Reventador

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  • Ecuador
  • Ecuador
  • Stratovolcano
  • 2013 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 0.077°S
  • 77.656°W

  • 3562 m
    11683 ft

  • 352010
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

9 April-15 April 2014

IG reported that activity at Reventador remained high on 9-15 April; numerous explosions were detected each day. Steam-and-ash plumes rose less than 1 km above the crater and drifted W during 9-10 April. Lava flows down the SW flank were reported on 9 and 11 April. Clouds obscured views during 12-15 April.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



 Available Weekly Reports


2014: January | March | April
2013: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October
2012: January | February | March | April | August | September | October | November | December
2011: January | August
2010: February | April | May | August | September | October | November
2009: March | April | May | August | September | October | November
2008: July | August | November
2007: March | April | May | June | October
2005: January | April | May | June | July | August | September | November | December
2004: February | May | December
2003: January | February | March | May | July | October | November
2002: October | November | December


9 April-15 April 2014

IG reported that activity at Reventador remained high on 9-15 April; numerous explosions were detected each day. Steam-and-ash plumes rose less than 1 km above the crater and drifted W during 9-10 April. Lava flows down the SW flank were reported on 9 and 11 April. Clouds obscured views during 12-15 April.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


2 April-8 April 2014

IG reported that cloud cover occasionally prevented visual observations of Reventador during 2-8 April; activity remained high. A steam-and-ash plume rose 3 km and drifted E on 2 April, and a thermal camera detected hot material on the flanks. Four lava flows on the S and SE flanks were observed on 3 April. Ash emissions were observed the next day. On 5 April sporadic ash emissions rose 1 km and drifted W. On 6 April water vapor emissions with low amounts of ash rose 500 m and drifted NW. During 7-8 April lava flows continued to descend the S and SE flanks. On 8 April vapor emissions with small amounts of ash were observed.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


26 March-1 April 2014

IG reported that activity at Reventador increased on 25 March. At 1830 an explosion was followed by a pyroclastic flow that traveled 500 m down the flanks. Strombolian activity produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose 1.5 km above the crater. During 26-29 March continuous tremor was interspersed with explosions and long-period earthquakes. Although cloud cover often prevented crater views, video cameras showed a lava flow traveling down the S flank and incandescent material erupting from the crater. Emissions with small amounts of ash rose 1 km on 28 March. Ashfall was reported in Hosteria El Reventador and camp San Rafael on the flanks. A load roar reported at 0300 on 31 March was followed by observations of incandescent material traveling 1 km down the S flank. Cloud cover prevented visual observations the next day.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


22 January-28 January 2014

Based on information from IG, the Washington VAAC reported that on 22 January an ash plume from Reventador rose to an altitude of km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified in satellite images. IG noted that an explosions lasting several minutes was recorded.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 January-7 January 2014

Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that on 31 December an ash plume from Reventador rose to an altitude of km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified in satellite images due to weather clouds in the area but an occasional thermal anomaly was detected.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 October-5 November 2013

During 30 October through 5 November, IG reported that moderate activity from Reventador continued. Elevated seismicity included explosions (8-35 per day), long period earthquakes, and tremor related to emissions and fluid movement in the crust (harmonic tremor). Plumes of steam were frequently observed when the weather permitted; ash plumes were generated on 31 October, 2 November, and 5 November. Ashfall from these events reached the town of San Rafael on 31 October and 2 November; a pilot observed ash on 2 November at an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft). Observers heard roaring noises and sounds resembling "cannon shots" on 31 October and 1 November.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 September-24 September 2013

IG reported that seismicity remained elevated at Reventador during 18-24 September. Although cloud cover often prevented observations, ash plumes were occasionally observed. On 19 September an ash plume drifted W, and on 21 September multiple low-energy steam emissions contained small amounts of ash. Deposits from a pyroclastic flow that had descended the S flank were observed on 22 September.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


4 September-10 September 2013

IG reported that seismicity remained elevated at Reventador during 4-10 September. Although cloud cover often prevented observations, ash plumes were occasionally observed rising from the lava dome. On 6 September IG staff observed 1-km-long deposits from a pyroclastic flow that had descended the S flank after an explosion. Ash plumes rose 1-2 km above the lava dome during 6-7 September, and minor ash emissions were noted on 9 September.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


7 August-13 August 2013

IG reported that during 7-8 August explosions at Reventador ejected incandescent material onto the SW flank. Steam emissions were observed on 8 and 9 August, and on 10 August they contained ash and rose 1 km above the crater. Cloud cover prevented observations during 11-13 August; roaring was reported on 13 August.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


24 July-30 July 2013

IG reported that during 24-30 July seismic activity at Reventador remained high and was characterized by explosions, low-intensity emissions, and long-period earthquakes indicting fluid movement. Cloud cover mostly prevented visual observations. On 26 July an explosions generated a low-altitude ash plume that drifted W.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


17 July-23 July 2013

IG reported that during 17-19 July seismic activity at Reventador remained high; at times periods of increased seismicity were followed by relatively quiet episodes. The seismic network recorded long-period signals, rockfalls, explosions, and emissions. Based on reports from observers at camp San Rafael, cloud cover often prevented visual observations, although on 18 July a new lava flow on the E flank was observed with a video camera, and a gas-and-ash plume was observed rising 1 km. During 21-22 July gas plumes with low ash content rose to low heights.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


10 July-16 July 2013

IG reported that during 10-16 July seismic activity at Reventador was high; weather conditions mostly prevented visual observations of the crater. During partially clear views on 13 July, observers noted a new lava flow on the S flank. At 1500 on 15 July continuous tremor was detected, which intensified at 2000, and then decreased at midnight. Intense Strombolian activity during this time was characterized by variable-magnitude explosions and roaring. Explosions generated blocks that rolled down the flanks. Incandescence from the lava flow on the S flank was observed.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


19 June-25 June 2013

According to the Washington VAAC a pilot observed an emission from Reventador that rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. on 20 June. The VAAC also noted that seismic records from IG were consistent with an emission of ash or gas, and that satellite images did not detect ash.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 May-4 June 2013

