome. Small pyroclastic flows may also have been responsible for completely burned forest to areas in the NE, and on the W and NW dome flanks. A lahar caused the banks of the Chaitén River to overflow about 200 m on each side, damaging about 40 houses and numerous cars that were partially or fully submerged. During an overflight on 13 May, evidence of pyroclastic flows on the N flank was observed. An ash-and-gas plume emitted from the lava dome drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at Red.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 April-6 May 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reported that Chaitén erupted on 2 May, following increased seismicity in the region the day before. A pulsating white to gray ash plume rose to an estimated altitude greater than 21 km (68,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSE. The Alert Level was raised to Red. Based on observations of satellite imagery and pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported an ash plume at altitudes of 13.7-16.8 km (45,000-55,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted NE. According to news articles, Chile's government declared a state of emergency on 2 May and several hundred people were evacuated from the town of Chaitén (10 km SE). The eruption was initially thought to have been from Minchinmávida, about 17 km ENE, which last erupted in 1835.

According to news sources, ashfall was reported during 2-6 May both locally and up to hundreds of kilometers away, affecting water supplies and roads. Based on observations of satellite imagery and pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 3-6 May ash plume rose to altitudes of 7-10.7 km (23,000-35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, W, and NE. News sources indicated that about 4,000-5,000 people were evacuated from the town of Chaitén and surrounding areas as the eruption continued. On 5 May, ONEMI (Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior) reported that evacuations took place in Futaleufú, about 65 km ESE, where about 30 cm of ash accumulated. One elderly person died during the evacuation efforts. On 6 May, ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that the eruption became more forceful and generated a wider and darker gray ash plume to an estimated altitude of 30 km (98,400 ft) a.s.l. All remaining people in Chaitén were ordered to evacuate, as well as anyone within 50 km of the volcano.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press, Agence France-Presse (AFP)


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2008 May 2 2011 May 31 ± 3 days Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1642 ± 17 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected)
6650 BCE ± 1300 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
7750 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Cha1 tephra
  Unknown Confirmed 5 Unknown

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Amigo A, Lara L E, Smith V C, 2013. Holocene record of large explosive eruptions from Chaiten and Michinmahuida volcanoes, Chile. Andean Geol, 40: 227-248.

Carn S A, Pallister J S, Lara L, Ewert J W, Watt S, Prata A J, Thomas R J, Villarosa G, 2009. The unexptected awakening of Chaiten volcano, Chile. Eos, Trans Amer Geophys Union, 90: 205-206.

Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1995. Volcanes de Chile. Santiago: Instituto Geografico Militar, 635 p.

Lara L E, Moreno R, Amigo A, Hoblitt R P, Pierson T C, 2013. Late Holocene history of Chaiten volcano: new evidence for a 17th century eruption. Andean Geol, 40: 249-261.

Moreno H, 1985. . (pers. comm.).

Naranjo J A, Stern C R, 2004. Holocene tephrochronology of the southernmost part (42° 30' - 45° S) of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone. Rev Geol Chile, 31: 225-240.

Pichler H, Zeil W, 1971. The Cenozoic rhyolite-andesite association of the Chilean Andes. Bull Volc, 35: 424-452.

Watt S F L, Pyle D M, Mather T A, 2013. Evidence of mid- to late-Holocene explosive rhyolitic eruptions from Chaiten volcano, Chile. Andean Geol, 40: 216-226.

Watt S F L, Pyle D M, Mather T A, Martin R S, Matthews N E, 2009. Fallout and distribution of volcanic ash over Argentina following the May 2008 explosive eruption of Chaiten, Chile. J Geophys Res, 114: doi:10.1029/2008JB006219.

Chaitén is a small, glacier-free caldera with a compound Holocene lava dome located 10 km NE of the town of Chaitén on the Gulf of Corcovado. Early work had identified only a single explosive eruption during the early Holocene prior to the major 2008 eruption, but later work has identified multiple explosive eruptions throughout the Holocene. A rhyolitic, 962-m-high obsidian lava dome occupies much of the caldera floor. Obsidian cobbles from this dome found in the Blanco River are the source of prehistorical artifacts from archaeological sites along the Pacific coast as far as 400 km away from the volcano to the north and south. The caldera is breached on the SW side by a river that drains to the bay of Chaitén, and the high point on its southern rim reaches 1122 m. The first historical eruption of Chaitén volcano beginning in 2008 produced major rhyolitic explosive activity and growth of a lava dome that filled much of the caldera.