Santa María

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 14.756°N
  • 91.552°W

  • 3772 m
    12372 ft

  • 342030
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
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12 March-18 March 2014

INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-14 March an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated an ash plume that rose 700 m and drifted SW, causing ashfall in areas within 3 km including La Florida and Monte Claro. During 15-18 March gas plumes rose as high as 150 m and small avalanches from lava flows descended the E and SE flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



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12 March-18 March 2014

INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-14 March an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated an ash plume that rose 700 m and drifted SW, causing ashfall in areas within 3 km including La Florida and Monte Claro. During 15-18 March gas plumes rose as high as 150 m and small avalanches from lava flows descended the E and SE flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


12 February-18 February 2014

In a special bulletin on 11 February, INSIVUMEH noted that activity at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex had increased in recent days. Explosions from Caliente dome were accompanied by block avalanches and pyroclastic flows that traveled NE. Ash plumes rose 3.5 km and drifted over 15 km S and SW. Some explosions were audible in areas as far as15 km S. During 13-14 February explosions generated ash plumes that rose no more than 200 m above the crater. During 16-17 February the E part of the lava dome was incandescent and lava flows descended the E and W flanks. Gas plumes from Caliente dome rose 300 m.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


22 January-28 January 2014

In a special report on 23 January, INSIVUMEH noted that a lava flow on the SE flank of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex became active; collapses from the lava-flow front generated avalanches and small pyroclastic flows that reached the base of the volcano. The report also noted that in recent months activity at Santa María was high, with explosions sometimes ranging from 40 to 45 explosions per day, generating ash plumes that rose 3-3.4 km. A change in wind direction on 23 January pushed the ash plume E and NE, causing ashfall in areas 10 km away. On 24 January explosions produced ash plumes that rose 500-700 m above the complex. A lava flow on the NE flank generated avalanches. Explosions during 27-28 January produced ash plumes that rose 600-800 m and drifted E, NE, and SW, causing ashfall in Santa María de Jesús (SE) and the El Rosario Palajunoj finca.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


18 September-24 September 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that during 17-18 September explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 900 m and drifted W. Block avalanches descended the E flank of Caliente cone. Degassing sounds were reported during 19-21 September; gas plumes rose 150 m and drifted SW on 21 September. At 0820 on 21 September explosions from Caliente cone collapsed part of the SE crater rim, produced an ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted N and NE, and generated pyroclastic flows that descended the flanks. A strong shock wave was detected 20 km away and shook structures within 10 km. Explosions on 23 September produced ash plumes that rose 700 m and drifted E. Block avalanches again descended the E flank of Caliente cone. Two explosions on 24 September generated light gray ash plumes that rose 500 m and caused ashfall in areas around Monte Claro (S).

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


4 September-10 September 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that at 1405 on 5 September a lahar descended Santa María's Nima I drainage on the S flank carrying mostly fine sediment and 50-cm-diameter blocks, but also a small percentage of blocks 1-2 m in diameter. During 5-10 September white plumes rose 200-500 m and drifted W, SW, E, and NE. A few weak avalanches descended the S part of the active crater of the Santiaguito lava-dome complex. On 10 September another lahar traveled down the Nima I drainage, carrying blocks up to 3 m in diameter. The lahar was 15 m wide, 6 m deep, and had a sulfur odor.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


28 August-3 September 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that during 28-29 August abundant degassing at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated gas plumes that rose 2.7 km. During 29-31 August explosions produced ash plumes that rose 700-900 m and sometimes drifted SW. Block avalanches descended the S and E flanks. On 31 August a lahar traveled down the Nima I drainage on the S flank carrying 2-m-diameter blocks, tree branches, and tree trunks. Cloud cover prevented views on 2 September. Overnight during 2-3 September explosions generated ash plumes that rose 700 m and drifted SW. Block avalanches descended the S flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


21 August-27 August 2013

INSIVUMEH reported constant lava extrusion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex on 22 August. At 1745 a series of collapses of the SE crater rim generated pyroclastic flows that reached the S and SE base of the complex. Bombs were ejected 500 m SW and ash plumes rose 4 km. A weak explosion on 23 August generated a white plume that rose 600 m. Ashfall was reported in the Palajunoj region (S).