The Washington VAAC reported that on 1 June gas emissions from Reventador possibly contained diffuse ash. Ash was not detected in satellite images.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 May-14 May 2013

IG reported that during the morning of 8 May incandescence from Reventador's crater was observed in addition to steam-and-ash plumes that rose 1 km above the crater and drifted NW. Cloud cover prevented observations the rest of the day and most of the time during 9-14 May. At 1700 on 10 May a steam plume with low ash content rose 1 km above the crater, and on 11 May a vapor plume rose 500 m and drifted SW.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


1 May-7 May 2013

According to the Washington VAAC, IG reported that on 1 May seismicity at Reventador was elevated, and an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images. On 2 May ash was not identified in images and seismicity decreased.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 April-16 April 2013

According to the Washington VAAC, on 12 April an ash plume from Reventador was observed in visible satellite images along with a corresponding thermal anomaly in short wave infrared images.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 March-19 March 2013

IG reported that the seismic network at Reventador recorded multiple explosions during 12-17 March. Observers reported falling and rolling incandescent material on the S flank on 12 March. Explosions produced ash plumes that rose more than 1 km and drifted SW. The next day ash plumes rose as high as 3 km. On 15 and 17 March explosions were detected by the seismic network; cloud cover prevented visual observations. On 16 March an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted W.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


27 February-5 March 2013

According to the Washington VAAC, the IG reported that on 2 March lava flows were observed, and a gas-and-ash plume rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. About an hour later a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to the same altitude. No ash plumes were identified in satellite imagery, however a weak thermal anomaly was observed during 2-3 March.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 February-12 February 2013

IG reported that seismicity at Reventador was high during 6-7 February and moderate during 8-12 February; explosions were detected daily. An ash plume rose 3 km and drifted S on 7 February, and ashfall was reported in areas near the volcano on 9 February. Cloud cover often prevented observations.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


30 January-5 February 2013

During an overflight of Reventador on 29 January scientists observed an explosion and a steam-and-ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the lava dome. Since November the dome had significantly grown to at least 100 m higher than the E rim, and about 20 lava flows had traveled down the N, SE, and S flanks.

During 29 January-5 February seismicity remained high. Cloud cover often prevented observations although emissions were observed; steam-and-ash plumes rose 2-4 km and drifted W and NW on most days. Crater incandescence was observed at night during 29-30 January.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


23 January-29 January 2013

IG reported that in the morning of 22 January tremor at Reventador increased significantly and signals indicating rockfalls were detected. Explosions were heard during the afternoon and evening that same day. After an explosion in the crater a gas-and-steam plume was observed rising 1.5 km above the crater. Lava flows traveled down the SW and N flanks. The lava dome had grown at least 100 m above the crater rim.

During 23-29 January seismicity remained high. Cloud cover mostly prevented visual observations; during 22-23 January lava flow were visible at night, and on 24 January a steam-and-ash plume rose 2 km. Gas plumes rose as high as 1 km and drifted NW and W on 29 January.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


16 January-22 January 2013

IG reported that during 16-21 January seismicity at Reventador was moderate; cloud cover prevented visual observations. Incandescence in the crater was observed at night during 21-22 January. Starting at 0900 on 22 January seismicity at Reventador increased and was characterized by constant low-frequency, high-energy tremor detected by seismic stations around the volcano. Observers reported lava fountains in the crater and lava flows on the flanks, both of which became more intense at 1800. Explosions produced white-to-light-gray plumes that rose 2 km and drifted W.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


5 December-11 December 2012

IG reported that seismicity at Reventador was high during 5-11 December and indicated multiple explosions almost daily. Plumes were observed although cloud cover often prevented visual observations. On 5 December a steam plume rose 1.5 km and drifted NW. The next day a steam-and-ash plume rose 2 km above the lava dome and drifted SE. A steam-and-ash plume rose 1 km on 8 December and drifted WSW, towards Chaco. Another steam-and-ash plume was observed on 11 December.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


21 November-27 November 2012

IG reported that scientists aboard an overflight of Reventador on 23 November observed steam-and-gas emissions with slight amounts of ash rising 500 m above the lava dome and drifting WSW. The lava dome had intense fumarolic activity and there was a new crater at the summit of the dome, which was filled with ash and large blocks. A thermal camera measured temperatures in the dome of about 300 degrees Celsius. Lava flows continued to be active on the dome flanks, and elongated block-and-ash deposits were also visible on the flanks.

According to the Washington VAAC, the IG reported that on 24 November an ash plume from Reventador rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery due to cloud cover, but a thermal anomaly was detected.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 November-20 November 2012

IG reported that seismicity at Reventador indicated falling rock and explosions during 14-15 November. Cloud cover prevented visual confirmation.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


7 November-13 November 2012

On 9 November, IG reported that since February Reventador began a new phase of activity characterized by lava flows from the crater, steam plumes, and thermal anomalies detected in satellite images. The lava flows traveled as far as 2 km down the N and S flanks, and steam plumes rose 200-500 m above the crater. Field visits by volcanologists in recent months confirmed that the lava dome in the crater had continued to grow above the rim, becoming the highest point of the volcano. Blocks from the lava dome and lava-flow fronts rolled down the flanks. IG noted that during 3-4 November emissions increased; a steam-and-ash plume rose 3 km above the crater. The seismic network detected an increase in the magnitude of volcanic tremor. Steam-and-gas plumes contained ash within the previous few days.

