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12 May-18 May 2010
SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-14 May seismicity from Llaima had decreased to moderate levels. Small white fumaroles that rose from the main crater were seen through web cameras. The Alert Level was lowered to Yellow Level 3 on a three-color scale.
Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)
2010: January | February | March | April | May
2009: January | April | May | June | December
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2007: May | August | December
12 May-18 May 2010
SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-14 May seismicity from Llaima had decreased to moderate levels. Small white fumaroles that rose from the main crater were seen through web cameras. The Alert Level was lowered to Yellow Level 3 on a three-color scale.
21 April-27 April 2010
On 26 April, SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity from Llaima had increased on 15 April and that tremor was detected. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow, (Level 4) on a three-color scale.
24 March-30 March 2010
SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity from Llaima had generally decreased during 5-22 March, to levels detected prior to an earthquake on 27 February. A significant number of earthquakes that indicated fluid movement in the volcano continued to be registered. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 100 m from their source. The Alert Level was lowered to Yellow, (Level 3) on a three-color scale.
3 March-9 March 2010
SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 4 March seismicity from Llaima increased. During an overflight that same day, scientists observed emissions of gas and steam from the main crater. Images taken that day were compared to those taken on 21 February and showed no significant changes in morphology. The rate of sulfur dioxide emissions had increased, however. Scientists also noted deposits from a large rockfall along with fracturing of the glacier, especially on the upper N and NW flanks. Those observations in addition to the increased seismicity prompted SERNAGEOMIN to raise the Alert Level to Yellow, Level 4.
10 February-16 February 2010
Cameras operated by OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN showed steam-and-gas plumes rising from Llaima's main crater during 20 January-9 February. Seismic signals (tremor and volcano-tectonic earthquakes) had characteristics that indicated fluid movement within the volcano's conduits. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow, Level 3. SERNAGEOMIN recommended that people stay at least 4 km away from the main crater.
20 January-26 January 2010
On 22 January, SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity from Llaima had decreased during the previous few weeks to background levels. The Alert Level was lowered to Green, (Level 2) on a three-color scale.
2 December-8 December 2009
Cameras operated by OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN showed steam-and-gas plumes rising from Llaima's main crater and E flank during 14 November-1 December. Although seismicity generally decreased, a new type of long-period, low-frequency earthquake was detected. An overflight on 4 December revealed fumarolic activity and some sulfur dioxide emissions coming mainly from fissures on the N crater wall and outer E and W flanks. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow, Level 3. Activity last noted in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report from 9-16 June was described as occasional steam emissions with minor amounts of ash rising from the E flank.
17 June-23 June 2009
The camera in Melipueco used by OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN to monitor Llaima again showed glow on the NW inner margin of the main crater during 9-16 June. Occasional steam emissions with minor amounts of ash were also seen from the E flank. Seismic tremor has also increased since 5 June. The Alert Level remained at Yellow.
3 June-9 June 2009
SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 5-8 June incandescence from an area in the SW part of Llaima's main crater corresponded to a small active "outcrop of lava." On 6 June, incandescence emanated from a small point along the E-flank fissure. Gas and steam was emitted from an area W of the main crater. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow.
27 May-2 June 2009
SERNAGEOMIN reported that scientists aboard an overflight of Llaima on 1 June observed a 2-square-kilometer area with an elevated temperature on the E flank. Several small areas emitted gas and a small cone was forming about 800 m below the crater. They also saw an E-W trending fissure 200 m from the rim of the main crater that was about 300 m long. Brown ash and steam plumes were emitted from different areas of the fissure. The irregularly-shaped summit crater had a few weak fumaroles. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow.
20 May-26 May 2009
During 12-18 May, SERNAGEOMIN reported sporadic incandescence from an area in the SW part of Llaima's main crater, corresponding to a small active "outcrop of lava." Steam plumes rose from the same area. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow.
