Easter Island

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 27.15°S
  • 109.38°W

  • 511 m
    1676 ft

  • 356011
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Easter Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Easter Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Easter Island.

The triangular-shaped Easter Island, renowned for its dramatic megalithic statues of hand-carved basalt, sits atop the Sala y Gomez submarine ridge, which trends eastward from the East Pacific Rise. Easter Island, also known as Isla de Pascua or Rapa Nui, forms the westernmost territory of Chile. The island is composed of three principal volcanoes and more than 70 subsidiary vents. Rano Kau, which contains a flat-bottomed, 1-km-wide crater, and Poike volcano form the SW and east tips of the island, respectively, and are of Pleistocene age. The youngest and largest volcano, Terevaka, is a broad shield volcano of Pliocene-to-Pleistocene age at the northern leg of the triangular island, which is capped by many pyroclastic cones. The last stage of activity consisted of eruptions from multiple rift zones extending along the axes of the island and radially from them. The latest lava flows, at Hiva-Hiva near the west-central coast, are thought to be less than 2000 years old.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Easter Island. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Easter Island page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Rapa Nui | Pascua, Isla de


Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Anakena, Volcán Pyroclastic cone
Anamarama, Maunga Pyroclastic cone
Hani-Hani Pyroclastic cone
Ha'u Epa, Maunga Pyroclastic cone
Hiva Hiva, Maunga Pyroclastic cone
Keto Keto, Maunga Pyroclastic cone
Kou'a, Maunga Pyroclastic cone
Kuma, Maunga Pyroclastic cone
Mahatua, Volcán Pyroclastic cone
O Koro, Maunga Pyroclastic cone
Omo Anga, Maunga Pyroclastic cone
Opipi, Volcán Pyroclastic cone
Ori, Maunga Pyroclastic cone
Otu'u, Maunga Pyroclastic cone
Poike Shield volcano 370 m 27° 5' 30" S 109° 15' 0" W
Pu'i, Maunga Pyroclastic cone
Pukopuhi, Maunga Pyroclastic cone
Puku Ngaahaaha Pyroclastic cone
Rano Aroi Pyroclastic cone
Rano Kau Shield volcano 300 m 27° 11' 0" S 109° 26' 0" W
Rano Raraku Pyroclastic cone
Retu, Maunga Pyroclastic cone
Tangaroa, Maunga Pyroclastic cone
Tari Pyroclastic cone
Te Kahu Rea, Maunga Pyroclastic cone
Te Kauhanga
    Varu, Maunga
Pyroclastic cone
Te Puha Roa, Maunga Pyroclastic cone
Terevaka, Maunga Shield volcano 511 m 27° 5' 0" S 109° 23' 0" W
Toa Toa, Maunga Pyroclastic cone
Tongariki Pyroclastic cone
Vaka, Maunga Pyroclastic cone
Vao, Maunga
    Hao, Maunga
Pyroclastic cone


Craters
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Hanga o Tea Crater
Koe-Koe Fissure vent
Rano Aroi Fissure vent
Te Manavai Crater


Domes
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Orito, Maunga Dome 220 m 27° 10' 0" S 109° 25' 0" W
Parehe, Maunga Dome 27° 6' 0" S 109° 15' 0" W
Te Manavai Dome 27° 10' 30" S 109° 25' 30" W
Tea-Tea, Maunga Dome 27° 6' 0" S 109° 15' 0" W
Vai a Heva, Maunga Dome 27° 6' 0" S 109° 15' 0" W
Waves lap against the northern coast of Easter island. This view looks from Obahe to Mahatua with Volcán Poike, a shield volcano forming the eastern tip of the island, on the horizon. The trachytic lava domes of Tea-Tea are the small peaks on the left horizon. The triangle-shaped Easter Island, renowned for its dramatic megalithic statues of hand-carved basalt, sits atop the Sala y Gómez submarine ridge, which trends eastward from the East Pacific Rise. The island is composed of three principal volcanoes, Poike, Rano Kau, and Terevaka.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Baker P E, 1979. Geological aspects of volcano prediction. J Geol Soc London, 136: 341-345.

Baker P E, Buckley F, Holland J G, 1974. Petrology and geochemistry of Easter Island. Contr Mineral Petr, 44: 85-100.

Clark J G, Dymond J, 1977. Geochronology and petrochemistry of Easter and Sala y Gomez Islands: implications for the origin of the Sala y Gomez ridge. J Volc Geotherm Res, 2: 29-48.

Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1995. Volcanes de Chile. Santiago: Instituto Geografico Militar, 635 p.

Gonzalez-Ferran O, Mazzuoli R, Lahsen A, 2004. Geologia del complejo volcanico Isla de Pascua Rapa Nui. Centro Estudios Volc, Santiago - Chile, 1:30,000 geol map.

Haase K M, Stoffers P, Garbe-Schonberg C-D, 1997. The petrologic evolution of lavas from Easter Island and neighbouring seamounts, near-ridge hot spot volcanoes in the SE Pacific. J Petr, 38: 785-813.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Kaneoka I, Katsui Y, 1985. K-Ar ages of volcanic rocks from Easter Island. Bull Volc Soc Japan, 30: 33-36.

Vezzoli L, Acocella V, 2009. Easter Island, SE Pacific: an end-member type of hotspot volcanism. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 121: 869-886.

Volcano Types

Shield(s)
Caldera(s)
Lava dome(s)
Cinder cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Rhyolite
Minor
Trachyte / Trachyandesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
698
4,029
4,091
4,091

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Easter Island Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.