According to the Washington VAAC, the IG reported that on 9 November an ash emission from Reventador rose to an unknown height. On 13 November a gas-and-ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery on either day.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 October-6 November 2012

The IG reported that although cloud cover often prevented observations of Reventador, plumes were observed almost daily. During 31 October-1 November and 3 November plumes rose 1.5-3 km above the crater and drifted NW. At about 0400 on 5 November a steam-and-ash plume rose 3 km. An ash plume rose 2 km and drifted NW at 0600.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


19 September-25 September 2012

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Reventador drifted 22 km SW on 20 September.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 August-14 August 2012

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported a possible ash emission from Reventador on 11 August. The next day a well-defined thermal anomaly was detected and an ash plume drifted W. According to the VAAC, IG confirmed the ash plume, noting that it rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 April-24 April 2012

IG reported that on 18 April a plume with low ash content rose 2 km above Reventador's crater and drifted NW. A steam plume rose 100 m above the crater the next day. Weather conditions prevented observations during 20-23 April.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


21 March-27 March 2012

IG reported that during 21-25 March storm clouds prevented observations of Reventador. During 25-26 March incandescence from a high part of the volcano was observed. On 26 March a steam emission rose 500 m above the crater. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and seismic data, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume drifted 25 km NNW on 26 March. Later that day the ash had dissipated and seismicity decreased.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 February-21 February 2012

IG reported that activity continued at Reventador during 15-21 February. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly on the NE flank from the lava flow that was observed on 12 February. Clouds prevented views on 17, 19, and 21 February. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported an ash plume that drifted 19 km SE on 16 February. IG observed an ash plume that rose 100 m above the crater on 18 February.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 February-14 February 2012

IG reported that during 10-13 February new activity from Reventador was detected. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly on 10 February. Based on pilot observations, the Washington VAAC reported an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. On 11 February ash-and-steam emissions drifted NW. Seismicity increased on 12 February and a lava flow descended the NE flank during 12-13 February. Crater incandescence was observed during 10-13 February.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 January-10 January 2012

IG reported that staff conducting fieldwork at Reventador during 6-7 January observed constant emissions of gas-and-steam rising about 300 m above the crater and drifting WNW. The emissions originated from a growing lava dome that was a few tens of meters above the crater rim and almost filled the base.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


3 August-9 August 2011

The IG reported that scientists conducting an overflight of Reventador on 14 July noted that the lava dome at the top of the 2008 cone continued to grow, filling the crater. The dome had reached the same height as the highest part of the crater rim, formed during 2002. Intense fumarolic activity produced continuous plumes. The dome was thought to have formed during 2011, growing at a rapid rate and producing high temperatures. IG also noted that seismicity had increased starting in May but was more pronounced during the previous few weeks. During 3-9 August cloud cover prevented observations of the lava dome, but the seismic network detected long-period and explosion-type earthquakes.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


5 January-11 January 2011

Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that on 4 January an ash plume from Reventador rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. Cloud cover prevented clear satellite observations of the volcano. A subsequent report stated that IG noted low seismicity, no reports of ashfall, and that satellite imagery showed no ash emissions.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 November-9 November 2010

Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that on 2 November an ash plume from Reventador rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. Cloud cover prevented clear satellite observations of the volcano.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 October-12 October 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from IG, the Washington VAAC reported that on 6 October a small ash cloud from Reventador drifted NE. IG also reported that a steam plume rose 1 km above the crater on that same day.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 September-5 October 2010

According to the Washington VAAC, the IG reported ash over Reventador on 30 September. The VAAC stated that a diffuse plume was observed in satellite imagery drifting NW, although ash was not identified.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 September-28 September 2010

The IG reported that on 28 September three seismic events from Reventador were recorded. Cloud cover prevented observations during the first event. During the second period of increased seismicity, observers noted that a steam plume with a small amount of ash rose 400-500 m above the crater and drifted N. The third episode was accompanied by a steam-and-ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater and drifted NW. Ash fell on Reventador.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


8 September-14 September 2010

The Washington VAAC reported that on 9 September an ash plume from Reventador at an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. was observed by a pilot.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 August-31 August 2010

The Washington VAAC reported that on 30 August an ash plume was observed near Reventador by a pilot. Ash was not seen in satellite imagery.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 May-1 June 2010

The IG reported a lahar on Reventador's E flank, detected for 90 minutes by the seismic network on 25 May. It destroyed a bridge over the Marker River, disrupting the route from Baeza to Lago Agrio.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


5 May-11 May 2010

The IG reported that during 5-9 May observations of Reventador were not possible because of weather. The Washington VAAC reported that on 7 May an ash plume seen by a pilot rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. Cloud cover prevented satellite observations of the area. On 8 May the IG noted a small lahar inside the caldera.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 April-4 May 2010

The IG reported that on 29 April an explosion from Reventador produced a steam plume with low ash content. Meteorological clouds mostly prevented observations during 30 April-4 May.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


21 April-27 April 2010

The IG reported that on 20 April scientists conducting an overflight of Reventador saw steam-and-gas emissions. They also observed an explosion generate a pyroclastic flow that traveled 200 m down the S flank. Deposits from previous pyroclastic flows were seen on the same flank. Explosions generated steam-and-gas plumes with low ash content during 20-22 April. Weather clouds prevented views of the volcano in satellite imagery on 23 April, although a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. On 26 April a steam-and-ash plume rose 500 m above the crater.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 April-13 April 2010

The IG reported that during 7-13 April observations of Reventador were not possible because of weather. The Washington VAAC reported that on 8 April an ash plume seen by pilots rose to altitudes of 4.6-6.7 km (15,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Cloud cover prevented satellite observations of the area. The VAAC also noted that seismicity was elevated.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 February-23 February 2010

The MODIS satellite detected a thermal anomaly over Reventador on 14 February. Based on information from the Guayaquil MWO, the Washington VAAC reported an ash emission on 18 February. Ash was not identified in satellite imagery. IG reported that seismic signals indicated an emission that day, but weather conditions prevented visual observations.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts Team, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 November-24 November 2009

Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that on 20 November an ash plume from Reventador rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. A thermal anomaly was detected on satellite imagery.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 November-17 November 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 14 November ash plumes from Reventador drifted 10-20 km WNW and W. An intermittent thermal anomaly was also detected.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 November-10 November 2009

Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that on 5 November an ash plume from Reventador rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Ash was not seen in satellite imagery, although meteorological clouds were present. IG reported that an ash plume rose 500 m above the crater on 7 November.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 October-27 October 2009

