San Cristóbal

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 0.88°S
  • 89.5°W

  • 759 m
    2490 ft

  • 353120
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for San Cristóbal.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for San Cristóbal.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for San Cristóbal.

San Cristóbal Island consists of a densely vegetated western part and a lower, younger eastern part with many extremely youthful lava flows. The SW-side shield volcano morphologically resembles low-angle Hawaiian shields more than the steep-sided shields of Fernandina and Isabela Island. Most lava flows on the NE part of the island originated from SW-NE-trending fissures. Young lava flows have reached the sea, where some littoral cones formed. The latest eruptions were prehistorical in age, but are probably less than 1000 years old. Kicker Rock, two paired, steep-cliffed islands separated by a narrow cleft, is an enroded remnant of a tuff cone that forms one of the scenic highlights of the Galápagos, 5 km off the west coast of San Cristóbal.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from San Cristóbal. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the San Cristóbal page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Chatham

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Azul, Cerro Cone
Brujo, Cerro Tuff cone
Chivo, Cerro Cone
Kicker Rock Tuff cone
Leon Dormiente, El Tuff cone
Mundo, Cerro Cone
Patricio, Cerro Cone
The NW coast of San Cristóbal Island contains numerous young pyroclastic cones, spatter vents, and lava flows. The island consists of a densely vegetated SW part and a lower, younger NE part with many extremely youthful lava flows. The tip of Kicker Rock, two steep-cliffed islands separated by a narrow cleft, is barely visible on the center horizon. Kicker Rock is an eroded remnant of a tuff cone that forms one of the scenic highlights of the Galápagos, 5 km off the west coast of San Cristóbal.

Photo by Ed Vicenzi, 2002 (Smithsonian Institution).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Cox A, 1971. Paleomagnetism of San Cristobal Island, Galapagos. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 11: 152-160.

Geist D J, McBirney A R, Duncan R A, 1986. Geology and petrogenesis of lavas from San Cristobal Island, Galapagos archipelago. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 97: 555-566.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

McBirney A R, Williams H, 1969. Geology and petrology of the Galapagos Islands. Geol Soc Amer Mem, 118: 1-197.

Simkin T, 1984. Geology of Galapagos Islands. In: Perry R (ed) {Galapagos}, Oxford: Pergamon, p 15-41.

White W M, McBirney A R, Duncan R A, 1993. Petrology and geochemistry of the Galapagos Islands: Portrait of a pathological mantle plume. J Geophys Res, 98: 19,533-19,563.

Volcano Types

Shield
Caldera
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Minor
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
7,661
7,661
7,723
16,189

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of San Cristóbal Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.