Pacaya

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 14.381°N
  • 90.601°W

  • 2552 m
    8371 ft

  • 342110
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

9 April-15 April 2014

INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-10 April an explosion from Pacaya generated an ash plume that rose 50 m and drifted 1 km SSE. During 9-11 and 13-15 April white plumes from Mackenney Crater drifted S and N.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



 Available Weekly Reports


2014: January | February | March | April
2013: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | November | December
2012: March | December
2011: January
2010: January | February | May | June | July | September | October | December
2009: January | March | April | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2008: January | February | May | June | July | August | October | November | December
2007: January | March | April | May | July | September | December
2006: January | March | April | July | August | September | November
2005: January | March | April | May | June | July | September
2004: September | October
2003: July
2002: May | June
2001: February


9 April-15 April 2014

INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-10 April an explosion from Pacaya generated an ash plume that rose 50 m and drifted 1 km SSE. During 9-11 and 13-15 April white plumes from Mackenney Crater drifted S and N.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


5 March-11 March 2014

INSIVUMEH reported that during 6-7 and 9-10 March small explosions from Pacaya generated diffuse ash plumes. Minor avalanches descended the W flank. During 8-9 March lava flows were active, and white and gray steam plumes rose 200 m above the crater and drifted SE.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


26 February-4 March 2014

INSIVUMEH reported that during 27-28 February gas-and-vapor plumes from Pacaya rose 400-500 m above the crater. Ejected tephra drifted 600 m S and SW. INSIVUMEH and CONRED noted increased activity on 2 March; at 0515 Strombolian activity at Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 800 m and lava flows descended the W flank. Explosions produced dense ash plumes that rose 2.5 km and drifted 15 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in El Rodeo (4 km WSW), Patrocinio (about 5 km W), and Francisco de Sales (5 km N). By the next day activity had decreased, but lava flows traveled as far as 1.3 km S. Ejected tephra again drifted 600 m S and SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


15 January-21 January 2014

INSIVUMEH reported that during 16-20 January gas plumes rose from Pacaya and a lava flow on the S flank remained active. A report on 21 January noted that the S-flank lava flow was 3.6 km long and continued to slowly advance, burning vegetation between the Rodeo and Los Pocitos roads. Volcanologists observed that the cone in Mackenney Crater had been completely destroyed, leaving a deep crater that produced fumarolic activity.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


8 January-14 January 2014

INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-10 January explosions at Pacaya ejected lapilli up to 70 m above the crater. White and blue fumarolic plumes drifted SE, and the seismographs recorded constant tremor. On 11 January Strombolian activity was observed, and new craters on the E, S, and W flanks produced lava flows as long as 1.5 km. Activity from the main crater increased; explosions ejected tephra 75 m high and gas plumes rose 200-600 m. CONRED reported evacuations from Villa Canales (14 km NW), El Chupadero (2-2.5 km S), and San Vicente Pacaya (5 km NW). INSIVUMEH noted that RSAM values decreased throughout the day. Activity further decreased on 12 January. Explosions ejected tephra 100 m above the crater and gas plumes rose 200-300 m. Lava effusion, Strombolian activity, and seismicity declined. During 12-13 January lava effusion remained low and lava flows reached 2.8-3 km long. Bluish-white gas plumes rose 300 m. During 13-14 January Strombolian activity ejected lapilli as high as 70 m, and blue and white plumes drifted S.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED)


4 December-10 December 2013

INSIVUMEH reported increased Strombolian activity at Pacaya on 5 December. A series of explosions at MacKenney Crater generated ash plumes that rose 2.7 km and drifted 3-5 km, and ejected pyroclastic material that was deposited around the cone. During 8-9 December weak explosions were occurring every 5 seconds, with moderate explosions occurring every minute that ejected bombs and lapilli. Diffuse blue gas plumes drifted SE. During 9-10 December blue gas plumes rose 700 m and drifted W. Tephra was ejected 25 m above the crater.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


27 November-3 December 2013

On 28 November INSIVUMEH reported that activity at Pacaya remained unchanged; weak explosions, gas emissions, and the ejection of tephra continued. Pilots reported that ash plumes rose 2.5-2.7 km and drifted 10 km SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


11 September-17 September 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that during 10-11 September explosions at Pacaya generated diffuse ash plumes that rose 150 m and drifted 150 m NW. There were no direct visual observations during 11-12 September, though the seismic network recorded tremor and small explosions. Explosions during 12-13 September ejected material 50-100 m high. White and blue plumes rose 300 m and drifted N. In a special notice on 13 September INSIVUMEH noted that the cone in MacKenney Crater had already grown above the crater rim; incandescence from the cone was visible from many areas around the volcano, including the capital.

