Santa Cruz

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 0.62°S
  • 90.33°W

  • 864 m
    2834 ft

  • 353091
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Santa Cruz.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Santa Cruz.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Santa Cruz.

The highlands of the broad Santa Cruz shield volcano rise to the north above the renowned Charles Darwin Research Station at Academy Bay. The oval-shaped, 32 x 40 km wide island is capped by youthful pit craters and cinder cones with well-preserved craters that largely bury a shallow summit caldera. Older uplifted submarine lava flows are found on the NE part of the island and at the fault-delimited offshore island of Baltra. The highland scoria cones are grouped along an E-W belt parallel to recent fault scarps that border Academy Bay. The youngest lava flows were erupted from vents along the summit fissure and on the northern flank. Their fresh morphology and sparsely vegetated surfaces suggest they may be only a few thousand years old, although their ages are not known precisely.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Santa Cruz. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Santa Cruz page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Indefatigable


Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Chimney Mountain Cone
Crocker, Mount Cone
Red Hill Cone


Craters
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Cavagnaro Crater
Deep Crater Crater
Table Mountain Crater Crater
The highlands of the broad Santa Cruz shield volcano, seen here from the NE, are capped by youthful cinder cones with well-preserved craters. The scoria cones are grouped in an E-W belt parallel to recent fault scarps that border Academy Bay and largely bury a shallow summit caldera. Older uplifted submarine lava flows are found on the NE part of the island and at the fault-delimited offshore island of Baltra. No historical eruptions are known from Santa Cruz, the 2nd-most populated island of the Galápagos archipelago.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1978 (Smithsonian Institution).
Lava flows line the steep walls of a pit crater on Santa Cruz island. Note the person standing on the rim at the right for scale. Pit craters are formed by collapse following the withdrawal of magma along a rift zone. They differ from other craters in that their rims lack a mantle of explosive debris. In some cases, vertical-walled pit craters can be hundreds of meters deep.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1978 (Smithsonian Institution).
The broad shield volcano forming Santa Cruz Island is seen from its northern coast. The oval-shaped, 32 x 40 km wide island is capped by cinder cones with well-preserved craters that largely bury a shallow summit caldera. The highland scoria cones are grouped along an E-W belt parallel to recent fault scarps that border Academy Bay, location of the Charles Darwin Research Station.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2006 (Smithsonian Institution).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

McBirney A R, Williams H, 1969. Geology and petrology of the Galapagos Islands. Geol Soc Amer Mem, 118: 1-197.

Simkin T, 1984. Geology of Galapagos Islands. In: Perry R (ed) {Galapagos}, Oxford: Pergamon, p 15-41.

White W M, McBirney A R, Duncan R A, 1993. Petrology and geochemistry of the Galapagos Islands: Portrait of a pathological mantle plume. J Geophys Res, 98: 19,533-19,563.

Volcano Types

Shield
Caldera
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
8,529
8,529
8,800
18,434

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Santa Cruz Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.