Villarrica

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 39.42°S
  • 71.93°W

  • 2847 m
    9338 ft

  • 357120
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

31 July-6 August 2013

According to Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI), satellite images of Villarrica acquired on 25 July revealed a weak thermal anomaly. On 29 July observers photographed the crater and described a thermal anomaly on the S edge of the crater rim, in the same area from which a lava flow originated on 29 December 1971. They also heard deep degassing sounds. A second photograph showed a diffuse gas plume rising from the bottom of the crater, and ash and lapilli on the snow on the inner crater walls.

Source: Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI)



 Available Weekly Reports


2013: July
2012: March | April | November
2011: February | June | September
2010: March | April | May | September | October
2008: October
2005: March | April
2002: April | October
2001: August


31 July-6 August 2013

According to Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI), satellite images of Villarrica acquired on 25 July revealed a weak thermal anomaly. On 29 July observers photographed the crater and described a thermal anomaly on the S edge of the crater rim, in the same area from which a lava flow originated on 29 December 1971. They also heard deep degassing sounds. A second photograph showed a diffuse gas plume rising from the bottom of the crater, and ash and lapilli on the snow on the inner crater walls.

Source: Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI)


14 November-20 November 2012

According to Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI), images of Villarrica posted on 14 November showed a dense plume rising and obscuring the deeper parts of the crater, and an area on the W part of the crater rim with ash and bomb deposits.

Source: Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI)


7 November-13 November 2012

According to Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI), incandescence from Villarrica's crater subsided mid-April and was undetected by satellite and ground observations at least through 10 November. Images captured by a camera in Pucon (16 km N) on 10 November showed an increase in the plume intensity. Small water vapor plumes, 50 m wide, rose from the depths of the crater.

Source: Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI)


18 April-24 April 2012

According to Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI), an ash plume rose 50 m above Villarrica on 19 April.

Source: Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI)


11 April-17 April 2012

According to Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI), ash emissions rose from Villarrica on 9 April and incandescence emanated from the crater at night.

Source: Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI)


14 March-20 March 2012

According to Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI), spattering from Villarrica's lava lake was visible during 7-9 March. Four small ash emissions were observed during 13-14 March.

Source: Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI)


7 March-13 March 2012

According to Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI), two small ash emissions from Villarrica occurred on 7 March. Incandescence from the crater was observed from the town of Pucon (16 km N) during 7-8 March.

Source: Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI)


28 September-4 October 2011

According to Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI), an image from 17 September showed the inner SSW wall of the crater covered with snow and ice, and a thin layer of ash. A rapid rise in the level of the lava lake (in a pit about 40 m wide) on 19 September caused much of the snow and ice to melt, especially on the southern inner wall. Strombolian explosions from the crater were observed on 26 September, and tephra deposits on the E edge of the crater were noted. On 27 September incandescence from the lava lake were reflected in the cloud cover above.

Source: Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI)


1 June-7 June 2011

On 31 May brief emissions of gas and steam with possible light ash from Villarrica was observed through the OVDAS web camera.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 February-8 February 2011

Based on web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 7 February diffuse gas-and-steam plumes rose from Villarrica and quickly dissipated.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 October-2 November 2010

Based on Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 1-2 November ash plumes from Villarrica rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.6 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, and ESE. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery. On 2 November a steam-and-gas plume drifted NE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 October-26 October 2010

According to the Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI), a series of images of Villarrica captured from a web camera on 24 October showed an ash cloud rising from the crater.

Source: Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI)


13 October-19 October 2010

According to the Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI), a small ash cloud was observed rising from Villarrica on 10 October and again on 16 October.

Source: Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI)


1 September-7 September 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 4 September a diffuse ash plume from Villarrica, possibly containing steam and gas, drifted NE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 May-18 May 2010

On 12 May, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that a slight increase in activity from Villarrica during April led to a change in the Alert Level from Green Level 1 to Green Level 2. April's activity was characterized by increased seismicity, a rise in the lava lake level, more vigorous fumarolic activity, and more frequent incandescence at night. According to the Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI), the spattering lava lake was about 100 m below the crater rim on 10 May.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI)


28 April-4 May 2010

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during February incandescence from Villarrica was seen at night through web cameras. The report reiterated that incandescence was typical; the Alert level remained at Green, Level 1. Video and photographs taken during 24-25 April, and posted on the Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI) website, showed Strombolian activity in the crater. Bursts of lava ejected from an unseen source did not rise above the crater rim. Gas plumes rose from the crater.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI)