The IG reported that on 21 October, steam-and-gas plumes from Reventador with little to no ash content rose 2-4 km above the crater and drifted NW, W, and S. An explosion that day ejected incandescent material from the crater; blocks rolled down the flanks. On 22 October, a few explosions generated ash-and-steam plumes with little to no ash content that rose 4 km and drifted NW, E, and SE. Observations during an overflight revealed a small lava flow on the N flank and a larger flow with four branches on the S flank. Some of the base of the lava dome had been removed, and small spines were present, especially on the S side of the dome. Thermal images revealed that material in the crater was 400 degrees Celsius and the lava-flow fronts were 250 degrees Celsius. Cloudy weather prevented visual observations during 23-26 October. Roaring noises were heard on 25 October.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


14 October-20 October 2009

The IG reported that field observations of Reventador on 16 and 17 September confirmed the presence of a lava flow on the S flank of the cone. Gas and steam emissions were noted, as was growth of the lava dome. Thermal anomalies over the crater area were detected in satellite imagery on 6, 11, and 13 October. On 14 October, seismicity increased and harmonic tremor was detected. A seismic station on the NE flank of the cone detected rockfalls. Several people living in the area reported roaring noises and observed slight incandescence from the crater during the previous few nights.

During an overflight on 16 October, scientists saw the lava dome and a lava flow on the N flank. Bluish gases were emitted. According to a thermal camera, the incandescent parts in the crater were about 300 degrees Celsius. Other observers heard roaring noises and sounds resembling "cannon shots." Incandescent blocks were ejected from the crater, and steam and gases rose 100 m and drifted SW. Incandescent material was seen on the S flank. On 17 October, incandescence on the S flank was seen and noises similar the previous day were again heard. A small gray plume was seen the next day. On 19 October, thermal anomalies were again detected on satellite imagery. During an overflight, blue gas plumes were seen. The lava flow on the S flank occupied a large area and was divided into two branches.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


30 September-6 October 2009

Based on information from IG, the Washington VAAC reported that on 4 October an ash plume from Reventador drifted W. Ash was not seen in satellite imagery, although meteorological clouds were present. An occasional thermal anomaly was seen, however.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 September-22 September 2009

Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that on 21 September a plume from Reventador rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not seen in satellite imagery, although meteorological clouds were present.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 August-18 August 2009

The IG reported that seismic tremor from Reventador was sporadically detected during 21 July-3 August. On 4 August, seismicity increased and periods of tremor frequently saturated the seismic stations. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite imagery on 1 and 2 August became more intense on 4, 5, and 10 August. On 6 August, a steam plume rose 1.2 km above the crater and drifted W. Incandescent blocks were ejected from the crater and fell onto the flanks. Thermal images taken from a location 7 km E of Reventador revealed a linear area of higher temperatures, confirming the presence of a new lava flow on the S flank. Incandescence in the crater was seen during observations on 9 August. According to the Washington VAAC, IG reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (11,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW on 15 August.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 May-26 May 2009

Based on a pilot observation and a SIGMET notice, the Washington VAAC reported that on 26 May a diffuse ash plume from Reventador rose to an altitude of 6.4 km (21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Thermal anomalies were intermittently seen on satellite imagery. Gas plumes with some possible ash were noted later that day.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 May-19 May 2009

The Washington VAAC reported that, although ash from Reventador was observed by IG on 15 May, an ash signature or a thermal anomaly was not detected in satellite imagery.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 April-5 May 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 1 May a thermal anomaly over Reventador was noted along with a possible low-level plume drifting W. The IG reported to the VAAC lava and gas emissions, and possible smoke from burning vegetation, but little to no ash.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 April-28 April 2009

The IG reported that seismicity from Reventador decreased to low levels on 26 March, after the seismic network had detected an earthquake swarm the same day. On 23 April, increased seismicity was characterized by long-period events interspersed with bands of spasmodic and harmonic tremor. Observers reported that steam plumes with low ash content rose to altitudes of 5.6-6.6 km (18,400-21,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Intense noises from the volcano were also reported. A thermal anomaly and a steam plume drifting 26 km WSW were detected on satellite imagery.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


25 March-31 March 2009

The IG reported that seismicity from Reventador increased during 25-26 March. On 26 March, the seismic network detected an earthquake swarm consisting of long-period and hybrid events, interspersed with bands of harmonic tremor. Observers reported steam emissions with low ash content.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


19 November-25 November 2008

Inclement weather prevented observations of Reventador during 19-23 November. A seismic station situated on the NE flank of the central cone recorded a high number of rockfall signals that presumably originated from the active lava-flow fronts.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


12 November-18 November 2008

The IG reported that slight incandescence from Reventador's crater was seen at night during 11-12 November. Inclement weather prevented observations during 13-16 November. On 17 and 18 November, a seismic station situated on the NE flank of the central cone recorded a high number of rockfall signals that presumably originated from the active lava-flow fronts. Steam emissions rose from the crater.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


5 November-11 November 2008

The IG reported that SOTE (Sistema de Oleoducto Transecuatoriano) personnel and residents near Reventador observed incandescence in the crater on 7 November. The reports were confirmed by the presence of thermal anomalies in satellite imagery. The next day, seismicity increased and a steam-and-ash plume rose to an approximate altitude of 5.6 km (18,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Incandescent blocks were ejected from the inner crater to the S. Residents in El Chaco (about 35 km SE) and in the Quijos area heard strong explosions and saw steam plumes with low ash content. A pilot reported that a steam plume with little ash content at an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted NW. On 9 November incandescent blocks were ejected 100 m into the air, and roaring and "cannon shot" sounds were reported. Strombolian activity and two lava flows that descended the N and S flanks of the central cone were observed using a permanent camera. Slight ashfall was noted in Cayambe, about 55 km WNW. A thermal anomaly was detected by satellite imagery on 9 and 10 November. On 10 November, seismicity considerably decreased and gas emissions continued. The lava flows continued to advance.