At 0815 on 24 August a partial collapse of the SE crater rim of Caliente cone was accompanied by an explosion heard 20 km away and a shock wave. The explosion also rattled homes within 10 km. The collapse was followed by pyroclastic flows, avalanches, and more explosions. At 2210 another similar collapse occurred, producing a blast heard 15 km away and pyroclastic flows that descended the SE flank. Houses within 10 km again vibrated. Ash plumes rose as high as 4 km and drifted W and SW. On 25 August explosions continued and block avalanches descended the E flank of Caliente cone. At 0324 on 27 August a moderate explosion produced a mushroom-shaped ash plume that rose 1.3 km, and drifted SW, causing ashfall in Palajunoj. A pyroclastic flow traveled SW, and avalanches traveled S and E. White gas plumes rose 1.2 km.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


7 August-13 August 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that two explosions on 7 August from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex were followed by white plumes that rose 500 m. Pyroclastic material descended the E, S, and SW flanks. Fumarolic plumes rose 100 m on 8 August. On 10 August white plumes rose 250 m. An explosion at 0624 generated an ash plume that rose 900 m and drifted SW, causing ashfall in Monte Claro (S). Heavy rainfall on 11 August caused a lahar in the San Isidro-Tambor River, a tributary of Samala River, which was 30 m wide, 1.5 m thick, and carried branches, tree trunks, and blocks up to 1.5 m in diameter. A few explosions on 13 August generated ash plumes that rose 1 km and drifted 10 km WSW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


31 July-6 August 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex at 0529 on 1 August generated an ash plume that rose 150 m above the crater and drifted SW. Ashfall was reported in the ranches of Monte Claro (S) and La Florida (5 km S). A few avalanches from the lava dome traveled short distances. On 4 August a weak explosion at 0613 produced a white plume that rose 300 m and drifted SW. Minor amounts of ash fell in Monte Claro, El Rosario (45 km SW), and Palajunoj (S). Avalanches were generated by the lava flow on the S flank. Seven explosions were detected during 5-6 August; the explosions generated avalanches on the NE flank, and degassing, jet-engine, and rumbling sounds. The last explosion was followed by a weak pyroclastic flow that traveled S and a moderate one that traveled SW. White and gray plumes rose 500-800 m. Ashfall was reported in the Palajunoj area. Later that day on 6 August OVSAN reported that explosions were heard, and ash plumes that rose 500-800 m drifted W and SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


26 June-2 July 2013

During 26 June-2 July, INSIVUMEH reported that ash plumes frequently rose from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. Explosions during 26-28 June generated ash plumes that rose at most 900 m and drifted SW; ashfall was reported in Monte Claro (S) and Finca La Florida (5 km S) during 27-28 June. Avalanches originated from the lava flow on the S flank and from the SW lava dome, and produced pyroclastic flows on 27 June. An explosion at dawn on 28 June produced rumbling and degassing noises. Four moderate explosions during the morning of 30 June generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km and drifted S and SE. Rockfalls occurred on the flanks, and ash fell in San José, La Quina, and the region of Calahuaché. Explosions during 1-2 July generated incandescent avalanches from the S dome; a white plume rose 300 m above the crater. Gray plumes rose 400 m and drifted N.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


19 June-25 June 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that on 19 June an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated a white plume that rose 700 m and drifted SW. On 20 June lahars that descended the Nimá I and Tambor river drainages on the S flank were 30 m wide and 3 m thick. The lahar in Nimá I carried blocks up to 3 m wide as well as branches and tree trunks. The lava dome continued to grow on 22 June and fed a lava flow that traveled S, which produced avalanches from the flow front. An explosion on 23 June generated a gray plume that rose 500 m and drifted SW, causing ashfall in Monte Claro (S). On 23 and 25 incandescent avalanches descended the S flank. Explosions on 25 June produced ash plumes that rose 700-1,000 m and drifted 10 km S and SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


5 June-11 June 2013

In a special bulletin on 5 June, INSIVUMEH stated that residents of Quetzaltenango, 18 km WNW of Santa María, reported slight ashfall and a sulfur odor. On 6 June white and blue emissions rose 400 m from the E edge of the Santiaguito lava-dome complex’s active dome. The next day gas plumes rose 500 m and drifted N. On 8 June lahars carrying blocks descended the Nima I and Tambor drainages on the S flank. An explosion on 9 June generated an ash plume that rose 600 m and caused ashfall in Monte Claro (S). On 11 June white gas plumes rose 100 m and drifted SW. A few weak avalanches traveled S.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


29 May-4 June 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that on 29 May white gas plumes rose 200 m above Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex and drifted W. Avalanches occurred on the NE and S flanks of the dome. An explosion on 30 May generated an ash plume that rose 500 m; ashfall was reported in Calahuaché village. On 1 June a weak lahar descended the Nima I drainage on the SE flank, and on 2 June dense white plumes rose from the dome. At 1855 on 4 June a lahar again descended the Nima I drainage and was about 40 m wide and 2.5 m thick.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


15 May-21 May 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that on 16 May an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced an ash plume that rose 600 m and drifted 6 km SE. Ashfall was reported in La Florida and Monte Claro. A lava flow on the NE lava dome traveled S. During 20-21 May a few explosions generated ash plumes that rose 500-700 m and drifted 10 km W and SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


24 April-30 April 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that on 23 April two explosions were accompanied by white plumes that rose 800 m above Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex and drifted SW. The next day explosions produced ash plumes that rose 600 m and drifted SSW. Avalanches were generated by active lava flows on the SW flank. Explosions were heard on 25 April but cloud cover prevented visual confirmation. On 28 April a small explosion generated a white plume that rose 500 m and drifted NE. Explosions on 29 April produced ash plumes that rose 800 m and drifted SE, causing ashfall in San Jose, La Quina, and areas near Calahuache.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