6 May-12 May 2009
During 28 April-11 May, SERNAGEOMIN reported sporadic incandescence from an area in the SW part of Llaima's main crater, corresponding to a small outcrop of lava. Blocks occasionally rolling down the W flank were seen on a web camera. During 5-11 May, tephra was ejected from an area on the E flank and, during the night, incandescence originated from this area. During the daytime, observers reported that an almost continuous orange brown plume rose 200 m. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow.
22 April-28 April 2009
SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 24 April ash plumes originating from an area about 700 m down the E flank of Llaima rose 500 m and drifted E. Steam emissions that accompanied the ash plumes indicated that the point of activity came from underneath the glacier. The activity lasted about 1.5 hours. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow.
8 April-14 April 2009
On 8 April, SERNAGEOMIN reported that, after 74 hours of a vigorous Strombolian eruption from Llaima and accompanying lava flow emissions, activity declined quickly on 6 April until reaching a low level characterized by small amounts of ash emissions. On 7 April, weak emissions of gas and ash were observed. An overflight revealed that the main crater was completely obscured by a large pyroclastic cone with four inactive craters. Sulfur dioxide and hydrochloric gasses were emitted. Two lava flows descended the W flank. The more southerly lava flow was about 4.5 km long and melted part of the glacier, causing a lahar to travel towards the Calbuco River. The more northerly lava flow was similar in length, and branched off into two 1-km-long flows. It too caused a lahar. On the NE flank, a lava flow that originated from the base of the pyroclastic cone caused lahars that descended into the valley between Curacautín (30 km NNW) and the Conguillío National Park.
During 7-10 April, intermittent incandescence from a lava flow at the SW base of the pyroclastic cone was observed. Incandescent blocks originating from the lava flow descended W. On 8 April, gasses emitted from multiple points on the pyroclastic cone formed a plume that drifted NE. Preliminary calculations indicated that the height of the pyroclastic cone exceeded the top of the main crater by 70 m, making the summit elevation 3,240 m a.s.l. During 9-10 and 13-14 April, gas and steam plumes rose from the pyroclastic cone; views were obscured by clouds on 11 and 12 April. On 14 April, fumarolic activity from the pyroclastic cone was again noted. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Red.
1 April-7 April 2009
During 2-3 April, SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity from Llaima increased in frequency and amplitude and evolved into continuous seismic tremor. Steam plumes with small amounts of ash were emitted. Late in the day on 3 April, observers reported incandescence from the main crater. Weak Strombolian explosions were produced by the N cone inside the crater. On 4 April, Strombolian activity and rhythmic explosions in the main crater originated from two nested pyroclastic cones. Incandescent tephra was ejected 700 m above the crater. The Alert Level was raised to Red. ONEMI reported that fine ash fell in Verde Lake in the Conguillío National Park (a 608 square kilometer park containing Llaima) and a lava flow 1 km long traveled W towards the Calbuco River. Access to local parks was restricted and twelve people self-evacuated. Later that day, authorities ordered an evacuation for people in high-risk areas, mainly due to the potential for lahars along the Calbuco River. According to news articles, 71 people evacuated.
SERNAGEOMIN reported that Strombolian activity continued on 5 April. A dark gray ash plume drifted E; heavy ashfall was reported in Lago Verde. A lahar traveled down the Captrén River (NNE) and lava continued to travel down the W flank. On 6 April, poor weather mostly prevented visual observations, but continuous explosions were reported from Melipeuco (about 17 km SSE). Lahars again traveled down the Captrén River. Occasionally, gas-and-ash plumes were seen and drifted E; ash fell in areas E. Heavy ashfall and lapilli up to 1.5 cm in diameter fell in areas between Conguillio Lake (about 10 km ENE, in Conguillío National Park) and the Arcoiris Lake (less than 10 km ENE, in Conguillío National Park). On 7 April, gas and ash emitted from multiple points formed a plume that rose 1 km above the summit and drifted NE. The flanks of the volcano were covered with bombs, lapilli, and ash.