According to a news article, officials suspended flights into Quito airport due to ash plumes on 10 November for three hours as a preventative measure.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press


6 August-12 August 2008

The IG reported that steam-and-gas from Reventador was emitted during 6-8 August. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night on 8 August.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


30 July-5 August 2008

The IG reported that seismicity from Reventador decreased during 30-31 July. On 31 July, steam-and-gas plumes with a low ash content were detected on satellite imagery and drifted W and SW. On 1 August, steam-and-gas plumes were emitted and a lava flow in the caldera was active. Diffuse ash emissions were noted on 2 August. On 3 August, IG scientists observed the lava flow in the caldera and estimated that it advanced at a rate of 100 m per day. They also heard sporadic roaring noises. Gas-and-steam plumes were noted on 5 August.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


23 July-29 July 2008

The IG reported that the number of earthquakes per day from Reventador increased during July and were the greatest on 24 and 25 July. At 1500 on 27 July, continuous seismic tremor was registered and was followed by observations of incandescence around the crater. Thermal anomalies were also identified on satellite imagery. At 1900 explosions produced ash plumes and ejected incandescent material that fell onto and rolled down the flanks. On 28 July, ash plumes drifted NW and W. Ashfall was reported in Olmedo, about 50 km NW. Later that day, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4-6 km (13,100-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. On 29 July, steam plumes rose from the crater and drifted NW. A sulfur smell was reported at areas around the volcano. A lava flow traveled S.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


10 October-16 October 2007

Based on information from the Guayaquil MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that an eruption from Reventador on 11 October produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. Ash was not observed on satellite imagery due to cloud cover.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 June-26 June 2007

Based on seismic interpretation, IG reported that lahars occurred on the flanks of Reventador on 20, 21, and 23 June. Clouds inhibited visual observations during 20-24 June.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


13 June-19 June 2007

Based on seismic interpretation, IG reported that lahars occurred on the flanks of Reventador on 15 and 19 June. According to the Washington VAAC, the IG reported that activity on 18 June possibly produced ash plumes that drifted NW. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 May-29 May 2007

Based on information from IG, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Reventador rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. on 18 May and drifted NW. Ash was not observed on satellite imagery.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 May-22 May 2007

On 16 May, IG reported that a steam plume from Reventador rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (11,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted to the NW. The plume was visible on satellite imagery. On 18 May, strong rains resulted in a lahar that lasted approximately 40 minutes. A lahar was also noted on 22 May. Visual observations were hindered during most of the reporting period due to inclement weather.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


25 April-1 May 2007

On 27 April, a steam plume from Reventador rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. Later that night, incandescent material was ejected from the crater. On 30 April, a steam plume was observed on satellite imagery drifting NW. Based on the Guayaquil MWO and satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) and drifted NW. Visual observations were hindered during 25 April-1 May due to inclement weather.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 April-24 April 2007

On 18, 20, and 23 April, steam-and-gas emissions from Reventador hung near the summit. On 18 April, a plume was seen drifting NW on satellite imagery. On 20 April, a bluish haze of gases was observed. Clouds occasionally inhibited views of the summit during 18-24 April.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


11 April-17 April 2007

On 11 April, a steam plume from Reventador rose to an altitude of 3.8 km (12,500 ft) a.s.l. Visual observations were hindered during 12-17 April due to inclement weather. On 13 April, the lava flow on the S flank, first observed on 28 March, was 15 m thick and possibly active.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


4 April-10 April 2007

Incandescent blocks ejected from the summit of Reventador that subsequently rolled down the S flanks were observed at night during 3-4 April. Satellite imagery revealed ash plumes drifting W and a large thermal anomaly over the crater. On 4 April, a plume rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,100 ft) a.s.l. Crater incandescence was observed on 4 and 6 April and "cannon shots" were heard on 6 April. Ash-and-steam emissions were observed during 8-9 April. Steam emissions from the flanks on 8 April possibly originated from a lava flow.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


28 March-3 April 2007

On 28 March, observers reported roaring noises and an ash column from Reventador that rose to an altitude of 5.6 km (18,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. A small lava flow traveled 200 m down the S flank. Incandescent material and ash emissions were observed during 29-31 March. On 1 April, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (24,900 ft) a.s.l. and incandescent rocks were ejected about 50 m above the crater. Incandescent material was again seen at the summit on 2 April. The Washington VAAC reported that a strong hotspot was present on satellite imagery during 1-3 April. Based on pilot reports, IG reported that a steam-and-gas plume with little ash content rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W on 3 April.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 March-27 March 2007

IG reported that during early March, the number of tectonic earthquakes from Reventador increased. Steam-and-ash plumes were sporadically visible and rose to altitudes of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. occasionally during 8-22 March. On 21 March, noises were reported. The next day, seismic signals changed and indicated possible emissions. On 24 March, local people saw ash plumes and incandescent material near the crater and heard roaring noises. An explosion produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 6.6 km (21,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Based on reports from IG, the Washington VAAC reported an ash plume to altitudes of 3.7-7 km (12,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. that drifted NE and WNW during 26-27 March. A thermal anomaly was present on satellite imagery during 24-27 March.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 December-3 January 2006

IG reported that during 19-25 December, seismicity was at low levels at Reventador and several small explosions occurred. According to the Washington VAAC, satellite imagery showed an ash plume at a height around 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. extending NW on 29 December.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 November-22 November 2005

During 7-13 November, the number of earthquakes at Reventador increased slightly in comparison to the previous week. Small explosions produced ash plumes that rose to a height of ~4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 November-15 November 2005

During 31 October to 6 November, seismicity was at low levels at Reventador and several small explosions occurred. Based on information from IG, the Washington VAAC reported that ash from an explosion on 12 November rose to a height of ~3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 September-4 October 2005

During 19-25 September, several small explosions occurred at Reventador. An explosion on 20 September produced an ash plume to a height of ~5.8 m (19,000 ft) a.s.l. Small amounts of ash fell in the towns of El Chaco, San Francisco de Borja, and Baeza. During the report week, there was a reduction in the number of earthquakes at the volcano.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