Weak-to-moderate explosions generated rumbling during 14-15 September. An increased number of explosions were detected during 15-16 September. Material was ejected above the crater and ash plumes drifted 3 km W and SW. The seismic network recorded tremor and explosions that occurred about every 5 minutes.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


21 August-27 August 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that on 26 August Strombolian explosions from Pacaya's MacKenney Crater ejected incandescent material 50 m above the crater. Seismicity remained high. During 26-27 August explosions were detected at intervals between 10 seconds and 4 minutes. Incandescent material was ejected 75 m high. A lava flow 150-200 m long was active on the W flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


14 August-20 August 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-14 August the seismic network at Pacaya recorded weak tremor and explosions, although no ash plumes were observed. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night during 14-15 August. White and blue plumes rose from the crater on 15 August. A Strombolian eruption occurred on 16 August from 1915 to 2245, producing a 300-m-long lava flow that traveled W from MacKenney Crater. The seismic network recorded a few gas explosions and intermittent tremor during 17-18 August. Seismicity increased on 19 August; tremor and explosions were detected. On 20 August white plumes rose to low heights and drifted N.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


7 August-13 August 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-8 August white vapor plumes rose 200 m above Pacaya and drifted E. On 9 August seismicity increased, and Strombolian explosions ejected tephra 200 m above MacKenney Crater and onto the flanks, 400 m away from crater. The next day the number and magnitudes of explosions increased, and seismic signals indicating fluid movement were recorded. Tephra was again ejected 400 m away from MacKenney Crater, causing small avalanches of volcanic material on the flanks. On 12 August fumarolic plumes rose 50 m. Cloud cover prevented observations of the crater on 13 August; however, the seismic network recorded a few gas explosions and tremor.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


24 July-30 July 2013

In a special bulletin on 24 July, INSIVUMEH noted that the eruption at Pacaya had been changing during the previous few days, especially the seismic pattern. Seismic signals indicating explosions and ejections of material lasted up to seven minutes; the events were low frequency and long duration. The cone continued to grow and was 30 m high earlier in the week. By 24 July the cone was 4 m above the MacKenney crater rim. Seismicity again increased. On 25 July weak explosions and incandescence from the cone were observed at night. Rumbling was heard. On 29 July incandescence from the crater was observed for a few hours in the morning, and a plume rose at most 100 m and drifted S. An eruption on 30 July included a high-energy phase that lasted for four hours and incandescent material that was ejected 250 m above the cone. A diffuse ash plume drifted 2 km N, causing ashfall in areas downwind, and another ash plume drifted 5 km S. Activity then declined considerably; explosions were not observed and seismicity decreased, although signals indicating fluid movement continued to be detected.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


26 June-2 July 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that blue-colored emissions from Pacaya were visible drifting SW and W at low altitudes on 26 June. Strombolian activity was observed from MacKenney cone the following day; weak-to-moderate explosions ejected small amounts of tephra 8 m above the crater that were then deposited on the W flank. Audible explosions were noted up to 5 km away. Incandescence was visible at night on 27 June. White fumarolic plumes rose 300 m above the cone on 28 and 30 June; white and blue fumarolic plumes drifted SW during 1-2 July. A recent investigation of MacKenney cone determined that a 15 m high cone had been the source of recent explosive activity.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


29 May-4 June 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that incandescence from Pacaya's crater was observed late at night on 28 May. Weather conditions prevented observations the next day. On 30 May a small effusive eruption occurred for about two hours. A small explosion ejected ash and lapilli 200 m above the crater that was then deposited within 400 m of the crater. Inclement weather prevented observations the rest of the day; however, the seismic network detected tremor and weak explosions.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


22 May-28 May 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that during 22-23 May weak Strombolian activity at Pacaya's MacKenney cone was detected by the seismic network. On 24 May white plumes rose 600 m and drifted S. In a special bulletin on 25 May, INSIVUMEH noted that the eruptive pattern had changed during the previous few days. Explosions were more continuous and energetic, and were detected 3-5 minutes apart. Explosions ejected bombs and generated rumbles heard 4 km away. Cloud cover mostly prevented views on 27 May, but blue gas plumes were observed. Occasional weak glow from the crater was observed on 28 May.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


15 May-21 May 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that weak incandescence from Pacaya's MacKenney cone was observed through the night during 15-16 May. Blue and white plumes rose 800 m and drifted S. On 17 May white plumes drifted W and NW. Incandescence from the crater was again observed at night during 19-21 May. On 20 and 21 May Strombolian activity ejected material 25 m above the crater.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


24 April-30 April 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that on 23 April fumarolic plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone rose 100 m and drifted N. On 24 April tephra was ejected 25 m high by weak explosions. Incandescence from the crater was observed through the night, and explosions were detected the next day. Incandescence and explosions were again detected on 29 April.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


13 March-19 March 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-14 and 16-18 March weak gas-and-ash plumes rose from Pacaya and drifted N, NW, and S. A diffuse white plume rose less than 500 m and drifted E on 19 March.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


6 March-12 March 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that during 8-12 March diffuse white plumes rose from Pacaya and drifted N, E, S, and SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


27 February-5 March 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that on 5 March a gas-and-ash plume rose from Pacaya's MacKenney cone and drifted S.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


13 February-19 February 2013

Based on INSIVUMEH notices, CONRED reported that explosions at Pacaya detected on 13 February were accompanied by rumbling. No material was ejected. The next day a diffuse white plume rose 200 m and drifted W and SW. Rumbling was heard in San Francisco de Sales (5 km N) and San Vicente Pacaya (5 km NW).

