Planchón-Peteroa

Photo of this volcano
Google Earth icon
Google Earth Placemark
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 35.223°S
  • 70.568°W

  • 4107 m
    13471 ft

  • 357040
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

22 June-28 June 2011

Based on SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 24-25 June ash plumes from Planchón-Peteroa rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NE, and E. On 27 June satellite imagery showed a gas-and-steam plume, possibly containing ash, drifting 110 km NW.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



 Available Weekly Reports


2011: February | March | April | May | June
2010: January | July | September | October | November
2008: May
2006: January


22 June-28 June 2011

Based on SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 24-25 June ash plumes from Planchón-Peteroa rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NE, and E. On 27 June satellite imagery showed a gas-and-steam plume, possibly containing ash, drifting 110 km NW.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 May-10 May 2011

SERNAGEOMIN reported that, based on video camera data, photographs, and observations during an overflight on 4 May, activity at Planchón-Peteroa was relatively stable during 30 April-8 May. Explosions lasting about 30 seconds produced ash plumes that rose at most 1 km above the crater and drifted tens of kilometers E, NE, NNE, NNW and NW. During 4-5 May material fell in Minera Río Teno (about 70 km NW) and Las Leñas, Argentina (45 km ENE). The Alert Level remained at Level 3, Yellow. Based on ODVAS web camera observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 9 May gas-and-ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and rapidly dissipated to the SE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 April-3 May 2011

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-15 April a camera installed in Romeral, approximately 61 km NW of Planchón-Peteroa, recorded predominantly white vapor plumes that rose at most 600 m. During 16-19, 21 and 25-29 April episodes of ash-plume production changed from discreet plumes to more continuous emissions. Ash plumes during 17-19 and 29 April rose 1.2 km and contained ash- to lapilli-sized particles. During overflights on 26, 27, and 29 April, a geologist noted that the crater geometry and fumarolic activity had changed very little during the previous few months and that ash emissions drifted mainly SW. SERNAGEOMIN stated that because ash-and-gas emissions were becoming almost continuous, the Alert Level was raised to Level 3, Yellow on 29 April. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, SIGMET notices, and ODVAS web camera observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 2-3 May gas-and-ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.6-5.5 km (15,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 April-26 April 2011

Based on a SIGMET notice, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 26 April an ash plume from Planchón-Peteroa rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 April-19 April 2011

Based on a SIGMET notice, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 17 April an ash plume from Planchón-Peteroa rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Ash was not observed in satellite imagery.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 March-29 March 2011

Based on a SIGMET notice, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported ash from an eruption of Planchón-Peteroa on 26 March. Ash was not observed in satellite imagery.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 March-22 March 2011

Based on SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 17-18 March ash plumes from Planchón-Peteroa rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. On 18 March a diffuse steam-and-gas plume was visible in the ODVAS web camera.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 February-22 February 2011

Based on SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 17 February an ash plume from Planchón-Peteroa rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 November-16 November 2010

On 11 November, SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity from Planchón-Peteroa remained low. Observations from multiple sources, including a web camera and satellite images, showed that the height of the gas plume was lower than the previously reported height of 200 m, observed during 15-25 October. The Alert Level was lowered to 2, Green.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)


27 October-2 November 2010

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 15-25 October seismic activity from Planchón-Peteroa was low. Observations based on images from a camera installed in the town of Romeral (approximately 60 km NW) and photos sent by staff from a mining company (65 km WNW) showed that plume color changed from gray to white on 13 October. The plume was smaller, with heights of less than 200 m above the crater. Satellite imagery analyses corroborated the ground-based observations. On 27 October, the Alert Level was lowered to 3, Yellow.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)


13 October-19 October 2010

Based on SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 12 October an ash plume from Planchón-Peteroa drifted E at an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 October-12 October 2010

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during an overflight of Planchón-Peteroa on 30 September scientists observed an ash plume that rose 400 m and drifted E, diffusing over a wide area of Argentina. Parts of the ash plume drifted E and then NE, traveling tens of kilometers with an altitude as high as 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. Also, a diffuse plume drifted S and SE at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. On 1 October an ash plume drifted N and NW as far as Los Queñes, 30 km NW. A sulfur odor was also reported in Los Queñes. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, pilot observations, and SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 6-12 October ash plumes from Planchón-Peteroa rose to altitudes of 3-6.1 km (10,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 4, Yellow.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 September-5 October 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, pilot observations, and SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 30 September-3 October ash plumes from Planchón-Peteroa rose to altitudes of 3-6.1 km (10,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, NNE, E, and SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 September-28 September 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 26 September an ash plume from Planchón-Peteroa rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 September-21 September 2010

According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image of Planchón-Peteroa shows an ash plume drifting 22 km SE on 18 September and ashfall on the snow beneath the plume. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that according to a SIGMET issued on 21 September an ash plume rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l and drifted SE. Ash was not identified in satellite imagery. The Alert Level remained at 4, Yellow.

