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The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Doña Juana.
The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Doña Juana.
Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.
01/2013 (BGVN 38:01) Seismic swarm in 2010 and monitoring efforts
01/2013 (BGVN 38:01) Seismic swarm in 2010 and monitoring efforts
Doña Juana, a volcano in repose, is located ~50 km NE of Pasto, the provincial capital where the local Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (INGEOMINAS) volcanic and seismic observatory is based (figure 1). In this report we discuss monitoring efforts that began as early as 2004, highlight elevated seismicity detected in mid-2010, and describe the relatively new national park which encompasses Doña Juana and two other volcanic centers (Petacas and Ánimas). Petacas is ~19 km NE of Doña Juana and Ánimas, 12.5 km NE. Ánimas lacks a clear Holocene age; however, Ánimas is an important landmark in this report because the recent seismicity is often found proximal to this volcano. Listed as a Quaternary volcanic center, Ánimas can be found in the "Preliminary List of Pleistocene Volcanoes" section of the Volcanoes of the World 3rd edition (Siebert and others, 2010).
|Figure 1. This map of instrumentation from 2012 shows the monitoring network for Doña Juana with telemetered locations for the observatory in Pasto (red circle). Triangles are short period seismic stations (red triangles correspond to INGEOMINAS stations and the pink triangle is part of the National Seismic Network of Colombia (RSNC)), the orange hexagon is a broadband seismic station, green circles are electronic tiltmeters, and green squares are repeater stations for telemetry. The volcanic centers of Doña Juana and Galeras are labeled with yellow text. Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.|
Aerial observations and field investigations. Aerial observations had been collected since 2004 in collaboration with the Colombian Air Force (FAC). Overflights during clear conditions provided views of the lava domes and exposures of bare rock where high elevation and frequent rockfalls limit vegetation (figure 2). Remote sensing images of the region also captured the variations in vegetation and distribution of scree slopes (figure 3).
|Figure 2. This SE looking photo of Doña Juana was taken during aerial surveys on 12 March 2007. The town of La Cruz appears in the foreground, ~13 km W of the volcanic edifice (on the skyline). Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.|
|Figure 3. This false-color ASTER image of Doña Juana from 9 September 2010 provided a clear view of the sharp boundaries between heavy vegetated outer flanks (red) and the scrub-covered dome complex (green). Within the central dome area a pale region is attributed to scree from rockfalls. The lowlands, where agriculture dominates the topography, can be distinguished by the pale pink to white regions. Courtesy of NASA.|
During 13-21 September 2006, INGEOMINAS led field investigations around Doña Juana. Four scientists focused on the area’s stratigraphy and composition of volcanic deposits for development of a future hazard map as well as enhancing the knowledge of the volcano’s eruptive history.
Monitoring stations. Three seismic stations were online in 2008: Lava, Florida, and Páramo (figure 4). The Páramo tiltmeter was also online in 2008. In 2009 two additional stations were online; La Cruz seismic station was installed in April and La Florida electronic tiltmeter was installed in June. In 2011, geochemical monitoring began at hot springs within 7 km of the edifice.
|Figure 4. The telemetered monitoring network for Doña Juana in 2012 included seismic and electronic tiltmeter instruments. Regular monitoring efforts also included measurements at hot springs (see text). Names of the two volcanic centers Doña Juana and Ánimas and the local communities are highlighted in green. The largest nearby community is the town of La Cruz, ~13 km NNW of the volcanic edifice. Volcán Ánimas is the nearest volcanic center to Doña Juana (~12.5 km NE); however, there has been no documented Holocene volcanism from this site. Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.|
As of December 2012, the monitoring network consisted of four seismic stations, with radio repeaters linked to the Pasto network, and two electronic tiltmeters.
Hot spring investigations. INGEOMINAS routinely monitored six thermal springs located ~7 km N and SW from the summit (figure 4). There were three visits during 2011 (August, October, and December) and a visit in April 2012. Temperature and pH monitoring as well as geochemical analysis were the main goals for these investigations.