Sources: Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED), Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


2 January-8 January 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that on 2 January a few hours of increased fumarolic activity at Pacaya generated steam emissions that rose 450 m above MacKenney cone. During 3-4 January plumes only rose 100-150 m. White steam plumes drifted S during 5-8 January.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


26 December-1 January 2013

INSIVUMEH noted in a special report that on 28 December patterns of activity from Pacaya's MacKenney cone changed; three explosions detected at 1150 generated plumes that rose less than 500 m and drifted 5 km W and SW. During 30 December-1 January bluish-white plumes rose 50 m and drifted S and SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


21 March-27 March 2012

INSIVUMEH noted in a special report that on 20 March patterns of seismicity and emissions from Pacaya's MacKenney cone changed, although remained characteristic of normal behavior for the volcano. On 26 March avalanches were detected and during 26-27 March gas plumes drifted S and SW. The report noted that after the eruption on 27 May 2010 only fumarolic emissions, mainly composed of water vapor, rose from MacKenney cone.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


19 January-25 January 2011

INSIVUMEH reported on 20 January that a blue plume rose from the base of the NW flank of Pacaya's MacKenney cone. The Pacaya National Park authority was advised to not allow tourists near the area with the new plume. During 21-24 January fumarolic activity in the crater had variable intensity.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


5 January-11 January 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that during 5-6 January steam-and-gas plumes, white and blue in color, rose 200 m above Pacaya's MacKenney cone. Seismic activity was consistent with gas emissions.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


8 December-14 December 2010

On 8, 13, and 14 December, INSIVUMEH reported that gas-and-steam plumes rose from Pacaya's MacKenney cone and drifted SE, SW, and S, respectively.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


20 October-26 October 2010

During 21-22 and 26 October, INSIVUMEH reported Strombolian explosions originating from Pacaya's MacKenney crater, although the explosions were not visually observed.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


29 September-5 October 2010

INSIVUMEH reported that during 2 and 4-5 October steam-and-gas plumes rose from Pacaya's MacKenney cone and drifted S.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


1 September-7 September 2010

INSIVUMEH reported that during 1-2 September steam plumes rose from Pacaya's MacKenney cone and drifted NE and W.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


28 July-3 August 2010

On 30 July INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Pacaya's MacKenney cone were detected by the seismic network. Inclement weather prevented visual observations. During 2-3 August explosions produced ash plumes that rose 400-800 m above the crater and drifted S, causing fine ash to fall in areas 5 km away.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


21 July-27 July 2010

INSIVUMEH reported that on 20 July Strombolian explosions from Pacaya's MacKenney cone ejected ash that fell in neighboring areas. During 20-21 July there were 90 explosions recorded by the seismic network. Based on information from INSIVUMEH, the Washington VAAC reported that on 22 July a plume rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. A weak thermal anomaly was seen in subsequent images. The next day, ash plumes drifted N at an altitude of 4.1 km (13,500 ft) a.s.l. and produced ashfall in areas within 10 km. On 25 July, INSIVUMEH noted that Strombolian explosions ejected tephra 100 m above the crater, and generated ash plumes that rose 300 m above the crater and drifted 10 km SW. Ejected blocks fell onto the flanks.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 July-20 July 2010

INSIVUMEH reported that, after an increase in Pacaya's activity on 13 July, a decrease in seismicity was noted on 14 July. Strombolian explosions occurred on 14 July at 5-10 minute intervals, and occasional small pyroclastic flows traveled S. Gray ash plumes rose 500 m and drifted WSW. On 19 July, fumarolic plumes rose 100 m above MacKenney crater and drifted N. The seismic network had recorded a total of 120 explosions within the previous 24 hours. On 20 July Strombolian explosions generated ash plumes that rose 100 m and drifted 2 km N.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


7 July-13 July 2010

On 7 and 9 July, INSIVUMEH reported that white plumes rose from Pacaya's MacKenney cone and drifted N. Small explosions were detected by the seismic network on 7 July. According to a CONRED notice, INSIVUMEH reported that an explosion on 13 July generated an ash plume that rose 300 m above the crater and drifted SW. Ash and tephra fell in nearby areas, and 150 people were evacuated.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED)


16 June-22 June 2010

INSIVUMEH reported that during 16-22 June Pacaya's MacKenney cone emitted white-and-blue fumarolic plumes that rose 50-400 m high. Ash emissions were occasionally observed. INSIVUMEH also noted that the lava flows on the SE flank were advancing more slowly and exhibited fewer areas of incandescence.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


9 June-15 June 2010

INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-10 June Pacaya's MacKenney cone emitted white-and-blue fumarolic plumes that rose 300 m high, and generated sounds audible up to 5 km away that resembled airplane engines. Occasional ash plumes drifted 2 km NW. Lava flows continued to be active on the SE flank and moved at a speed of about 1 m per hour. Explosions continued from a lateral crater.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


2 June-8 June 2010

INSIVUMEH reported that on 3 June Strombolian activity from Pacaya ejected material 200 m into the air. During 5-6 June no explosions or ash emissions were noted, and seismic energy remained stable. Bluish-white plumes rose 700 m and drifted W. On 7 June an explosion ejected ash 100 m above the crater resulting in an ash plume that drifted 2 km NW. Blue-and-white plumes continued to rise from MacKenney cone. Multiple lava flows remained active and had traveled as far as 3.5 km by 6 June.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


26 May-1 June 2010

A Strombolian eruption from Pacaya's MacKenney cone that began on 27 May was characterized in a report from CONRED as having constant explosions that ejected material 500 m into the air. Ash plumes rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted W and SW, causing ashfall in multiple areas. The community of El Patrocinio (about 5 km W) evacuated and residents in El Rodeo (4 km WSW) were ordered to evacuate. Due to extensive tephra fall, authorities recommended that residents clean off ash from their roofs and refrain from driving.