21 September-27 September 2005

During 21-27 September, there were intermittent emissions of ash from Reventador, with the highest rising plumes reaching ~8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. on 24 September. Hot spots were occasionally visible on satellite imagery during the report week.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 September-20 September 2005

On 1 and 2 September, lahars traveled down Reventador's flanks. During 5-11 September, there was a substantial decrease in seismicity at Reventador, except for tremor, in comparison to the previous week. Pilots reported ash clouds on 13 and 15 September at a height of ~7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. No ash was visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 August-6 September 2005

During 22-28 August, there was a decrease in activity at Reventador in comparison to the previous week. Seismicity and gas emissions decreased at the volcano, and no surficial changes were observed. On 1 September a pilot reported an ash cloud to the Washington VAAC, but no ash was visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 August-23 August 2005

Volcanic activity continued at Reventador during 18-21 August, with ash plumes rising to a maximum height of ~5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. on 18 August. A hotspot was occasionally visible on satellite imagery during the report period.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 August-16 August 2005

A pilot observed ash from Reventador on 11 August at 1150 at heights between 3.7 km and 6.4 km (12,000 and 21,000 ft.) a.s.l. IG reported that on 13 August a narrow plume of ash was visible drifting W.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 August-9 August 2005

Based on information from IG, the Washington VAAC reported a possible ash cloud over the volcano at 1818 on 4 August. No ash was detected in satellite imagery through 1815 due to cloud cover.

Sources: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


27 July-2 August 2005

Ash emissions occurred at Reventador during 27 July to 2 August, with plumes rising to 5.2 km (~17,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 July-26 July 2005

During 7-17 July, scientists noted that a lava flow (lava number 5) was no longer flowing in a direction that threatened a highway or pipe lines. In addition, plumes of steam, gas, and ash rose to heights of 0.5-2 km above the crater (13,300-18,200 ft a.s.l.) and typically drifted NW.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


13 July-19 July 2005

Based on information from IG, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash eruption at Reventador on 18 July at 1115 produced a plume to ~3.7 km (~12,100 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 July-12 July 2005

As of 6 July, harmonic tremor, occasional explosions, and long-period and volcano-tectonic earthquakes continued at Reventador. Strong Strombolian fountaining was observed during the evening and one of the lobes of a lava flow (Lava number 5) was advancing down the caldera wall following the Río Marker. The flow abruptly slowed to ~20 m/day in comparison to flow-front velocities of ~70 m/day during 19-23 June, and ~50 m/day during 23-30 June. Lava number 5 was ~1.2 km from a steep incline, where it could begin to rapidly descend to the alluvial fan where the highway and petroleum pipeline are located.

Based on information from IG, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume extended N of the volcano's summit on 11 July. No ash was visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 June-5 July 2005

During 30 June to 5 July, gas-and-ash emissions continued at Reventador. Plumes rose to a maximum height of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 June-28 June 2005

On 24 June the Geophysical Institute observed ash over the volcano moving NW. No ash or hot spot activity was visible in satellite data, but detection may have been hindered by low-level weather clouds.

Sources: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


15 June-21 June 2005

According to IG, during 11-12 June lobes of a lava flow traveled down Reventador's S and SE flanks. A lava flow that was traveling SE earlier in June had ceased to move. Plumes of gas-and-ash rose 1-2 km above the volcano's crater and typically drifted NW. The Washington VAAC reported that low-level gas-and-ash emissions continued during 15-21 June.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 June-14 June 2005

During the last week of May, there was an increase in the number of long-period earthquakes at Reventador associated with a new lava flow. A lava flow emitted previously continued to travel SE towards the Marquer and Montana rivers. During 2-3 June, incandescence was visible in the crater. On 6 June ash-and-gas plumes were emitted from the volcano.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 May-24 May 2005

Based on information from IG, the Washington VAAC reported that an eruption at Reventador on 19 May around 0900 produced a NW-drifting ash plume to 3.7-4.9 km (12,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery due to meteorological clouds near the volcano.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 April-26 April 2005

Based on a pilot report to the Guayaquil MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that ash from Reventador was seen on 25 April around 0826 at a height of ~7.9 km (~26,000 ft) a.s.l. drifting S. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 April-12 April 2005

A change in seismic behavior was noted at Reventador during 1-8 April that was marked by episodes of tremor. About 45 tremor episodes occurred regularly during the week. During the evening of 6 April, incandescence was visible at the volcano. Based on information from IG, the Washington VAAC reported that ash from Reventador was visible on 8 April around 1430 at a height of ~4.6 km (15,000 ft a.s.l.). Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 January-18 January 2005

On 14 January at 0700, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume was observed at Reventador. The plume rose to a height of ~4.5 km a.s.l. On 16 January at 0430, satellite imagery indicated a brief emission of steam and very light ash that rose to ~6 km a.s.l. and moved E.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 January-12 January 2005

On 4 June, a hotspot and a steam-and-gas plume extending NW of Reventador were visible on satellite imagery. The plume was below 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 December-28 December 2004

During 19-26 December, seismic signals at Reventador revealed that lava emission that began in early November continued. Seismic signals also suggested that mudflows occurred on 17 and 19 December.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


15 December-21 December 2004

On 16 December, a block lava flow from Reventador extended more than 1.5 km from the 2002 crater through a breach in the S portion of the crater wall. The flow front was ~600 m below the central vent and extended to the ESE. Lava extrusion from a vent in the crater likely began in early November, accompanied by a dramatic increase in volcano-tectonic earthquakes.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


1 December-7 December 2004

According to the Washington VAAC, satellite imagery on 2 December showed an ash plume from Reventador at a height of ~5 km extending W of the volcano. Also, IG reported to the VAAC that ash was seen drifting NW on 4 December. A hot spot was visible on infrared satellite imagery. On 4 December, Strombolian activity was seen in Reventador's crater. Since 9 November, volcanic material continued to gradually fill the crater and generate a lava flow down one flank. Activity was accompanied by a gas column that reached a maximum height of 3 km.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 May-25 May 2004

Strong rain on 15 May caused several lahars to travel down Reventador's flanks. They persisted through 16 May.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