In their online April 2012 technical bulletin, INGEOMINAS noted that bicarbonate (HCO3) concentrations varied at all monitoring sites, and highest values were consistent between the Tajumbina (1,276-1,436 mg/L) and Ánimas II (1,159-1,229 mg/L) sites. Of all sites, Ánimas I showed an increase since August 2011 in both temperature (41.2°C to 55.3°C) and pH (6.5 to 6.83).
In April 2012, INGEOMINAS discovered a new hot spring location, Ánimas III. This site was within 1 km of Ánimas I, and at the time of sampling, had a neutral pH (7.02) and a lower temperature (56.6°C) compared to the neighboring Ánimas I and Ánimas II sites.
Seismicity. INGEOMINAS reported trends in local seismicity during 2009-2012 in technical bulletins available online. Limited seismicity was detected in 2009 and an abrupt change appeared in early 2010 (figure 5). Combined seismicity (volcano-tectonic, tremor, long period, hybrid, and a category noted as “VOL”) tallied for 2010 produced an average of 241 events per month. INGEOMINAS assigned earthquakes to the “VOL“ category if they did not meet the criteria of other earthquake types but could be distinguished by fracturing signals proximal to the volcanic edifice. Volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes occurred more frequently than other types, occurring on average 107 times per month.
|Figure 5. Monthly earthquakes detected with the Doña Juana seismic network during 2009-2012. The number of earthquakes represents a sum of volcano-tectonic, tremor, long period, hybrid, and ‘VOL’ (see text) events per month. Bar color alternates from red to blue to distinguish years. Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.|
Seismicity peaked in August 2010 owing to three VT swarms. That month the various earthquakes totaled more than 675 events. These were low-magnitude earthquakes (M 0-2.7) with relatively shallow depths (7-10 km below the summit).
The calculated locations of earthquakes were available for events during 2010-2012 (table 1). During this time period, epicenters were frequently dispersed between Doña Juana and Ánimas except for the mid-2010 activity and during January-February 2011. This record of information highlights the significance of August 2010 when VT earthquakes were clustered ~7 km NE of Doña Juana, slightly closer to the older volcanic edifice Ánimas (figure 6).
Month Total Magnitude Depth Notes Located (km below summit) 2010 Jan-May na na na na Jun 68 0.1-2.6 5-10 ~5 km SW of Ánimas Jul 14 0.2-1.5 6-10 ~5 km SW of Ánimas Aug 130 0-2.7 7-10 ~5 km SW of Ánimas Sep 34 0.2-2.1 1-11 ~5 km SW of Ánimas Oct 10 0.6-2.7 ~7 dispersed Nov 5 1.1-2.3 3-6 dispersed Dec 7 0.2-1.8 4-10 dispersed 2011 Jan 59 0.1-3.1 3-14; 6-8 ~8 km SW of Ánimas; many earthquakes clustered at 6-8 km depth Feb 1 1.2 7 2 km SW of Ánimas Mar 7 0.5-2.1 15-50 between Doña Juana and Ánimas Apr 2 <0.2 5.7-6.5 between Doña Juana and Ánimas May 2 0.4, 1.7 8, 11 dispersed Jun na na na na Jul 9 0.3-1.1 6-12 some clustering near Ánimas Aug 7 <2 4-15 between Doña Juana and Ánimas Sep 1 0.7 4 between Doña Juana and Ánimas Oct na na na na Nov 9 0.3-1.5 3-8 between Doña Juana and Ánimas Dec 2 0.9, 1.7 4-6 between Doña Juana and Ánimas 2012 Jan 16 0.3-1.5 1-19 between Doña Juana and Ánimas Feb 5 0.9-1.7 2-8 between Doña Juana and Ánimas Mar 2 0.8, 1.3 7 between Doña Juana and Ánimas Apr 5 0.4-1.3 0-18 dispersed May 7 0.5-1.4 3-9.5 dispersed Jun 20 0-2.3 1-14 dispersed Jul 13 0.7-1.9 1-14 dispersed Aug 6 0.2-1.9 0-14.5 SW of Doña Juana Sep na na na na Oct 4 0.7-1.3 0-20 SW of Doña Juana Nov na na na na Dec 2 1.1, 0.7 2, 20 ~10 km S of Doña Juana