INSIVUMEH reported a continuing series of explosions 5-10 seconds apart that ejected black ash up to 1 km above the crater on 28 May. Seismic signals reflected the explosions in addition to tremor. Ash plumes drifted 20-30 km NW, causing ashfall in areas downwind, including in Guatemala City, about 30 km NNE. CONRED reported a short time later that about 1,600 people had been evacuated from six towns 3-4 km W, NNW, N, and NNE, and that Aurora International Airport was closed. According to a map posted by CONRED, blocks fell in areas as far away as 12 km NE and ash was reported in areas E of Chinautla, 37 km NNE. News media reported that one person (a reporter) died and three children were missing.

On 29 May, a 90-m-wide lava flow that traveled SSE at an estimated rate of 100 m per hour burned three houses on the Pacaya Grande ranch. The lava was within 450 m of some other properties including El Chupadero, located 2-2.5 km S of the crater, and disrupted an access road from El Caracol (3 km SW) and Los Pocitos (5.5 km S). Explosions ejected ash 300-500 m above the crater. INSIVUMEH reported on 1 June that the Strombolian activity continued. Explosions ejected ash as high as 700 m above the crater and ash plumes drifted NW. Two lava flows were seen traveling SW and SE.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED), Reuters


19 May-25 May 2010

On 20 May, INSIVUMEH reported that small explosions and incandescence from Pacaya's MacKenney cone were accompanied by white and blue plumes. Multiple lava flows traveled as far as 1.6 km down the SW flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


24 February-2 March 2010

INSIVUMEH reported that on 26 February explosions from Pacaya ejected tephra 150 m high. Bluish-white plumes drifted N and a lava flow traveled 800 m E.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


10 February-16 February 2010

On 10 February, INSIVUMEH reported that lava flows from Pacaya, descending the flanks since April 2006, continued to flow down the E flank onto part of the meseta. During 11-16 February, lava flows 100-400 m long descended the E and NE flanks. Avalanches of blocks from the lava-flow fronts set fire to local vegetation.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


3 February-9 February 2010

INSIVUMEH reported that activity from Pacaya consisting of effusion of lava flows, the source of which had migrated towards the S from the N flank since April 2006, ceased on 30 January 2010. On 5 February, Strombolian explosions from MacKenney cone ejected material 30 m into the air and lava from the crater moved down the flank. The activity was heard in the village of San Francisco de Sales, 5 km N. A new lava flow originating from a depression on the NE flank was seen on 6 February.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


6 January-12 January 2010

On 8, 11, and 12 January, INSIVUMEH reported that white and blue fumarolic plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone rose up 400 m and drifted S and SW. Multiple lava flows on the S, SW, and W flanks traveled 25-200 m. Incandescence was noted at night from one of the inter-crater cones on 8 January and from MacKenney cone on 11 and 12 January.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


9 December-15 December 2009

On 11, 14, and 15 December, INSIVUMEH reported that white and blue fumarolic plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone rose up 100 m and drifted S. Multiple lava flows on the S flank traveled 25-350 m. Incandescence from one of the inter-crater cones was noted.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


18 November-24 November 2009

On 20 and 24 November, INSIVUMEH reported that white and blue plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone rose up to 400 m and drifted SSW. Multiple lava flows on the S and SW flanks traveled 100-250 m SE and SW. Incandescence at night was noted.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


21 October-27 October 2009

On 23 and 26 October, INSIVUMEH reported that white and blue plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone rose 50-150 m and drifted W and SW. Multiple lava flows on the S flank traveled 75-350 m SSW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


9 September-15 September 2009

On 11 and 14 September, INSIVUMEH reported that white and blue plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone rose 300 m and drifted NW, S, and SW. Multiple lava flows 75-250 m long traveled W.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


26 August-1 September 2009

On 28 August and 1 September, INSIVUMEH reported that white and blue plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone drifted S and SW. Multiple lava flows 15-200 m long traveled S and SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


29 July-4 August 2009

On 31 July and 3 August, INSIVUMEH reported that white and blue plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone drifted S and SW. Multiple lava flows 50-300 m long traveled S and SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


8 July-14 July 2009

On 10 and 14 July, INSIVUMEH reported that fumarolic plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney drifted S and gas plumes rose 300 m. Multiple lava flows 150-600 m long traveled SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