Sources: NASA Earth Observatory, Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 September-14 September 2010

SERNAGEOMIN reported that an overflight of Planchón-Peteroa on 7 September revealed that the explosions the day before were possibly phreato-magmatic in origin and similar to the explosions in 1991. Pulses of gas and ash had occurred every 40-60 seconds during the eruption. Plumes rose 200 m above the crater and ash mostly fell within 10 km to the E. During 10-13 September, plumes rising from the vent had progressively less ash and higher concentrations of water vapor. On 13 September, SERNAGEOMIN reported that petrographic and mineralogical studies of the ash indicated no juvenile components. The Alert Level remained at 4, Yellow.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)


1 September-7 September 2010

SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 6 September an explosive eruption from Planchón-Peteroa produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km above the complex and drifted mainly E to a distance of 30 km, with some parts of the plume going N and S. That same day SERNAGEOMIN received pictures from Romeral (approximately 61 km NW) that showed ash-and-gas plumes rising 200 m.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)


28 July-3 August 2010

Based on a pilot observation, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 28 July a gas plume from Planchón-Peteroa drifted E.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 January-19 January 2010

Based on pilot reports and photographs SERNAGEOMIN reported on 13 January that fumarolic plumes from Planchón-Peteroa rose 250 m high on 4, 6, and 7 January. Increased fumarolic activity is common on the warmest days in the summer when snow melts in the crater and more steam is produced.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)


14 May-20 May 2008

On 14 May, ONEMI reported that increased fumarolic activity at Planchón-Peteroa was normal and likely caused by atmospheric changes that made the plumes more visible from greater distances. Increased fumarolic activity is common when snow melts in the crater and more steam is produced.

Source: Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI)


25 January-31 January 2006

The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that based on SIGMETs, increased fumarolic activity occurred at Planchón-Peteroa and Cerro Azul beginning on 26 January. Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería clarified that intense fumarolic activity only occurred at Planchón-Petero around 25 January. Increased fumarolic activity is normal during the summer when snow melts in the crater and more steam is produced.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2011 Feb 17 2011 Jun 25 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Peteroa
2010 Sep 6 2010 Oct 13 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Peteroa
1998 Nov 18 1998 Nov 21 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1991 Feb 9 1991 Mar 2 ± 2 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Peteroa
[ 1967 Feb ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1   Peteroa (1889-94 crater)
1962 Jan Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Peteroa
1960 Jul 10 (?) Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Petoroa (1889-94 crater)
1959 Nov 6 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Petoroa (1889-94 crater)
1938 Sep 1938 Oct Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Peteroa
1937 Apr 1937 May 5 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Petoroa (south of 1889-94 crater)
1889 Sep 1894 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Peteroa (SE of 1762 crater)
1878 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Peteroa
[ 1872 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1869 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1860 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Peteroa
[ 1842 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1837 Feb Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Peteroa
1835 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Peteroa
1762 Dec 3 Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Peteroa (2 km S of Planchón summit)
1751 Nov 1751 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1660 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Peteroa
0900 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) PLB tephra
5080 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) OPV tephra

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Casertano L, 1963a. Chilean Continent. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 15: 1-55.

Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1995. Volcanes de Chile. Santiago: Instituto Geografico Militar, 635 p.

Hildreth W, Moorbath S, 1988. Crustal contribution to arc magmatism in the Andes of central Chile. Contr Mineral Petr, 98: 455-489.

Moreno H, 1974. Airplane flight over active volcanoes of central-south Chile. Internatl Symp Volc Andean & Antarctic Volc Problems Guidebook, Excur D-3, 56 p.

Moreno H, Naranjo J A, 1991. The southern Andes volcanoes (33°-41° 30' S), Chile. 6th Geol Cong Chile, Excur PC-3, 26 p.

Naranjo J A, Haller M J, 2002. Erupciones holocenas principalmente explosivas del volcan Planchon, Andes del sur (35° 15' S). Rev Geol Chile, 29: 93-113.

Tormey D R, Frey F A, Lopez Escobar L, 1989. Geologic history of the active Azufre-Planchon-Peteroa volcanic center (35° 15' S, southern Andes), with implications for the development of compositional gaps. Asoc Geol Argentina Rev, 44: 420-430.

Planchón-Peteroa is an elongated complex volcano along the Chile-Argentina border with several overlapping calderas. Activity began in the Pleistocene with construction of the basaltic-andesite to dacitic Volcán Azufre, followed by formation of basaltic and basaltic-andesite Volcán Planchón, 6 km to the north. About 11,500 years ago, much of Azufre and part of Planchón collapsed, forming the massive Río Teno debris avalanche, which traveled 95 km to reach Chile's Central Valley. Subsequently, Volcán Planchón II was formed. The youngest volcano, andesitic and basaltic-andesite Volcán Peteroa, consists of scattered vents between Azufre and Planchón. Peteroa has been active into historical time and contains a small steaming crater lake. Historical eruptions from the complex have been dominantly explosive, although lava flows were erupted in 1837 and 1937.