|Figure 6. Volcano-tectonic seismicity during August 2010 was characterized by a swarm located between Doña Juana and Ánimas volcano; ~8 km NE of Doña Juana. Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.|
Colombia’s 52nd Natural National Park. In 2007, the Doña Juana-Cascabel Volcanic Complex Natural National Park was created both by the Ministry of Environmental, Housing and Territorial Development and the Colombian Natural National Parks (figure 7). This included Doña Juana, Ánimas, and Petacas volcano (located ~19 km NE of Doña Juana) within the 65,858 hectares of preserved land. Within this densely forested region, a series of streams and waterfalls was locally known as El Cascabel. The park was developed to protect diverse flora and fauna, including numerous endangered species such as the Andean condor, the Moor tapir, the spectacled bear, and puma; approximately 11% of the park includes alpine terrain.
|Figure 7. This map of biomes includes the Doña Juana-Cascabel Volcanic Complex Natural National Park and surrounding region. Doña Juana is located in the SW portion of the park. Shaded areas indicate low-elevation Amazon through high-elevation Andean environments. The park boundary is indicated by a heavy black line; populated areas are shaded light pink, road systems are represented by gray lines, and major towns are labeled. This map appears in the 2008-2013 Management Plan of PNN CVDJ-C (2008).|
References. Department of the Environment, Housing and Territorial Development Special Administration Unit of the system of Natural National Parks (UAESPNN), 2008, Doña Juana-Cascabel Volcanic Complex Natural National Park (PNN CVDJ-C) Management Plan 2008-2013, Popayán, Colombia, July 2008.
Siebert L., Simkin T., and Kimberly P., 2010, Volcanoes of the World, 3rd edition, University of California Press, Berkeley, 558 p.
Information Contacts: Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (INGEOMINAS), Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Pasto, Pasto, Colombia (URL: http://www.ingeominas.gov.co/Pasto.aspx); WWF Colombia (URL: http://www.wwf.org.co/?109882/Nuevo-Parque-Nacional-Natural-en-el-piedemonte-Andino-Amazonico-colombiano); Doña Juana-Cascabel Volcanic Complex National Natural Park (URL: http://www.parquesnacionales.gov.co/PNN/portel/libreria/php/decide.php?patron=01.0135).
The forested Doña Juana stratovolcano contains two calderas, breached to the NE and SW. The summit of the andesitic-dacitic volcano is comprised of a series of post-caldera lava domes. The older caldera, open to the NE, formed during the mid-Holocene, accompanied by voluminous pyroclastic flows. The younger caldera contains the active central cone. The only historical activity took place during a long-term eruption from 1897-1906, when growth of a summit lava dome was accompanied by major pyroclastic flows.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|1897 Nov 1||1906||Confirmed||4||Historical Observations|
|2550 BCE ± 150 years||Unknown||Confirmed||4||Radiocarbon (uncorrected)||Northeastern caldera|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Páramo de Tajumbina|
The Global Volcanism Program has no photographs available for Doña Juana.
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Cuellar-Rodriguez J V, Ramirez-Lopez C, 1987. Descripcion de los volcanes Colombianos. Rev CIAF, Bogota, p 189-222.
Hantke G, Parodi I, 1966. Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 19: 1-73.
Mendez Fajury R A, 1989. Catalogo de los volcanes activos en Colombia. Bol Geol INGEOMINAS, Colombia, 30: 1-75.
Steimle U, 1989. The Dona Juana volcano, Departamento de Narino, southern Colombia. Unpublished MSci thesis, Eberhard Karls Univ, 97 p.