3 June-9 June 2009

On 5, 8, and 9 June, INSIVUMEH reported that fumarolic plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone rose 50-200 m and drifted W and SW. During the reporting period, two to four lava flows, each 150-300 m long, were emitted from an area on the lower S flank, SW from the main edifice.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


22 April-28 April 2009

On 24 and 28 April, INSIVUMEH reported gas emissions from Pacaya's MacKenney cone; occasional ash explosions ejected tephra 15-25 m high. The seismic network detected tremor and explosions. A small spatter cone being built in the S part of the crater was 4 m high. Rumbling noises were heard 3-5 km away and degassing produced sounds resembled airplane engines. Lava flows traveled 50-400 m down the SW flank and fumarolic plumes drifted S.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


1 April-7 April 2009

INSIVUMEH reported that explosions in March ejected greater amounts of material that was deposited in the crater, enlarging the cones there. On 23 March, visual and audible changes in Strombolian activity were noted. Vigorous degassing produced sounds resembled airplane engines. In a report issued on 3 April, INSIVUMEH stated that Strombolian explosions from MacKenney cone during the previous few days ejected material 25 m into the air. On 2 April, lava flow volume increased, sending four lava flows W and one SW; the flows traveled 25-200 m. The seismic network detected tremor and explosions. On 6 April, lava flows on the W flank traveled 150-300 m, causing lava to pile up on the SW flank. Activity from MacKenney cone was continuous; one cone emitted gas and explosions about every 5-10 minutes, and a second cone ejected tephra 25 m high. On 7 April, one lava flow traveled 150 m W and one traveled 200 m SW. INSIVUMEH recommended that CONRED coordinate with authorities in Pacaya National Park to restrict visitors from climbing Pacaya.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


11 March-17 March 2009

On 12, 16, and 17 March, INSIVUMEH reported that fumarolic plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone drifted S at a low altitude. Lava flows, 25-200 m long, traveled S, SW, and W.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


28 January-3 February 2009

INSIVUMEH reported that on 30 January and 3 February white and blue fumarolic plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone drifted S and SW at a low altitude. One lava flow, 75-100 m long, traveled down the SW flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


10 December-16 December 2008

On 12 December INSIVUMEH reported that fumarolic plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone drifted NE at a low altitude. Three lava flows, 150, 250, and 800 m long, were observed from the S. Seismic data indicated small explosions at the crater.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


19 November-25 November 2008

On 20 November INSIVUMEH reported that fumarolic plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone drifted S at a low altitude. Ash occasionally entrained by strong winds drifted S. Multiple lava flows on the S, W, and SW flanks of the cone traveled 50-300 m during 20-21 and 25 November.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


29 October-4 November 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 2 November a possible ash-and-gas plume was emitted from Pacaya and drifted E. On 3 November, INSIVUMEH reported that fumarolic plumes drifted S at a low altitude. Ash occasionally entrained by strong winds drifted S. Multiple lava flows on the S and SW flanks of MacKenney cone traveled a maximum distance of 400 m on 3 and 4 November, and continued to fill in the area between the cone and Cerro Chino crater to the N. Fumarolic plumes drifted E on 4 November.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 October-14 October 2008

INSIVUMEH reported that, during 8-14 October, multiple lava flows on the W and SW flanks of Pacaya's MacKenney cone traveled a maximum distance of 250 m and continued to fill in the area between the cone and Cerro Chino crater to the N. Avalanches occurred from the lava-flow fronts on 8 October. Fumarolic plumes drifted SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


20 August-26 August 2008

INSIVUMEH reported that during 21-26 August, fumarolic plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone rose to an altitude of 3.2 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally seen at night. Lava flows on the SW flank branched and traveled a maximum of 300 m; lava continued to fill in the area between MacKenney cone and Cerro Chino crater to the N. Avalanches occurred from the lava-flow fronts on 26 August.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


16 July-22 July 2008

INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-16 July, Strombolian activity from Pacaya's MacKenney cone was mainly characterized by explosions approximately 2-3 minutes apart. Pyroclastic material was ejected about 25 m above the crater. Lava flowed 100-200 m down the NW flank and continued to slowly fill in the area between MacKenney cone and Cerro Chino crater to the N. On 16 July, fumarolic plumes drifted SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


18 June-24 June 2008

During 18-24 June, INSIVUMEH reported that white fumarolic plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone drifted S and W. Lava flows traveled 50-100 m NW in the area between MacKenney cone and Cerro Chino crater to the N. Incandescence in the crater was observed at night.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


14 May-20 May 2008

INSIVUMEH reported that during 19-20 May white fumarolic plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone drifted W. Lava flows from the base of the NW flank traveled 100 m NW in the area between MacKenney cone and Cerro Chino crater to the N. The seismic network recorded small explosions and occasional tremor.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


13 February-19 February 2008

INSIVUMEH reported that during 6-19 February white and blue fumarolic plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone rose to altitudes of 2.6-2.7 km (8,500-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, and W. About two to five lava flows per day traveled about 50-200 m to the W and NW, slowly filling in the area between MacKenney cone and Cerro Chino crater to the N. Explosions on 8 February propelled fragments 100 m above the summit.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


