Maipo

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 34.164°S
  • 69.832°W

  • 5323 m
    17459 ft

  • 357021
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Maipo.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Maipo.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Maipo.

Maipo, a conical stratovolcano that straddles the Chile-Argentina border SE of Santiago, partially fills the 16 x 20 km Pleistocene Diamante caldera, which formed about 0.45 million years ago during an eruption that produced an about 350 cu km rhyolitic ignimbrite. The Pleistocene cones of Volcán Don Casimiro and Cerro Listado were formed on the SW rim and SW flank of the caldera, respectively. The post-caldera Maipo stratovolcano rises about 1900 m above the caldera floor and was constructed by strombolian-vulcanian explosions. It has a youthful appearance, and ashfall deposits overlie glacial ice. Several parasitic cones were constructed on the east flank of Maipo along a series on en échelon NE-trending fractures. Lava flows from one of these cones blocked drainages in 1826 inside the caldera, forming Lake Diamante on the eastern caldera floor.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1912 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1908 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1905 Oct 28 1905 Oct 30 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1881 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1869 Aug 24 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
[ 1837 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1835 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1833 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
[ 1831 Feb 16 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1829 Sep 26 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1826 Mar 1 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations East flank (Riso Patrón)
[ 1822 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1788 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Maipu

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Don Casimiro, Volcán Pyroclastic cone 3917 m 34° 12' 0" S 69° 55' 0" W
Listado, Volcán Cerro Stratovolcano 4250 m 34° 18' 0" S 69° 56' 0" W
Nicanor, Cerro Pyroclastic cone
Riso Patrón Pyroclastic cone

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Diamante Pleistocene caldera
The NW rim of Diamante caldera in the center of the image rises above the caldera floor in the foreground. The caldera was formed during voluminous rhyolitic explosive eruptions about 450,000 years ago that produced ashflows that extended radially more than 100 km from the caldera, covering much of the Central Valley of Chile and extending into Argentina. The conical snow-capped peak on the center horizon beyond rugged intervening peaks of the Andes is San José volcano.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Maipo volcano, seen here from the west, partially fills the Pleistocene Diamante caldera. The floor of the large 15 x 20 km caldera, which formed about 0.45 million years ago during an eruption that produced a 450 cu km ignimbrite, is visible below Maipo. The 5264-m-high basaltic-andesite stratovolcano has a relatively simple structure, but has a flank rhyodacitic lava-dome complex and pyroclastic cones on its eastern flank. Lava flows from these cones extend into Laguna Diamante on the eastern side of the caldera.

Photo by Wolfgang Foerster, courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
Conical Maipo volcano rises above the floor of Diamante caldera in this NASA Space Shuttle view (with north to the top). A series of flank vents on the eastern side of the volcano produced lava flows that give the western shoreline of Laguna Maipo and irregular outline; a lava flow in 1826 blocked drainages on the caldera floor, forming the lake. The 15 x 20 km Diamante caldera was formed during a major explosion eruption about 450,000 years ago.

NASA Space Station image ISS009-E-7182, 2004 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1995. Volcanes de Chile. Santiago: Instituto Geografico Militar, 635 p.

Harrington R, Amini H, Stern C R, Charrier R, 1984. The Maipo stratovolcano-caldera complex in the southern Andes of central Chile (abs). Eos, Trans Amer Geophys Union, 65: 1136.

Hildreth W, Moorbath S, 1988. Crustal contribution to arc magmatism in the Andes of central Chile. Contr Mineral Petr, 98: 455-489.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Moreno H, 1974. Airplane flight over active volcanoes of central-south Chile. Internatl Symp Volc Andean & Antarctic Volc Problems Guidebook, Excur D-3, 56 p.

Moreno H, Naranjo J A, 1991. The southern Andes volcanoes (33°-41° 30' S), Chile. 6th Geol Cong Chile, Excur PC-3, 26 p.

Newhall C G, Dzurisin D, 1988. Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1855: 1108 p, 2 vol.

Pichler H, Zeil W, 1971. The Cenozoic rhyolite-andesite association of the Chilean Andes. Bull Volc, 35: 424-452.

Sruoga P, Llambias E J, Fauque L, Schonwandt D, Repol D G, 2005. Volcanological and geochemical evolution of the Diamante caldera-Maipo volcano complex in the southern Andes of Argentina (34° 10' S). J South Amer Earth Sci, 19: 399-414.

Stern C R, Amini H, Charrier R, Godoy E, Herve F, Varela J, 1984, 1984. Petrochemistry and age of rhyolitic pyroclastics flows which occur along the drainage valleys of the Rio Maipo and Rio Cachapoal (Chile) and the Rio Chaucha and Rio Papagayos (Argentina). Rev Geol Chile, no 23: 39-52.

Volcano Types

Caldera
Stratovolcano
Pyroclastic cone(s)
Lava dome

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Dacite
Trachyte / Trachyandesite
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Rhyolite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
3,916
3,916
8,221
1,684,481

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Maipo Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.