10 March-16 March 2010

Based on web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC indicated that on 11 March a diffuse gas-and-ash plume from Villarrica drifted near the crater. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery. That same day, SERNAGEOMIN reported that, during an overflight, scientists saw a typical-looking gas plume drifting SW and tephra deposits on the flanks.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 October-28 October 2008

SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 26 October three gray plumes with little ash content were emitted from Villarrica and rose to an altitude of 3.2 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. The plumes quickly dispersed to the E. About 20 minutes later a darker gray plume rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI) reported that the latter plume deposited a thin layer of tephra several kilometers in length on the E flank.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI)


13 April-19 April 2005

According to a news report, the Oficina Nacional de Emergencia reported that unusual seismicity was recorded at Villarrica during early April. Fresh ash deposits were seen outside of the volcano's crater. Visitors were banned from climbing the volcano.

Source: El Mercurio


30 March-5 April 2005

During 29 March to 3 April, the lava lake inside Villarrica's crater remained active, with Strombolian explosions occurring. Some gas explosions were observed to hurl volcanic bombs as far as ~300 m.

Source: Villarrica Volcano Visual Surveillance Project


16 October-22 October 2002

During visits to Villarrica's summit in September observers saw incandescence until the 28th. On the 28th deep sounds emanated from the volcano every 1-2 minutes and lapilli deposits were seen on the crater's edges. On 16 October incandescence was not visible and strong, deep noises were heard every 7-10 minutes.

Source: Villarrica Volcano Visual Surveillance Project


10 April-16 April 2002

Observations of Villarrica on 9 April revealed that no incandescence or explosive noises occurred in the volcano's crater. A lava lake, whose surface was 200 m below the crater rim, was last seen at the volcano on 19 January. At that time explosions at Villarrica occurred every 5-10 minutes.

Source: Villarrica Volcano Visual Surveillance Project


22 August-28 August 2001

On 9, 16, 17, and 21 August volcanic ballistic clasts were observed falling near the WSW edge of the crater. In addition, observations of the volcano on 22 August revealed that the lava lake had risen 40 m since 9 August.

Source: Villarrica Volcano Visual Surveillance Project


8 August-14 August 2001

Volcanic activity at Villarrica was at relatively normal levels as of 9 August. The amount of incandescent lava decreased in comparison to the amount observed during 19 and 22 July. Strong degassing occurred and ejections of ash, lapilli, and volcanic bombs landed on the W to SW edge of the crater.

Source: Villarrica Volcano Visual Surveillance Project


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 Jul 25 2013 Jul 29 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 2012 Nov 14 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1  
2009 Nov 22 2012 Apr 20 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2009 Jan 29 2009 Mar 24 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2008 Oct 26 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2004 Aug 5 (?) 2007 Dec 24 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2003 May 23 (?) 2004 Mar 25 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1998 Feb 24 ± 4 days 2002 Jun (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1996 Sep 14 1997 Aug Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1996 Jan Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1995 Apr 15 ± 5 days 1995 Jun 2 (in or after) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1994 Sep 26 1994 Dec 30 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1992 Sep 11 1992 Dec (in or after) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1991 Aug 30 1991 Sep 17 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1984 Aug 11 1985 Nov 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1983 Oct 14 1983 Oct 16 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1980 Jun 20 1980 Sep 24 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1977 Jan 26 1977 Jan 30 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1971 Oct 29 1972 Feb 21 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit, NE and SW flanks
1964 Mar 2 1964 Apr 21 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1963 Feb 25 (?) 1963 Sep 21 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and upper SW flank
1961 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 1960 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1  
1958 Nov 6 1959 Dec 21 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1956 Oct 3 1956 Nov 16 ± 45 days Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 1950 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1948 Oct 9 1949 Feb 3 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1948 Apr 10 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1947 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1938 Dec 1 ± 30 days 1939 Feb 1 ± 30 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1938 Feb 11 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1  
1935 Dec 1 ± 30 days 1936 Jun 27 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1933 Jan 5 1933 Jan 18 ± 12 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1929 Dec 27 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1927 1928 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1922 Oct 24 1922 Nov 27 ± 20 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1921 Dec 10 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1920 Dec 10 1920 Dec 13 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1919 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1915 1918 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 1913 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1909 Aug 19 1910 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1908 Oct 31 1908 Dec 12 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1907 May 5 ± 4 days 1907 May 26 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1906 Apr 22 1906 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1904 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1897 Dec 1 ± 30 days 1898 Feb 1 ± 30 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1893 Dec 1 ± 30 days 1894 Feb 1 ± 30 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1883 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1880 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1879 Feb 2 1879 Mar Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1877 Mar 12 1877 May Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1875 Nov 17 1876 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1874 Apr 16 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1869 Feb 4 1869 Feb 24 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1867 ] [ 1868 ] Uncertain    
1864 Oct Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1859 May 19 1860 Apr 12 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1853 Nov Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1852 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1837 Nov 7 1837 Nov 21 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1832 Dec 24 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1822 Nov 19 1822 Nov 25 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1815 1818 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1806 Apr 1806 May Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1790 Jan 1801 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1787 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1780 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1777 1779 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 1775 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1759 Dec 1759 Dec Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1751 Dec 14 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1745 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1742 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1737 Dec 24 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1730 Jul 8 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1716 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1688 (?) Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1657 Mar 15 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1647 May 13 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 1640 Feb 3 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1594 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1575 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1562 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1558 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
0330 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Cónquil pyroclastic flow
0110 (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Zanjón Seco pahoehoe lava flows
0670 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Pedregoso pyroclastic surge
1080 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) FP-B unit
1810 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Pucón Ignimbrite
1980 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Zanjón Seco lava flows
2140 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Alfunalhue pyroclastic flow
2240 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
2990 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology El Pirao lava flows
3730 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Candelaria pyroclastic flow
6690 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Voipir pyroclastic flow
7520 BCE ± 1000 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Casertano L, 1963a. Chilean Continent. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 15: 1-55.