14 January-20 January 2009
Based on observations from POVI (Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Llaima), SERNAGEOMIN reported that weak ash emissions rose from Llaima's crater on 11 January.
7 January-13 January 2009
SERNAGEOMIN reported that ash emissions and gas plumes from cones inside Llaima's crater were observed during 30 December-6 January.
17 December-23 December 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported that 22 December an ash plume from Llaima rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. A second smaller emission of ash was noted later that day.
17 September-23 September 2008
During an overflight of Llaima on 12 September, SERNAGEOMIN scientists observed diffuse gas-and-steam plumes emitted from the external edges of the nested craters in the main crater. During 13-22 September, observers in Melipeuco (about 17 km SSE) reported that sporadic gas-and-steam plumes emanated from the main crater. During an overflight on 21 September, steam emissions were noted from areas on the NE and W flanks. The Alert remained at Green, Level 2.
10 September-16 September 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported that the Alert Level for Llaima was lowered to Green, Level 2, on 10 September due to decreased seismicity and no major emissions.
3 September-9 September 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported that clouds had prevented visual observations of Llaima during 29 August-2 September. On 3 September, fumarolic plumes that originated from three points on the pyroclastic cones in the main crater drifted N. An explosion produced an ash plume that also drifted N; ash deposits on the N flank suggested previous emissions. On 4 September gas plumes from the main crater drifted W. Gas-and-steam plumes were emitted during 5-7 September. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow.
27 August-2 September 2008
On 2 September, SERNAGEOMIN reported that clouds had prevented visual observations of Llaima during the previous few days. Explosions were heard during 25-28 August. On 28 August, seismic signals indicated that gas-and-ash plumes were possibly emitted from the pyroclastic cones in the main crater. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow.
20 August-26 August 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported that steam plumes from the pyroclastic cones in Llaima's main crater were visible during periods of clear weather on 16 August. Steam plumes rose from the W flank where lava flows were active in February and July. On 17 August, sporadic gas-and-ash emissions were observed. Cloud cover prevented observations during 18-20 August. On 21 August, three explosions produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Gas and steam was emitted in between explosions; resultant plumes rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 9 km E. During an overflight, scientists observed steam-and-gas plumes being emitted from a small crater in the N sector of the main crater. A larger crater, about 100 m in diameter, in the central sector emitted ash. The ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. A thin layer of ash blanketed the E flank. Ash-and-gas plumes from the main crater drifted W on 22 August. On 23 August, observers reported that incandescent material was ejected less than 1 km above the crater. The next day, an ash plume drifted about 1.5 km SSE. Ash blanketed some areas of the flanks. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow.
13 August-19 August 2008
During 8-11 August, SERNAGEOMIN reported that fumarolic activity from the snow-free pyroclastic cones in Llaima's main crater was visible during periods of clear weather; resultant plumes drifted E. A 2-km long strip on the NE flank was black in color (snow-free) due to elevated temperatures. On 13 August, gas-and-ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Later that day, incandescence from the crater accompanied the gas-and-ash emissions.
30 July-5 August 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported that scientists observed fumarolic activity from the edges of the nested cones in Llaima's main crater during aerial observations on 29 July. Sulfur dioxide plumes rose from an area in the E crater. Tephra deposits covered parts of the SE flank. Cooled lava flows emitted on 26 and 27 July were noted on the W flank. On 31 July, fumarolic activity from the crater was reported in multiple areas around the volcano. Cloudy conditions prevented visual observations during 1-2 August. The Alert level was Yellow on 2 August.
