Ilopango

Photo of this volcano
Google Earth icon
Google Earth Placemark
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 13.672°N
  • 89.053°W

  • 450 m
    1476 ft

  • 343060
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

There are no activity reports for Ilopango.



 Available Weekly Reports

There are no Weekly Reports available for Ilopango.

Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1879 Dec 31 1880 Mar 26 ± 5 days Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Islas Quemadas
0450 ± 30 years Unknown Confirmed 6 Radiocarbon (corrected) Ilopango

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Carr M J, 1984. Symmetrical and segmented variation of physical and geochemical characterisitics of the Central American volcanic front. J Volc Geotherm Res, 20: 231-252.

Dull R, 2004. Lessons from the mud, lessons from the Maya: paleoecological records of the Tierra Blanca Joven eruption. In: Rose W I, Bommer J J, Lopez D L, Carr M J, Major J J (eds), Natural Hazards in El Salvador, {Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap}, 375: 237-244.

Dull R A, Southon J R, Sheets P, 2001. Volcanism, ecology and culture: a reassessment of the Volcan Ilopango TBJ eruption in the southern Maya realm. Latin Amer Antiquity, 12: 25-44.

Golombek M P, Carr M J, 1978. Tidal triggering of seismic and volcanic phenomena during the 1879-1880 eruption of Islas Quemadas volcano in El Salvador, Central America. J Volc Geotherm Res, 3: 299-308.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Kutterolf S, Freundt A, Perez W, 2008. Pacific offshore record of plinian arc volcanism in Central America: 2. Tephra volumes and eruptive masses. Geochem Geophys Geosyst, 8: Q02S02, doi:10.1029/2007GC001791.

Mann C P, Stix J, Vallance J W, Richer M, 2004. Subaqueous intracaldera volcanism, Ilopango caldera, El Salvador, Central America. In: Rose W I, Bommer J J, Lopez D L, Carr M J, Major J J (eds), Natural Hazards in El Salvador, {Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap}, 375: 159-174.

Mooser F, Meyer-Abich H, McBirney A R, 1958. Central America. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 6: 1-146.

Newhall C G, Dzurisin D, 1988. Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1855: 1108 p, 2 vol.

Richer M, Mann C P, Stix J, 2004. Mafic magma injection triggering eruption at Ilopango caldera, El Salvador, Central America. In: Rose W I, Bommer J J, Lopez D L, Carr M J, Major J J (eds), Natural Hazards in El Salvador, {Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap}, 375: 175-189.

Rolo R, Bommer J J, Houghton B F, Vallance J W, Berdousis P, Mavrommati C, Murphy W, 2004. Geologic and engineering characterization of Tierra Blanca pyroclastic ash deposits. In: Rose W I, Bommer J J, Lopez D L, Carr M J, Major J J (eds), Natural Hazards in El Salvador, {Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap}, 375: 55-67.

Sheets P D, 2004. Apocalypse then: social science approaches to volcanism, people, and cultures in the Zapotitan Valley, El Salvador. In: Rose W I, Bommer J J, Lopez D L, Carr M J, Major J J (eds), Natural Hazards in El Salvador, {Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap, 375: 109-120.

Williams H, Meyer-Abich H, 1955. Volcanism in the southern part of El Salvador with particular reference to the collapse basins of Lakes Coatepeque and Ilopango. Univ Calif Pub Geol Sci, 32: 1-64.

The scenic 8 x 11 km Ilopango caldera, filled by one of El Salvador's largest lakes, has a scalloped 150-500 m high rim. The caldera, which lies immediately east of the capital city of San Salvador, is strongly controlled by regional faults of the central Salvador graben. Four major dacitic-rhyolitic explosive eruptions during the late Pleistocene and Holocene produced extensive pyroclastic-flow and pyroclastic-fall deposits that blanket much of El Salvador. The latest collapse resulted from the massive 5th century CE Terra Blanca Joven (TBJ) eruption, which produced widespread pyroclastic flows and devastated early Mayan cities. Post-caldera eruptions formed a series of glassy dacitic and andesitic lava domes within the lake and near its shore. The Islas Quemadas, a group of low islets in the center of the lake that mark the summit of a largely submerged lava dome, were formed in 1879-80 during the only historical eruption of Ilopango.