Castruccio A, Clavero J, Rivera A, 2010. Comparative study of lahars generated by the 1961 and 1971 eruptions of Calbuco and Villarrica volcanoes, Southern Andes of Chile. J Volc Geotherm Res, 190: 297-311.

Dzierma Y, Wehrmann H, 2010. Eruption time series statistically examined: Probabilities of future eruptions at Villarrica and Llaima Volcanoes, Southern Volcanic Zone, Chile. J Volc Geotherm Res, 193: 82-92.

Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1995. Volcanes de Chile. Santiago: Instituto Geografico Militar, 635 p.

Hickey-Vargas R, Moreno H, Lopez-Escobar L, Frey F A, 1989. Geochemical variations in Andean basaltic and silicic lavas from the Villarrica-Lanin volcanic chain (39.5° S): an evaluation of source heterogeneity, fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation. Contr Mineral Petr, 103: 361-386.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Lara L E, Clavero J (eds), 2004. Villarrica volcano (39.5° S), Southern Andes, Chile. Servicio Geol Nac Argentina Bol, 61: 1-66.

Moreno H, 1974. Airplane flight over active volcanoes of central-south Chile. Internatl Symp Volc Andean & Antarctic Volc Problems Guidebook, Excur D-3, 56 p.

Moreno H, 1993. Volcan Villarica, geologia y evaluacion del riesgo volcanico, regiones IX y X, 39°25' S. Serv Nac Geol Min Chile, 1:50,000 geol map and 112 p text.

Moreno H, Naranjo J A, 1991. The southern Andes volcanoes (33°-41° 30' S), Chile. 6th Geol Cong Chile, Excur PC-3, 26 p.

Ortiz R, Moreno H, Garcia A, Fuentealba G, Astiz M, Pena P, Sanchez N, Tarraga M, 2003. Villarrica volcano (Chile): characteristics of the volcanic tremor and forecasting of small explosions by means of a material failure method. J Volc Geotherm Res, 128: 247-259.

Riffo P, Fuentealba G, Urra L H, 1987. Sintesis historica de als erupciones del Volcan Villarrica, Chile. Bol Vulc Univ Nac Costa Rica, 18: 8-11.

Silva Parejas C, Druitt T H, Robin C, Moreno H, Naranjo J-A, 2010. The Holocene Pucon erupiton of Volcan Villarrica, Chile: deposit architecture and eruption chronology. Bull Volc, 72: 677-692.

Witter J B, Kress V C, Delmelle P, Stix J, 2004. Volatile degassing, petrology, and magma dynamics of the Villarica lava lake, southern Chile. J Volc Geotherm Res, 134: 303-337.

Glacier-clad Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot Villarrica's flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano have been produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 sq km of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks.