Cerro Azul

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 35.653°S
  • 70.761°W

  • 3788 m
    12425 ft

  • 357060
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Cerro Azul.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Cerro Azul.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Cerro Azul.

The Cerro Azul stratovolcano is at the southern end of the Descabezado Grande-Cerro Azul eruptive system. Steep-sided 3788-m-high Cerro Azul has a 500-m-wide summit crater that is open to the north. The three basaltic-andesite "La Resoloma Craters" scoria vents are located below the west flank and the two "Los Hornitos" scoria cones on the lower SW flank. Quizapu, a major vent on the northern flank of Cerro Azul, formed in 1846 during the first historical eruption, accompanied by the emission of voluminous dacitic lava flows that traveled both east into the Estero Barroso valley and west into the Río Blanquillo valley. Quizapu was later the source of one of the world's largest explosive eruptions of the 20th century in 1932, which created a 600-700 m wide, 150-m-deep crater and ejected 9.5 cu km of dacitic tephra.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1967 Aug 9 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Quizapu
1949 Apr 15 ± 5 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Quizapu
1933 1938 Jul 25 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Quizapu
1916 1932 Apr 21 Confirmed 5 Historical Observations Quizapu
1914 Sep 8 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Quizapu
[ 1913 Jan 15 ± 45 days ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2   Quizapu
1912 Feb Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Quizapu
1907 Jul 28 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Quizapu
1906 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Quizapu
[ 1903 Jan ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2   Quizapu
1846 Nov 26 1853 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Quizapu

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Quizapu


Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Hornitos, Los Cone 2000 m 35° 43' 30" S 70° 48' 27" W


Craters
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Caracol Crater
Casitas, Volcán Fissure vent 2581 m 35° 41' 0" S 70° 48' 0" W
Quillayes, Crater los Crater 2397 m 35° 40' 0" S 70° 51' 0" W
Quizapu
    Medio, Cerro del
    Nuevo, Volcán
Crater 3292 m 35° 37' 59" S 70° 45' 22" W
Resolana, Crater la Crater 2467 m 35° 38' 0" S 70° 51' 0" W
Sin Nombre, Crater Crater 2271 m 35° 39' 0" S 70° 50' 0" W
Descabezado Grande (center) and Cerro Azul (middle right), seen here from the NW, are the most prominent features of a large volcanic field. The most active of the two large stratovolcanoes is 3810-m-high Cerro Azul. Quizapú, a vent that formed in 1846 on the northern flank of Cerro Azul, was the source of one of the world's largest explosive eruptions of the 20th century in April 1932. The eruption created a 600-700 m wide crater and ejected 9.5 cu km of dacitic tephra. The only historical eruption of Descabezado Grande took place later in 1932.

Photo by Jeff Post, 1988 (Smithsonian Institution).
The gaping crater of the 1932 Quizapú eruption (left-center) lies below the summit of Cerro Azul stratovolcano. Cerro Azul was constructed to the south of its twin volcano Descabezado Grande, where this photo was taken. Steep-sided Cerro Azul has a 500-m-wide summit crater that is open to the north. Quizapú was the source of one of the world's largest explosive eruptions of the 20th century in 1932. This eruption created a 600-700 m wide, 150 m deep crater and ejected 9.5 cu km of dacitic tephra.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Casertano L, 1963a. Chilean Continent. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 15: 1-55.

Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1972. Distribucion del volcanismo activo de Chile y la reciente erupcion del Volcan Villarrica. Instituto Geog Militar Chile, O/T 3491.

Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1995. Volcanes de Chile. Santiago: Instituto Geografico Militar, 635 p.

Hildreth W, Drake R E, 1992. Volcan Quizapu, Chilean Andes. Bull Volc, 54: 93-125.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Pumice cone(s)
Maar(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Dacite
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Minor
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
9
158
3,832
720,948

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Cerro Azul Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.