23 July-29 July 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported that cloud cover prevented observations of Llaima during 22-23 July. On 24 July a bluish gas was emitted from a pyroclastic cone in the main crater and steam plumes rose from the W margin of the crater. Later that day, gas-and-ash plumes rose 100 m above the crater and dissipated to the SSE. During an overflight prompted by increased seismicity on 26 July, scientists observed weak explosions and airborne spatter from a double crater at the N base of the pyroclastic cone. Area residents reported hearing "detonations" coming from the direction of the volcano and they observed small ash plumes. Strombolian activity intensified and ejected material 500-800 m above the crater. Rhythmic explosions ejected spatter 1 km above the summit and up to 2 km towards the E. A plume rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. Lava flows emitted at a high rate descended the W and S flanks and ice evaporated, producing steam plumes. SERNAGEOMIN raised the Alert Level to Red.
SERNAGEOMIN reported that the eruption during 26-27 July lasted for 11.5 hours. During 28 and 29 July, the volcano was in a state of calm.
16 July-22 July 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported that after increased seismicity at Llaima on 14 July, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.6 km (18,400 ft) a.s.l. Less than two hours later, very intense orange and red incandescence was seen through breaks in the cloud cover near the summit and at the base of the W flank. At 1915 a vigorous Strombolian eruption ejected incandescent pyroclastic material from the N vent in the main crater to heights of 500 m above the summit. Seismicity and the intensity of the explosions decreased later that day. On 15 July, diffuse ash emissions rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,200 ft) a.s.l. Ash and tephra covered areas of the SSE flank. Seismic activity decreased during 16-18 July.
On 19 July, seismicity again increased and ash-and-gas plumes rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The emissions became more intense and frequent, and one explosion produced an ash plume to an altitude of 4.1 km (13,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash and tephra fell on the SE flank. Later that day, constant explosions ejected incandescent material 500 m above the summit that fell near the crater. Steam plumes emitted from the W flank possibly indicated the presence of a new lava flow along with mobile incandescent blocks from a previous lava flow. After another brief period of calm, vapor emissions increased and were followed by strong explosions and lava flows. The Alert level remained at Yellow.
9 July-15 July 2008
A new eruptive phase at Llaima occurred on 10 July following two hours of precursory seismicity. At 1520 a vigorous Strombolian eruption ejected incandescent pyroclastic material from two vents in the main crater to heights of 500 m above the summit, throwing bombs to the E, NE, and S. Lava flows also moved towards the W and S flanks. Explosions were seen from Melipeuco, Cherquenco, El Salto, and El Manzano. Strong activity continued for almost three hours before decreasing. Medium to coarse ash fell in Melipeuco (up to 1.5 mm in diameter). Red glow was seen in the early hours of 11 July, and there was no eruptive column or gas emissions. Poor weather prevented observations the next day.
2 July-8 July 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported that although observations of Llaima were inhibited by cloud cover on 2 July, incandescence from the 1-km-long lava flow on the W flank was observed. An overflight revealed cooled blocks at the end of the lava flow and a second lava flow (on the SW flank) about 150 m S of the first. The lava flows issued from the base of a pyroclastic cone in the main crater. Observers to the W witnessed an explosion from the summit that ejected material 1 km high. The material landed on the SW flank and up to 3.5 km away on the SE flank. Vapor plumes from the main crater were seen on 3 July. An overflight on the same day revealed that the lava flow on the W flank had advanced and generated a small lahar.
On 4 July, SERNAGEOMIN characterized the eruptive style as weakly Strombolian. A small explosion from the pyroclastic cone in the main crater produced an ash plume that rose 250-400 m and drifted 50 km SE. During 4-5 July, observers reported sporadic explosions and incandescence at the summit. Fine ashfall was reported in areas nearby. On 6 July, seismicity decreased to low levels. An overflight on 7 July revealed that the lava emission rate had decreased for both flows. The lava flow on the W flank was about 1.6 km long and the flow on the SW flank was about 2 km long. Bluish gas was emitted from the main crater.