12 May-18 May 2004

During 3-9 May, the level of seismicity at Reventador did not change significantly. During 7-8 May, lahars traveled down Reventador's flanks, disrupting travel on the Chaco-Lumbaquí road for about a day.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


25 February-2 March 2004

During 16-22 February, the average number of long-period earthquakes (4.1) and volcano-tectonic earthquakes (17) at Reventador nearly doubled in comparison to the previous week. Satellite imagery on 21 February showed a plume from Reventador drifting NNE.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


5 November-11 November 2003

Many unconsolidated deposits remain on Reventador's flanks following its sudden eruption on 3 November 2002, and strong rain fell there during 7 and 9 November 2003. During those days seismometers recorded signals interpreted as lahars. In addition, after these signals diminished, the seismometers detected the more subtle signals of tremor. Multiple volcanic earthquakes per day also occurred.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


15 October-21 October 2003

During 13-19 October at Reventador, 77 volcano-tectonic and 17 long-period earthquakes were recorded, averaging eleven and two earthquakes per day, respectively. Lahars were reported on 13, 14, and 19 October. The lahar on 13 October was the largest of the week, lasting ~75 minutes.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


16 July-22 July 2003

Rainfall at Reventador during 7-13 July remobilized ash on the volcano's flanks, causing lahars down Montana River. Travel on the Baeza highway was interrupted. Permanent tremor associated with degassing was recorded.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


7 May-13 May 2003

Heavy rainfall (200 mm in less than 24 hours) at Reventador on 6 May led to the remobilization of ash that was deposited on the volcano's flanks during the November 2002 eruption. Lahars traveled down the volcano's SE flank via Marker and Reventador gorges. According to IG, seismic signals indicated that lahars occurred in seven main pulses, with the longest pulse lasting ~2 hours. Lahars crushed a portion of the sole petroleum pipeline in Ecuador, located on the volcano's SE flank, and dragged it 22 m. According to news reports, about 5,600 barrels of crude oil escaped the damaged pipeline and entered Reventador River. News reports also stated that a large area of the Amazon jungle was polluted. Lahars also destroyed a bridge and blocked a highway that crosses the Amazon.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), IRIB News, El Comercio, Reuters


5 March-11 March 2003

During 1-7 March, lahars continued to travel down Reventador's flanks as they had for several weeks. On 2 March lahars descended Marker Gorge, disrupting travel in the area. On the 3rd lahars traveled down Marker and Reventador gorges. Flooding occurred on the 4th. During the report period, seismicity and gas emissions remained at low levels, and there was no indication of increased volcanism.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


26 February-4 March 2003

Heavy rain fall at Reventador caused lahars to flow down Márker gorge on 23 February, affecting travel in the area. On the 24th, lahars traveled mainly down Márker and Reventador gorges. On the 28th, rain caused small lahars in Márker, Reventador, and Montana gorges. During 22-28 February, seismicity remained at low levels, only small amounts of steam were emitted from the volcano, and there was no indication of increased volcanism.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


19 February-25 February 2003

During 20-21 February, heavy rain mixed with fine volcanic material on Reventador's flanks, generating mudflows that traveled down the Montana River. The mud flows obstructed travel on a highway. During 15-21 February, seismic activity remained at low levels and there was no indication of increased volcanism. IG stated that since the rainy season is beginning near Reventador, residents must be aware of the danger of possible mudflows.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


8 January-14 January 2003

During 10-14 January, volcanic and seismic activity were relatively low at Reventador. On the 10th several lahars traveled down the Marquer and Reventador rivers. Lava flows continued to slowly advance and steam plumes were seen rising above the volcano.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)


18 December-24 December 2002

During 18-23 December, volcanic and seismic activity were low at Reventador. Seismicity was characterized by low-frequency tremor. No new activity was recorded at the volcano.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 December-17 December 2002

During 12-15 December, volcanic and seismic activity was low at Reventador; however, weather clouds thwarted visual observations.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 December-10 December 2002

Low-level seismicity continued at Reventador through 8 December. White emission columns were observed on the afternoon of 3 December, but meteorological clouds prevented observations during most of the week. White steam-and-gas emissions were seen again on 7 December rising about 500 m above the summit. There were no reports of lahars.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 November-3 December 2002

During 26 November- 1 December, Reventador mainly emitted gas and steam and occasionally small amounts of ash, and seismicity was low. IG stressed to the public that the sulfuric odor in the city of Quito was not indicative of renewed volcanism. During a flight over the volcano on 27 November, IG scientists determined that reports of a second lava flow made the previous week were false; rather, a pyroclastic flow had descended the volcano's NE flank. They also confirmed that a lava flow on the volcano's E flank had been emitted from a small crater that opened ~600 m below the volcano's summit. They believe it began to flow on 24 November and was accompanied by the emission of ash and incandescent rocks. On 2 December incandescence was visible on the E flank of the cone, which was thought to be from a new pulse of lava emitted from the 24 November flow the night of 1 December. On 2 December mudflows traveled down the Montana River, causing problems at a highway.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 November-26 November 2002

IG reported that during 20-25 November seismicity decreased at Reventador in comparison to the previous week and mostly gas-and-steam emissions occurred with little ash content. On 20 and 21 November 16 earthquakes were recorded each day, whereas about 150 earthquakes were recorded on each of the previous days. At this time gas-and-steam plumes reached to 2 km above the volcano and incandescence was sometimes visible within the crater. Lahars traveled down the volcano's flanks into Montana and Marker gorges. There were many reports of a strong scent of sulfur in the city of Quito, caused by the large amount of SO2 being emitted from Reventador (15,000-29,000 tons of SO2 measured by satellite on the 21st). Eruptions on 24 and 25 November produced ash-and-gas clouds that rose ~1 km above the volcano.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 November-19 November 2002