23 January-29 January 2008

INSIVUMEH reported on 24 January that white and blue fumarolic plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone drifted S and SW. Four lava flows traveled about 100 m to the W. Based on reports from INSIVUMEH, CONRED reported on 28 January that the Alert Level was lowered to Green.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED)


9 January-15 January 2008

INSIVUMEH reported on 11 January that continuous effusion of lava on Pacaya's W flank resulted in a 150-200 m-long lava flow. Fumaroles produced white and blue plumes that drifted S, and incandescence at night was observed from the summit. CONRED reiterated that the Alert Level remained at Yellow.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED)


19 December-25 December 2007

According to CONRED, a 17 December INSIVUMEH report noted changes in Pacaya's behavior. On 19 December, CONRED issued a bulletin noting that INSIVUMEH reported observations of white and blue "smoke" plumes. The plumes rose to an altitude of 2.8 km (9,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. Lava flows were unchanged from previous days. Based on these reports, CONRED raised the Alert Level to Yellow in surrounding communities.

Source: Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED)


12 December-18 December 2007

INSIVUMEH reported that during 12-17 December constant lava flows on the W flank of Pacaya's MacKenney cone were about 100-200 m in length. Based on seismic interpretation, a small explosion occurred in the crater on 12 December. Fumaroles produced plumes that drifted S and SW and incandescence at night was observed from the summit.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


5 September-11 September 2007

On 7 September, INSIVUMEH reported that lava flows on the W flank of Pacaya's MacKenney cone were about 150 m in length. During the week prior, fumaroles in the crater produced white and blue plumes that drifted S and SW. Incandescence was observed from the summit.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


11 July-17 July 2007

On 13 July, INSIVUMEH reported that lava on the NE flank of Pacaya's MacKenney Cone branched into three flows. Two flows traveled 100 m and 200 m to the N and one traveled 300 m to the NE. Incandescence was observed from a hornito in the summit crater. White plumes were observed.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


30 May-5 June 2007

INSIVUMEH reported that on 31 May, and 1 and 5 June, lava from the NE flank of Pacaya's MacKenney Cone continued to flow and pooled between the base of the volcano and the plateau. Gas plumes from the summit drifted N and SW and rose to altitudes of 2.8 km (9,200 ft) a.s.l. on 5 June. Small pyroclastic explosions from the N part of MacKenney Cone were occasionally observed.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


4 April-10 April 2007

The Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Pacaya was visible on satellite imagery drifting SSE on 6 April.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 March-13 March 2007

INSIVUMEH reported that on 9 and 12 March, fumurolic activity from Pacaya's MacKenney Cone produced plumes that rose to 3 km (9,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SW. Incandescence was reflected in the plumes on 9 March. A lava flow from a crater on the NE flank was visible on 12 and 13 March to distances of 300 m.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


3 January-9 January 2007

INSIVUMEH reported that during 4-5 January, Strombolian eruptions from Pacaya produced incandescent material that was expelled at 2-40-second intervals, up to 100 m above the crater. Gas clouds reached an altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. A lava flow 50 m in length pooled near the NE edge of MacKenney Cone.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


15 November-21 November 2006

INSIVUMEH reported that on 15 and 17 November lava flows from Pacaya traveled about 100-150 m N and NE. On 17 November, fumarolic emissions produced a white cloud that surrounded the S flank of MacKenney Cone.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


27 September-3 October 2006

Lava flows have continued at Pacaya during 14-29 September, as reported by INSIVUMEH. The flows slowly advanced W towards Cerro Chino and NE towards Cerro Grande. White fumarolic emissions continued to rise from the MacKenney Cone.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


23 August-29 August 2006

The Washington VAAC reported that emissions from Pacaya with possible ash content were visible on satellite imagery on 28 August. The plumes reached altitudes of ~3 km (~10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. A thermal anomaly was identified on the imagery.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 August-22 August 2006

Fumarolic emissions from Pacaya's Mackenney Cone drifted S and SW on 16 and 21 August. Lava flows advanced N and NW towards Cerro Chino, NE towards Cerro Grande, and SW from Mackenney Cone during 16-21 August.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


5 July-11 July 2006

A white- and blue-colored "smoke" plume from Pacaya was observed on 5 and 7 July and drifted NW and W, and a white gas cloud on 10 July reached 800 m above the crater (11,000 ft a.s.l.) and drifted SW. Lava flows toward the NW reached lengths of 800 m. Incandescence was observed on 7 July.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


12 April-18 April 2006

On 17 April, lava flowed from Pacaya from a parasitic crater at the NE base of a volcanic cone. Fumaroles were active at the volcano's central crater.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


22 March-28 March 2006

During 22-28 March, incandescent volcanic material was ejected tens of meters above Pacaya and lava flows extended ~100 m down the volcano's S flank. On the 28th, a new lava flow was emitted from the SW edge of the active crater. The flow reached ~150 m and avalanches occurred from the lava-flow fronts.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


8 March-14 March 2006

Strombolian explosions at Pacaya on 9 March occurred at intervals of 10-30 seconds and threw volcanic material 50-100 m above the volcano. On the evening of 12 March, there was an increase in Strombolian activity, with material reaching 150-250 m above Mackenney Cone.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


