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Volcán Ecuador straddles the equator at the NW end of Isabela Island. The western side of the volcano, the smallest of the six large shield volcanoes on Isabela, is broadly breached by edifice collapse, and youthful lava flows cover much of the caldera floor. Two large pyroclastic cones were constructed along the coast, and several chains of spatter cones and small scoria cones cross the caldera floor, which has a prominent bench on its southern side. A single dark-colored aa lava flow covers about half of the caldera floor. A number of young lava flows reach the coast to form Cape Berkeley, west of a large youthful-looking tuff cone. Extending from the outer eastern flanks of the main edifice is a line of NE-trending fissure-fed vents that connect Volcán Ecuador (also known as Cape Berkeley volcano) with Volcán Wolf. Volcán Ecuador is the only Isabela Island volcano without historical eruptions. However, the youthful morphology of its most recent lava flows resembles those of very recent flows on other Isabela Island volcanoes.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|1150 (after)||Unknown||Confirmed||0||Surface Exposure|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Cape Berkeley Volcano|
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|Grande, Cerro||Tuff cone|
|Punta Vincente Roca||Tuff cone|
|This dramatic Space Shuttle photo from a 1988 mission shows five major calderas of the Galápagos Islands. Caldera diameters capping these basasltic shield volcanoes range up to 8 km. At the lower left is Fernandina volcano. At the lower right is mostly vegetated Alcedo volcano on Isabela Island. Above and to the left is Darwin volcano, with the two prominent breached tuff cones, Tagus and Beagle, on its SW flank. Volcán Wolf is at the top of the photo, and Volcán Ecuador with its breached caldera forms the NW tip of Isabela Island.
Shuttle photo by National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA), 1988.
|Volcán Ecuador (left center) forms the tip of a peninsula straddling the equator at the NW end of Isabela Island. The western side of the volcano, the smallest of the six large shield volcanoes on Isabela, is breached nearly to sea level. A line of fissure-fed vents on the outer eastern flank can be seen connecting Volcán Ecuador with Volcán Wolf (upper right). Despite the absence of historical eruptions from Volcán Ecuador, the youthful morphology of its most recent lava flows resembles those of very recent flows on other Isabela Island volcanoes.
Photo by National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA), 1988.
|Volcán Ecuador, which straddles the equator at the NW end of Isabela Island, rises beyond a lava flow near Beagle tuff cone on the flanks of Darwin volcano. Ecuador is the smallest of the six large shield volcanoes on Isabela and is broadly breached to the coast on the side opposite this view. No historical eruptions are known; however, the youthful morphology of its most recent lava flows resembles those of very recent flows on other Isabela Island volcanoes. A line of NE-trending fissure-fed vents (right horizon) extends to the SE.
Photo by Ed Vicenzi, 2002 (Smithsonian Institution).
|An aerial view from the NE shows Volcán Ecuador with its large caldera breached to the SW. Erosion has extensively modified the lower outer flanks of the volcano. East flank fissures at the lower left feed fresh lava flows, and large pit craters dot the upper eastern flank of the volcano. A large pyroclastic cone constructed on the floor of the caldera can be seen near the coast at the upper right, and fresh lava flows blanket the caldera floor.
Photo by Patricio Ramon, 2004 (Instituto Geofisca, Escuela Politecnica Nacional).
|An aerial view of Volcán Ecuador from the south shows the large horseshoe-shaped caldera breached to the west that was formed when the volcano collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. The volcano straddles the equator at the NW end of Isabela Island. Two large pyroclastic cones were constructed along the coast, and smaller cones are found on the caldera floor. Extensive dark-colored lava flows (right) originate from a NE-trending line of fissures that extends from the outer eastern flanks of the main edifice.
Photo by Patricio Ramon, 2005 (Instituto Geofisca, Escuela Politecnica Nacional).
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Geist D, White W M, Albarede F, Harpp K, Reynolds R, Blichert-Toft J, Kurz M D, 2002. Volcanic evolution in the Galapagos: the dissected shield of Volcan Ecuador. Geochem Geophys Geosyst, 3(10): 1-32.
IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..
McBirney A R, Williams H, 1969. Geology and petrology of the Galapagos Islands. Geol Soc Amer Mem, 118: 1-197.
Rowland S K, Munro D C, Perez-Oviedo V, 1994. Volcan Ecuador, Galapagos Islands: erosion as a possible mechanism for the generation of steep-sided basaltic volcanoes. Bull Volc, 56: 271-283.
Simkin T, 1976. . (pers. comm.).