25 June-1 July 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported that sporadic gas-and-ash plumes from Llaima were seen when the weather was clear during 1-20 June. More frequent and continuous gas emissions rose from the nested cone in the main crater. Seismicity increased during 13-16 June. Towards the end of the observation period, steam plumes rose from the W flank. ONEMI reported that during an overflight on 26 June, bluish gas and ash rose from the top of an active pyroclastic cone in the main crater and the NE flank was not covered with snow, in contrast to other portions of the volcano. On 1 July, a lava flow on the W flank was seen from nearby communities prompting authorities to evacuate about 20-30 people and warn others of possible further evacuations. The lava flow descended the W flank to 800-1000 m from the crater, raising concern for lahars in the Calbuca river. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (the middle level on a 3-level color system).
23 April-29 April 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 24 April, seismicity from Llaima increased and gas-and-ash plumes associated with explosions rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,100 ft) a.s.l. No morphological changes to the summit were observed during an overflight on 25 April, except for a small increase of the diameter of the SE crater. Bluish gas was emitted from the main crater.
2 April-8 April 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 28 March-4 April, fumarolic plumes from Llaima drifted several tens of kilometers mainly to the SE. Explosions produced ash and gas emissions. An overflight on 2 April of the main crater revealed that gas, pyroclastic material, and ash emissions, occasionally accompanied by small explosions, originated from three cones. On 4 April, several explosions were heard and incandescence was reflected in a gas-and-ash plume.
19 March-25 March 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported that fumarolic activity from the central pyroclastic cone in Llaima's main crater reactivated on 13 March and intensified during 15-17 March. Sulfur dioxide plumes rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. People from nearby areas reported incandescence in the crater during 19-21 March. Incandescent material propelled from the crater was observed at night during 20-21 March.
27 February-4 March 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported weak sulfur dioxide plumes from two cones in Llaima's main crater during 26-28 February. An overflight on 28 February revealed that the internal structure of the crater had not changed since observations on 21 February. Weak fumarolic emissions from the main crater were noted during 2-3 March. The Alert Level remained at Yellow.
20 February-26 February 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported that weak steam plumes were observed from Llaima's main crater on 20 February. The 'a'a lava flow that traveled 2.5 km during 2-13 February varied in width between 30-40 m and was 10 m thick. On 21 February small ash plumes rose from the E and SE flanks. Pyroclastic flows descended the E flank and possibly down the W flank. Sulfur dioxide plumes that rose from two craters within the main crater were visible during an overflight. On 22 February, a seismic signal pattern similar to that observed during a previous pyroclastic flow was noted. Ash-and-gas plumes rose from the E flank. On 23 February, an ash-and-gas plume rose from the SE flank.
13 February-19 February 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported that explosions in the main crater of Llaima propelled incandescent material 200-500 m in the air during 8-13 February. Explosions occasionally alternated between N and S cones in the main crater. On 9 February, the Calbuco River was about 1 m higher than the normal level, likely due to melt water from the lava and glacier interaction. On 10 February, Strombolian eruptions from the main crater were observed during an overflight. The lava flows on the W flank were 2.5 km long and made channels in the ice tens of meters deep. Although visual observations were limited due to cloud cover, sulfur dioxide and steam plumes from lava interacting with ice during 10-14 and 17 February rose to altitudes of 4.1-6.1 km (13,500-20,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted SE on 11 February. Lava flows were 3 km long on 11 February. On 13 February, incandescence at the summit was noted.
6 February-12 February 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported intense Strombolian activity in the main crater of Llaima and explosions that propelled material 500 m in the air on 6 February. Ash-and-gas plumes from the activity rose to altitudes of 5.1-5.6 km (16,700-18,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE more than 30 km. Multiple lava flows traveled 0.7-1.5 km W and N and generated steam plumes due to their interaction with a glacier. Activity declined later that day. During breaks in cloud cover, ash plumes were observed at altitudes of 4.1-9.1 km (13,500-29,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. During 7-8 February, explosions from two different areas in the main crater produced brown and gray ash-and-gas plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.1-6.2 km (13,500-20,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20 km NW. Incandescent blocks from lava-flow fronts rolled down the flank.