18 January-24 January 2006

Weak incandescence was noted from the Pacaya crater during 18-24 January. A white- and blue-colored fumarolic gas plume rising from the crater frequently extends many kilometers downwind.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


7 September-13 September 2005

During 7-11 September, occasional Strombolian activity occurred at Pacaya. Volcanic bombs were emitted from two craters, reaching up to 30 m above their rims. Incandescence from lava flows on the volcano's SE flank was visible on several nights.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


13 July-19 July 2005

During 13-18 July, a lava flow that traveled down Pacaya's SW flank extended about 300 m. Also, avalanches of incandescent volcanic blocks produced small ash clouds to low levels.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


6 July-12 July 2005

During 6-11 July, lava flows traveled 200-300 m down Pacaya's SW flank. Small plumes emitted from the volcano's central crater rose to low altitudes.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


22 June-28 June 2005

By 27 June a lava flow extended ~300 m down the SW flank. A white column reached ~150 m (8,860 ft a.s.l.) over the central crater and extended SW. Incandescent lava expulsions reached a height of 15-50 m. On the night of 27 June two rivers of lava were observed in front of the Chinese hill, and were 75 and 150 m long. A constant expulsion of pyroclastic material was observed to reach 20-30 m above the crater.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


18 May-24 May 2005

Incandescent lava was ejected ~50 m from Pacaya's crater on 17 May and an intra-crater lava flow extended ~300 m from the SW base of the central cone. On 20 May a thin plume rose ~500 m above the volcano's crater (~10,000 ft a.s.l.).

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


11 May-17 May 2005

Reports on 10 and 13 May indicated continued ejection of incandescent material from the crater. Lava flows moving towards the SW and W in the direction of Cerro Chino reached lengths of 150-250 m.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


4 May-10 May 2005

Lava emission continued at Pacaya during 4-9 May. Earlier in the period, on 4 May, three lava flows were active, extending up to 100 m down the SW flank and 150 m W in the direction of Cerro Chino. On 9 May two flows from the base of the intracrater cone were active, reaching 200 m down the W flank. Plumes from the MacKenney Cone rose as high as 800 m above the crater.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


20 April-26 April 2005

Small explosions occurred at Pacaya during 21-25 April. A ~250-m-long lava flow was on the volcano's W flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


2 March-8 March 2005

During 2-8 March, lava flows from Pacaya traveled as far as 200 m down the volcano's SW flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


19 January-25 January 2005

During 24-25 January, lava flows from Pacaya traveled as far as 150 m down the volcano's SW flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


6 January-12 January 2005

During 1-6 June, incandescent lava was ejected as high as ~75 m above Pacaya's crater (8,600 ft a.s.l.). An intra-crater lava flow extended ~300 m from the SW base of the central cone. On 6 June, a lava flow traveled ~200 m down the volcano's W flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


13 October-19 October 2004

INSIVUMEH reported that activity at Pacaya during 14-18 October had not significantly changed in 2 months. Weak glow was visible from MacKenney cone, variable tremor was recorded, and white plumes rose to ~200 m above the crater.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


15 September-21 September 2004

During 15-21 September, INSIVUMEH reported that Pacaya displayed weak glow from the MacKenney Cone and variable tremor. White plumes rose to heights 500-700 m from the central crater.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


2 July-8 July 2003

On 5 July at 0715 a very thin ash and/or gas plume was visible at Pacaya on satellite imagery at a height of ~3 km a.s.l. extending ~7.5 km SW. By 1430 the plume was no longer visible, possibly obscured by thunderstorm clouds in the area, and the Guatemala Volcano Observatory reported that only steam was emitted from Pacaya.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 June-18 June 2002

The Washington VAAC reported that on 17 June at 0815 satellite imagery showed a very thin SW-drifting plume of unknown composition emitted from Pacaya. In addition, satellite imagery showed a faint hotspot at the volcano's summit.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 May-4 June 2002

The Washington VAAC received a report from Guatemala City indicating that Pacaya was active on 30 May. Satellite imagery showed possible low-level ash near the volcano's summit.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 February-27 February 2001