During 12-16 November, seismic and volcanic activity continued at Reventador. Constant tremor, and hybrid and volcanotectonic earthquakes were recorded. On 12 November a column of steam and ash was seen rising 6-7 km above the volcano and drifting to the W. There was only a moderate amount of ash in the cloud, therefore there was not much ashfall. Mudflows traveled down Reventador's flanks and during several evenings incandescence was visible on the NE flank. During a flight over the volcano on the 18th, a lava flow was seen on the crater's S wall advancing slowly. Also, pyroclastic-flow deposits were seen that IG warned may be remobilized during heavy rain, becoming dangerous mud flows.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 November-12 November 2002

Volcanic activity decreased following the large eruption at Reventador on 3 November, but small-to-moderate eruptions continued during 5-12 November. IG reported that on the 5th, explosions produced SW-drifting ash-and-gas clouds to heights between 3 and 6 km. Ash fell in the town of Chaco. On the 7th an eruption sent an ash-and-gas cloud to 7 km that drifted W. Rain during the evening of the 9th caused mudflows to travel down the volcano's flanks, closing the Chaco-Reventador highway. According to the Washington VAAC, the maximum height reached by ash clouds during the report period was ~10 km a.s.l. On 10 November the Quito airport was reopened, after being closed for a week. Ash from previous eruptions descended on Quito on 11 November, causing officials to close schools and warn residents to protect themselves from inhaling ash.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press, Reuters, Reuters


30 October-5 November 2002

After 26 years with no explosive activity, a large eruption began at Reventador on 3 November that sent pyroclastic flows down the volcano's flanks. Based on seismic data and observations made by people near Reventador, IG reported that the first pyroclastic flows produced from the eruption occurred on the 3rd around 0900. Then, during 1000-1900 continuous tremor was recorded that may have been associated with continuous ash emissions and small explosions. Between 2000 on the 3rd and 0100 on the 4th, there was an increase in the amount and intensity of the tremor. After 0100 the activity level decreased, but a pulse of activity occurred between 0200 and 0300. A new cycle of activity began during 0700-0800. Small-to-moderate explosions occurred during the day and small pyroclastic flows descended the volcano's flanks. On the morning of the 5th explosive sounds were not heard, no ash fell in towns near the volcano, and meteorological clouds obscured Reventador. In addition, seismicity was low, but some small earthquakes and low-amplitude volcanic tremor occurred.

According to the Washington VAAC, the first eruption on 3 November produced an ash cloud that reached a height of ~16.8 km a.s.l. Subsequent explosions generated more ash clouds and satellite imagery showed discrete ash clouds on the 5th; a thin area of ash at ~16.8 km a.s.l. was located over S Colombia and N Brazil moving E, and a thicker ash cloud drifted W over the Pacific Ocean towards the Galapagos Islands at a height of ~10.7 km. In addition, a nearly stationary area of ash was observed over the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Ecuador at a height of ~9.1 km a.s.l.

According to OCHA, pyroclastic flows on the 3rd reached the Baeza-Lumbaqui highway, blocking inter-city traffic. Ash fell in the towns of Baeza, Cayambe, Yaruqui, El Quinche, Tumbaco, Pifo, Sangoqui, and Quito, Ecuador's capital ~70 km W of Reventador. Quito was paralyzed by ash fall; schools and businesses were closed, residents were told to remain indoors, and all operations at the Mariscal Sucre airport in Quito were suspended. The approximately 3,000 people living in towns at the base of the volcano were evacuated and no deaths or injuries were attributed to volcanic activity.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), El Universo, El Comercio


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2008 Jul 27 2013 Sep 9 (continuing) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2007 Mar 15 ± 7 days 2007 Oct 11 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2004 Nov 7 ± 3 days 2006 Mar Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2002 Nov 3 2003 Jan 10 (?) Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Summit and SE flank (2600 m)
1976 Jan 4 1976 May Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1973 Nov 1974 Jul Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1972 Jul 1972 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1960 Jun Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1958 Nov Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1955 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1944 Feb 24 1944 Mar 1 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1936 Aug 27 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1929 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1926 Jan 5 ± 4 days 1926 May Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1912 Feb 1912 Mar Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1898 Apr 8 1906 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1894 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1871 Jan 30 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1856 Dec 12 1856 Dec 13 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1844 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1843 Dec 7 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1843 (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1802 Apr (?) 1802 May (?) Confirmed 2 Unknown
1797 Jan Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1748 (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 2 Unknown
1691 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1590 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1541 Apr Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Almeida E, Cruz M, 1986. Estudio geologico del Volcan Reventador. Inst Ecuatoriano Electrificacion (INECEL), Quito, unpublished rpt, 43 p.

Hall M L, 1977. El Volcanismo en El Ecuador. Quito: Biblioteca Ecuador, 120 p.

Hall M L, 1980. El Reventador, Ecuador, un volcan activo de los Andes septentrionales. Rev Politecnica, Quito, 5: 123-136.

Hall M L, 1987. . (pers. comm.).

Hall M, Ramon P, Mothes P, LePennec J L, Garcia A, Samaniego P, Yepes H, 2004. Volcanic eruptions with little warning: the case of Volcan Reventador's surprise November 3, 2002 eruption, Ecuador. Rev Geol Chile, 31: 349-358.

Hantke G, Parodi I, 1966. Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 19: 1-73.

Johnson J, Ramon P, Andrade D, Hall M L, 2006. Reventador volcano: 2002 to present, explosive and effusive activity. Cities on Volcanoes 4, Quito, Ecuador, 23-27 Jan, 2006, Field trip A5: 1-15.

Samaniego P, Eissen J-P, Le Pennec J-L, Robin C, Hall M L, Mothes P, Chavrit D, Cotten J, 2008. Pre-eruptive physical conditions of El Reventador volcano (Ecuador) inferred from the petrology of the 2002 and 2004-2005 eruptions. J Volc Geotherm Res, 176: 82-93.

Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well east of the principal volcanic axis. The forested, dominantly andesitic Volcán El Reventador stratovolcano rises to 3562 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 4-km-wide caldera widely breached to the east was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1300 m above the caldera floor to a height comparable to the caldera rim. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. The largest historical eruption at Reventador took place in 2002, producing a 17-km-high eruption column, pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 8 km, and lava flows from summit and flank vents.