According to a news article on 7 and 12 February, people from two communities were evacuated, but were allowed to return to their homes during the daytime.
The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes at altitudes of 1.2-3.6 km (4,000-11,800 ft) a.s.l. were visible on satellite imagery during 10-12 February.
30 January-5 February 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported that eruptive activity at Llaima continued from the main crater and from multiple areas on the E flank during 30 January-4 February. An overflight on 28 January revealed Strombolian eruptions from a central pyroclastic cone in the main crater accompanied by emissions of ash and ballistic fragments. The craters surrounding the cone were incandescent and emitted bluish sulfur dioxide. Ash-and-gas plumes drifted WSW. A pyroclastic flow deposit was seen on the E flank. During 29 January-1 February, Strombolian eruptions were seen when weather permitted and emissions of ash and gases formed plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.6-6.1 km (11,800-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, SE, NE, and NW. Sporadic activity from the N and S lateral fissures on the E flank was also noted. During 1-2 February, ballistics propelled from the main crater landed both inside and outside of the crater. Strombolian activity declined on 2 February and steam and ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.6-9.1 km (15,100-29,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Emissions from multiple points along fissures on the E flank were noted.
On 3 February, material from intense Strombolian activity was propelled 500 m above the crater floor and fell inside and outside of the crater. Multiple lava flows from the W edge of the main crater descended about 150 m. Incandescent blocks from lava-flow fronts rolled down the flank. Plumes rose to an approximate altitude of 4.6 km (15,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW. Lava flows originating from a lava lake were observed during an overflight. These flows extended about 1.5-2 km in length and caused strong steam plumes due to their interaction with a glacier. According to a news article, about 20 people were evacuated from an area of La Selva, in the community of Vilcún (43 km W).
Activity was similar on 4 February. A phreatic explosion on the E flank was accompanied by steam plumes and a small pyroclastic flow. Orange ash emissions were noted from the S lateral fissure. Ash plumes from the main crater rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.
Based on pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.6-6.7 km (15,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, NE, and W during 5-6 February.
23 January-29 January 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported that eruptive activity at Llaima continued from the main crater and from multiple areas on the E flank during 23-27 January. On 23 January, a brown ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l and drifted W. Based on observations during an overflight later that day, Strombolian eruptions took place from a central pyroclastic cone in the main crater and were accompanied by emissions of brown ash. A small hornito emitting bluish gas and a lava field were noted between the pyroclastic cone and the inner margins of the crater.
On 24 January, explosions from the E flank were detected and on 26 January, steam plumes were observed. Strombolian eruptions in the main crater accompanied by gas and ash emissions continued during 24-27 January. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3.3-4.1 km (10,800-13,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, E, SE, and S.
16 January-22 January 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported that eruptive activity at Llaima continued from the main crater and from two craters and a fissure on the E flank during 16-21 January. Based on observations during an overflight on 16 January, three nested pyroclastic cones within the main crater were active. The larger cone produced weak ash emissions that rose about 500 m. Ash emissions were also noted from a crater on the E flank. Glaciers on the NE slope and W flank were fractured and dislocated. Ash emissions from a NE-SW-trending fissure about 80 m in length and 10 m wide were observed. Also noted were incandescent rocks that rolled from the NE end of the fissure and ash plumes generated from rolling rocks in multiple areas during 16-17 January. On 17 January, ash emissions rose from the main crater to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l and drifted E. Weak Strombolian activity was seen from the main crater during aerial observation.
At 0732 on 18 January, a lateral explosion from the E side produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (29,900 ft) a.s.l. and quickly dispersed NE. Later that day, a small lateral explosion from the same area and ash-and-gas emissions from several points and new fissures were noted.