The agency responsible for monitoring active volcanoes in Guatemala, INSIVUMEH, observed several indications of renewed eruptive vigor at Pacaya. A local seismometer recorded over 700 earthquakes per day in comparison to 100 earthquakes per day recorded approximately 2 weeks earlier. SO2 gas emissions increased from 253 tons/day to 550 tons/day. In addition, lava was visible in the summit region at MacKenny Crater.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 Mar 5 2013 Sep 16 (continuing) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations MacKenney Crater
2004 Jul 19 (?) 2010 Oct 28 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations MacKenney Crater and lower S flank
2002 May 30 2002 Jun 17 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations MacKenney Crater
2001 Oct 31 2001 Oct 31 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations MacKenney Crater
2000 Aug 2001 Jul 5 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations MacKenney Crater
1990 Jan 4 (?) 2000 Mar 1 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations MacKenney Crater and flank vents
1965 Jul 4 1989 Mar 10 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations MacKenney Crater and flank vents
1961 Mar 11 1961 Apr 15 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Cachajinas vent (South flank, 1860 m)
1885 Dec Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1846 Feb Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Cerro Chino
[ 1830 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1805 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1775 Jul 1 1775 Jul 23 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Cerro Chino (SW flank and summit)
[ 1760 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1717 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1699 Jun 29 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1693 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1690 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1687 Mar 26 1687 Mar 27 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1678 Aug (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1677 Jul ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1674 Jul Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1671 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1668 Aug 1669 Jun 29 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1664 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1655 Jul Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1651 Feb 18 1651 Apr 13 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1623 (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1565 Aug (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Cerro Chino, Pc-Pt 12 tephra
1360 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Cerro Chino, Pc-Pt 8 tephra
1160 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) MacKenney Crater, Pc-Pt 10 tephra
0880 ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology Pc-Pt 5 tephra, Pacaya debris avalanche
0400 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Pc-Pt 1 tephra

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Bardintzeff J M, Deniel C, 1992. Magmatic evolution of Pacaya and Cerro Chiquito volcanological complex, Guatemala. Bull Volc, 54: 267-283.

Cameron B I, Walker J A, Carr M J, Patino L C, Matias O, Feigenson M D, 2003. Flux versus decompression melting at stratovolcanoes in southeastern Guatemala. J Volc Geotherm Res, 119: 21-50.

Carr M J, 1984. Symmetrical and segmented variation of physical and geochemical characterisitics of the Central American volcanic front. J Volc Geotherm Res, 20: 231-252.

Carr M J, Rose W I Jr, 1987. CENTAM; a database of Central American volcanic rocks. J Volc Geotherm Res, 33: 239-240.

Conway F M, Diehl J F, Matias O, 1992. Paleomagnetic constraints on eruption patterns at the Pacaya composite volcano, Guatemala. Bull Volc, 55: 25-32.

Eggers A A, 1971. The geology and petrology of the Amatitlan quadrangle, Guatemala. Unpublished PhD thesis, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, 221 p.

Eggers A A, 1983. Temporal gravity and elevation changes at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala. J Volc Geotherm Res, 19: 223-237.

Eggers A, Krausse J, Rush H, Ward J, 1976. Gravity changes accompanying volcanic activity at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala. J Volc Geotherm Res, 1: 229-236.

Francis P W, 1973. Cannonball bombs, a new kind of volcanic bomb from the Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 84: 2791-2793.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Katayama S, Matias O, 1995. Tephra stratigraphic approach to the eruptive history of Pacaya volcano, Guatemala. Sci Rpt Tohoku Univ, 7th Ser (Geog): 45: 1-41.

Kutterolf S, Freundt A, Perez W, 2008. Pacific offshore record of plinian arc volcanism in Central America: 2. Tephra volumes and eruptive masses. Geochem Geophys Geosyst, 8: Q02S02, doi:10.1029/2007GC001791.

Lima Lobato E M, Fujino T, Palma Ayala J C, 2000. Amatitlan geothermal field in Guatemala. Bull Geotherm Resour Council, 29: 215-220.

Matias Gomez R O, Rose W I, Palma J L, Escobar-Wolf R P, 2012. A 3D map of the 1961-2009 eruption of Volcan de Pacaya, Guatemala. Geol Soc Amer Digital Maps and Charts Ser, 10, doi:10.1130/2012DMCH010.

Momita M, Fujino T, Lima Lobato E M, Palma J, 2002. Conceptual model of Amatitlan, Guatemala. Chinetsu, 39: 11-32.

Mooser F, Meyer-Abich H, McBirney A R, 1958. Central America. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 6: 1-146.

Rodriquez L A, Watson M W, Rose W I, Branan Y K, Bluth G J S, Chigna G, Matias O, Escobar D, Carn S A, Fischer T P, 2004. SO2 emissions to the atmosphere from active volcanoes in Guatemala and El Salvador, 1999-2002. J Volc Geotherm Res, 138: 325-344.

Rose W I, Conway F M, Pullinger C R, Deino A, MacIntosh W C, Svitil K A, 1999. An improved age framework for late Quaternary silicic eruptions in northern Central America. Bull Volc, 61: 106-120.

Rose W I, Palma J L, Escobar Wolf R, Matias Gomez R O, 2013. A 50 yr eruption of a basaltic composite cone: Pacya, Guatemala. In: Rose W I, Palma J L, Escobar Wolf R, Varley N (eds), Understanding Open-Vent Volcanism and Related Hazards. {Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap}, 498: 1-21.

Sapper K, 1925. The Volcanoes of Central America. Halle: Verlag Max Niemeyer, 144 p.

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Vallance J W, Siebert L, Rose W I, Giron J R, Banks N G, 1995. Edifice collapse and related hazards in Guatemala. J Volc Geotherm Res, 66: 337-355.

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Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the ancestral Pacaya Viejo and Cerro Grande stratovolcanoes and the currently active Mackenney stratovolcano. Collapse of Pacaya Viejo volcano between 600 and 1500 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (Mackenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of Mackenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the growing young stratovolcano.