Cerro Negro de Mayasquer

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  • Volcanic Region
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  • Last Known Eruption
  • 0.828°N
  • 77.964°W

  • 4445 m
    14580 ft

  • 351110
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

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Most Recent Weekly Report: 15 October-21 October 2014


On 20 October Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) reported that a M 5.8 earthquake, the largest to date, occurred in the vicinity of the Cerro Negro de Mayasquer and Chiles volcanoes at a depth of less than 10 km. The event was felt to the N in Pasto (Colombia) and to the S in Quito (Ecuador). On 21 October SGC raised the Alert Level for the volcanic complex to Orange (level 3 of 4) noting that a seismic swarm characterized by 4,300 earthquakes was detected in an 18-hour period. Hypocenters were located 1-4 km SW of Chiles volcano at depths of 3-5 km and local magnitudes between M 0.2 and 4.5. Inhabitants felt 11 of the events. On 22 October a report noted that the total number of earthquakes recorded on 21 October reached 7,717, which was the largest number of earthquakes recorded on one day since the installation of a local seismic network in November 2013. Several swarms have occurred in the area since February 2013.

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: August 1990 (BGVN 15:08)


H2S-rich hot springs at Pleistocene volcano

"In April 1988 and again on 3 April 1990 we visited two hydrothermal springs [on Chiles] and collected samples. The first, La Calera, is a developed hot spring with baths just W of the town of Chiles and 8 km E of the crater of Chiles volcano, at 3,180 m elev. The maximum temperature was 40°C and pH was 6.2. No significant sulfur deposition was observed at the natural source of hot water, ~ 100 m uphill from the commercial baths. The second site, La Hedionda, was unsuccessfully developed as a tourist bath area, reputedly failing because of deadly levels of H2S. It is 3.5 km E of the crater, at 3,470 m elevation. The uppermost hot spring, with a temperature of 54°C and pH of 5.1, was sampled. These acid sulfate springs were actively depositing native sulfur and had an almost overwhelming odor of H2S. Fumarole samples were collected at both springs. No observations were made, on either visit, of the summit area, which was always covered by clouds. The observations at Chiles are consistent with a stable system, dominated by hydrothermal processes."

Information Contacts: S. Williams, Louisiana State Univ; J. Stix and E. Fontaine, Univ de Montréal.

Index of Weekly Reports


2014: October

Weekly Reports


15 October-21 October 2014

On 20 October Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) reported that a M 5.8 earthquake, the largest to date, occurred in the vicinity of the Cerro Negro de Mayasquer and Chiles volcanoes at a depth of less than 10 km. The event was felt to the N in Pasto (Colombia) and to the S in Quito (Ecuador). On 21 October SGC raised the Alert Level for the volcanic complex to Orange (level 3 of 4) noting that a seismic swarm characterized by 4,300 earthquakes was detected in an 18-hour period. Hypocenters were located 1-4 km SW of Chiles volcano at depths of 3-5 km and local magnitudes between M 0.2 and 4.5. Inhabitants felt 11 of the events. On 22 October a report noted that the total number of earthquakes recorded on 21 October reached 7,717, which was the largest number of earthquakes recorded on one day since the installation of a local seismic network in November 2013. Several swarms have occurred in the area since February 2013.

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)


Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

08/1990 (BGVN 15:08) H2S-rich hot springs at Pleistocene volcano




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


08/1990 (BGVN 15:08) H2S-rich hot springs at Pleistocene volcano

"In April 1988 and again on 3 April 1990 we visited two hydrothermal springs [on Chiles] and collected samples. The first, La Calera, is a developed hot spring with baths just W of the town of Chiles and 8 km E of the crater of Chiles volcano, at 3,180 m elev. The maximum temperature was 40°C and pH was 6.2. No significant sulfur deposition was observed at the natural source of hot water, ~ 100 m uphill from the commercial baths. The second site, La Hedionda, was unsuccessfully developed as a tourist bath area, reputedly failing because of deadly levels of H2S. It is 3.5 km E of the crater, at 3,470 m elevation. The uppermost hot spring, with a temperature of 54°C and pH of 5.1, was sampled. These acid sulfate springs were actively depositing native sulfur and had an almost overwhelming odor of H2S. Fumarole samples were collected at both springs. No observations were made, on either visit, of the summit area, which was always covered by clouds. The observations at Chiles are consistent with a stable system, dominated by hydrothermal processes."

Information Contacts: S. Williams, Louisiana State Univ; J. Stix and E. Fontaine, Univ de Montréal.

Cerro Negro de Mayasquer, astride the Colombia-Ecuador border, is a stratovolcano with a caldera open to the west. Andesitic and dacitic lava flows are of possible Holocene age (Hall 1992, pers. comm.). Solfataras are found on the shore of a small crater lake. An historical eruption reported in 1936 may have been from Reventador (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World). The higher, glacier-covered summit of the Pleistocene Chiles stratovolcano lies only 3 km SE. Chiles last erupted about 160,000 years ago, but has hot springs and an active hydrothermal system at its eastern flank.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1936 Jul 17 Unknown Confirmed 2 Unknown Volcano Uncertain: possibly Reventador

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Oreja, Cerro de la

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Chiles Stratovolcano 4723 m 0° 49' 16" N 77° 56' 6" W
The summit of Cerro Negro de Mayasquer volcano is truncated by a caldera that is breached to the west. This view from the NW shows snow-capped Volcán Chiles at the upper left. Eruptive activity at these twin volcanoes has migrated to the west, with the most recent eruptions occurring from Cerro Negro de Mayasquer. A small crater lake is found at the bottom of the 900 x 1500-m-wide caldera. An eruption that was reported from the volcano in 1936 may actually have been from Reventador volcano to the SE.

Photo by Minard Hall, 1985 (Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito)
Cerro Negro de Mayasquer (Ieft) and snow-capped Volcán Chiles (right), seen here from the south, are twin volcanoes that straddle the Colombia-Ecuador border. Chiles volcano is of Pleistocene age, but has hot springs and an active hydrothermal system on its eastern flank. Cerro Negro de Mayasquer is a stratovolcano with a caldera open to the west. Andesitic and dacitic lava flows are of possible Holocene age. Solfataras are found on the shore of a small crater lake.

Photo by Minard Hall, 1985 (Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito)
Cerro Negro de Mayasquer is the youngest of a pair of twin volcanoes along the Ecuador-Colombia border. It is seen here from the Ecuadorian side on the south. The long ridge to the left of its summit is the rim of a horseshoe-shaped caldera that is breached to the NW.

Photo by Minard Hall, 1985 (Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito)

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Beate B, 1992. . (pers. comm.).

Beate B, Salgado R, 2005. Geothermal country update for Ecuador, 2000-2005. Proc World Geotherm Cong 2005, Antalya, Turkey, 24-29 April 2005, 5 p.

Cuellar-Rodriguez J V, Ramirez-Lopez C, 1987. Descripcion de los volcanes Colombianos. Rev CIAF, Bogota, p 189-222.

Hall M L, 1992. . (pers. comm.).

Hantke G, Parodi I, 1966. Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 19: 1-73.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

INECEL, 1987. Estudio de prefactibilidad del "Projecto Geotermico Binacional Tufino-Chiles-Cerro Negro". Inf Geovulcanologico Realirado Aquater/BRGM/OLADE, unpublished rpt.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Caldera

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Dacite
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
977
4,573
151,519
1,826,460

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Cerro Negro de Mayasquer Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.