On 19 January, an explosion from the E flank produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.1 km (13,500 ft) a.s.l. An overflight revealed Strombolian activity in the main crater from a pyroclastic cone that was 120 m in diameter and 100 m high. The cone was not present during the overflight on 17 January. A second crater to the SW emitted gas. Sporadic ash emissions were noted from the E sector and an explosion produced a pyroclastic flow and an ash plume that quickly dissipated. On 20 January, another explosion produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.1 km (13,500 ft) a.s.l. Gas and ash emissions were again noted from multiple areas. On 21 January, cloud cover inhibited visual observations; one small ash emission was noted at the end of the day.
9 January-15 January 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity from Llaima decreased in energy, but the number of events increased during 10-14 January. Based on seismic interpretation, weak explosions produced plumes of gas and ash. On 11 January, lava flows on the W flank that were observed during an overflight were cooled and snow-covered near the crater but snow-free, and therefore still hot, about 500 m further down on the flank. Blocks of incandescent material rolled about 1.5 km and caused steam emissions at several points where they contacted the glacier. Ash plumes drifted NE. Abundant cracks in glaciers to the SW of the crater were noted. Based on observations of satellite imagery and pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SW on 11 and 13 January, respectively.
2 January-8 January 2008
SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismic tremor coincided with the onset of gas emissions and the ejection of pyroclastic material from Llaima on 1 January. Within a few hours, a Strombolian phase began. An increase in volume of the Captrén River on the N flank was observed. On 2 January, small emissions of ash and gas (mainly steam) and three small lahars on the N and W flanks were observed during an overflight. Tremor also decreased and an explosion was observed. Based on pilot reports and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an unconfirmed altitude of 12.5 km (41,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E on 2 January. A lava flow on the E flank was also noted.
On 3 January, another overflight revealed that the explosion that occurred on the previous day took place from an area high on the E flank and not from within the crater. Emissions of gas and ash were small and sporadic. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume was visible on satellite imagery at an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.
26 December-1 January 2008
Based on pilot reports and observations of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Llaima rose to an altitude of 12.5 km (41,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and ESE on 1 January. Lava was visible on the E flank and fumaroles at the summit were noted. According to a news article, the Alert level was raised to Yellow affecting four nearby communities resulting in the evacuation of 150 tourists and National Forest Service employees.
8 August-14 August 2007
Based on pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Llaima rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. on 8 August and drifted E. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.
30 May-5 June 2007
Based on a Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisory and information from the Puerto Montt Flight Information Region (FIR), the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Llaima rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 29 May. The plume drifted E. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.
23 May-29 May 2007
Based on a Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisory and satellite image observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Llaima rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. on 26 May. The plumes were visible on satellite imagery drifting E. On 28 May, a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.
16 April-22 April 2003
Llaima remained at Yellow alert at least through 16 April and eruptions began to contain significant tephra. Seismicity was almost 5-fold above background. Volcanologists expressed concern that the volcano=s glacial ice-cover could undergo local melting, which might lead to large and sudden outbursts of water (glacier bursts) down local drainages.
9 April-15 April 2003
Increased seismic and volcanic activity at Llaima during 9-11 April led officials to put the volcano at Alert Level Yellow. Seismic signals indicating weak eruptive activity were recorded and observations made during a flight revealed a thin layer of pyroclastic material atop a glacier on the NE flank. In addition to extensive fumarolic activity, observers saw new cracks in the glacier. Only weak fumaroles were seen during 12-13 April.
Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|2008 Jan 1||2009 Jun 12 ± 4 days||Confirmed||3||Historical Observations||Summit and upper east flank|
|2007 May 26||2007 Aug 8 (?)||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|2003 Apr 9||2003 Apr 16 (in or after)||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|2002 Oct 13 ± 12 days||Unknown||Confirmed||1||Historical Observations|
|1998 Nov 10 ± 3 days||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1998 Apr 3||1998 Apr 23 (?)||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1997 Mar (?)||1997 Oct (?)||Confirmed||1||Historical Observations|
|1995 Oct 13||1995 Oct 22 (in or after)||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1994 May 17||1994 Aug 30||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations||SE side summit crater, upper SW flank|
|1992 Aug 23||1992 Sep 2||Confirmed||1||Historical Observations|
|1990 Feb 25||1990 Nov 25||Confirmed||1||Historical Observations|
|1984 Apr 20||1984 Nov 26||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1979 Oct 15||1979 Nov 28||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1971 Dec 1 ± 30 days||1972 Mar 12||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|[ 1960 ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain|
|1955 Oct 22||1957 Nov||Confirmed||3||Historical Observations||Summit and SE crater|
|1949 Sep||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1946 Jul 23||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1945 Mar 31||1945 Apr 3||Confirmed||3||Historical Observations|
|1942 Jun 9||1942 Nov||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1941 Jun 23||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1938 Dec||Unknown||Confirmed||1||Historical Observations|
|1937 Feb 9 (?)||1937 Nov 2||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1932 Dec 31||1933 Jan 5||Confirmed||3||Historical Observations|
|1932 Mar 2||1932 Mar 2||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1930 Jul 6||1930 Aug 20||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1929 Dec||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1927 Oct 5||1927 Dec 5||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations||SE crater and summit crater|
|1922 Oct 24||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1917 Feb 4||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1914 Jul 3||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1907||1908 Mar||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1903 May 12||1903 May 14||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1893 Dec||1894 Dec||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1889 Apr 20||1889 Jul||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1887 Jan 16||1887 Jun 24||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1877 Jan 16||1877 Jun 24||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|[ 1874 ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain|
|1872 Jun 6||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1869 Apr||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1759 Dec||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1751 Dec 18||1752||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|1640 Feb||Unknown||Confirmed||4||Historical Observations|
|5290 BCE ± 200 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (uncorrected)|
|6880 BCE ± 75 years||Unknown||Confirmed||5||Radiocarbon (uncorrected)|
|7410 BCE ± 300 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (uncorrected)|
The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.
Casertano L, 1963a. Chilean Continent. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 15: 1-55.
Dzierma Y, Wehrmann H, 2010. Eruption time series statistically examined: Probabilities of future eruptions at Villarrica and Llaima Volcanoes, Southern Volcanic Zone, Chile. J Volc Geotherm Res, 193: 82-92.
Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1995. Volcanes de Chile. Santiago: Instituto Geografico Militar, 635 p.
Moreno H, 1974. Airplane flight over active volcanoes of central-south Chile. Internatl Symp Volc Andean & Antarctic Volc Problems Guidebook, Excur D-3, 56 p.
Moreno H, Naranjo J A, 1991. The southern Andes volcanoes (33°-41° 30' S), Chile. 6th Geol Cong Chile, Excur PC-3, 26 p.
Naranjo J A, Moreno H, 1991. Actividad explosiva postglacial en el volcan Llaima, Andes del Sur (38° 45' S). Rev Geol Chile, 18: 69-80.
Petit-Breuilh M E, 1993. Chronologia eruptiva historica del volcan Llaima. Serv Nac Geol Min Chile, unpublished rpt.
Llaima, one of Chile's largest and most active volcanoes, contains two main historically active craters, one at the summit and the other, Pichillaima, to the SE. The massive 3125-m-high, dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano has a volume of 400 cu km. A Holocene edifice built primarily of accumulated lava flows was constructed over an 8-km-wide caldera that formed about 13,200 years ago, following the eruption of the 24 cu km Curacautín Ignimbrite. More than 40 scoria cones dot the volcano's flanks. Following the end of an explosive stage about 7200 years ago, construction of the present edifice began, characterized by strombolian, hawaiian, and infrequent subplinian eruptions. Frequent moderate explosive eruptions with occasional lava flows have been recorded since the 17th century.