27 March-2 April 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that during 27-29 March explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 800 m and drifted SW. During 29-30 March ashfall was reported in El Faro (SW flank) and La Florida (5 km S). An explosion during 1-2 April generated ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted SE, causing ashfall in San José. Avalanches were generated by active lava flows during 29 March-2 April.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


20 March-26 March 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-19 March explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes that rose as high as 4 km and drifted NE, E, S, SW, and W. Explosions were heard during 25-26 March. Avalanches from lava-flow fronts traveled down the flanks, and incandescence in the crater was observed on some nights. Ashfall was reported in El Faro (SW flank) and La Florida (5 km S) during 13-14 and 25-26 March, in Quetzaltenango (18 km WNW) during 17-18 March, and in San Jose on 19 March.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


13 March-19 March 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-19 March explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes that rose as high as 4 km and drifted NE, E, S, SW, and W. Avalanches from lava-flow fronts traveled down the flanks, and incandescence in the crater was observed on some nights. Ashfall was reported in El Faro (SW flank) and La Florida (5 km S) during 13-14 March, in Quetzaltenango (18 km WNW) during 17-18 March, and in San Jose on 19 March.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


6 March-12 March 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that during 6-11 March explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 700-900 m and drifted S, SE, and E. Ashfall was reported in Calahuaché, El Faro (SW flank), and San José Patzulin (SW flank). Avalanches from lava-flow fronts traveled down the flanks. On 8 March avalanches from the NE part of the lava dome generated ashfall on the volcano. During 11-12 March four lava flows were active, on the SW, S, SE, and E flanks, which sometimes produced avalanches that generated pyroclastic flows. The number of explosions ranged from 40 to 60 per day, often producing ash plumes that rose 0.5-1 km above the complex.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


20 February-26 February 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that during 20-21 February an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced an ash plume that rose 600 m and caused ashfall in the region of Palajunoj, on the SW flank, and in La Florida (5 km S). Steam plumes rose 200 m and drifted SW, and avalanches from lava-flow fronts traveled NE. On 22 February an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 800 m and drifted SW, causing ashfall in Monte Claro (S). Avalanches from lava-flow fronts traveled SE. A change in the wind direction on 23 February blew ash plumes N, generated ashfall in Quetzaltenango (18 km WNW). Explosions during 24-25 February generated ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted E. Avalanches descended the S and SE flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


6 February-12 February 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-8 and 10-11 February explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 500-700 m and caused ashfall in La Florida (5 km S). Steam plumes rose 200 m and drifted SW, and avalanches from lava-flow fronts traveled SE down the Nima I drainage.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


30 January-5 February 2013

On 30 January, INSIVUMEH reported that both an increasing height of ash plumes from explosions at Santiaguito lava-dome complex and a change in wind direction caused ashfall in the towns of Esperanza and San Mateo in Quetzaltenango. Dark gray plumes rose an average of 800 m above the complex and were accompanied by sulfur dioxide emissions.

During 30-31 January a series of small explosions produced ash plumes that rose 300 m and drifted NW. Active lava flows produced avalanches. During 31 January-1 February ashfall was reported in areas to the S. Two explosions on 3 February generated ash plumes that rose 700 m above the complex and drifted SW. Noise from avalanches were reported on 4 February. Two explosions on 5 February generated white-and-gray plumes that rose 700 m and drifted SW, causing ashfall in areas downwind.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


23 January-29 January 2013

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 23 January a diffuse ash plume from Santa María drifted SSE and SSW. INSIVUMEH reported that during 24-27 January explosions from the Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 800-900 m. White vapor plumes rose 200-400 m and drifted W, SW, and E during 26-29 January. Active lava flows produced avalanches during 28-29 January.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 January-8 January 2013

INSIVUMEH reported that during 2-3 January explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced plumes that rose 300 m. During 2-4 January the lava-flow front on the S flank was incandescent because avalanches exposed the hot interior. A weak explosion was detected on 4 January. Explosions during 5-8 January produced ash plumes that drifted W and SW. Lava flows were active on the NE, SE, SW, and NW flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


12 December-18 December 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that during 12-13 December incandescence from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex was visible and lava flows were active on the flanks. During 13-14 December avalanches were produced from the fronts of lava flows on the SE flank. Ash plumes that rose from the avalanches drifted 10 km S, producing ashfall in La Florida (5 km S) and El Faro (SW flank). During 15-18 December incandescence emanated from the SW part of the lava dome. Avalanches were again produced from the fronts of lava flows on the SE flank. Ash plumes from the avalanches drifted 8 km during 15-16 December.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


5 December-11 December 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that during 6-7 December incandescence from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex was visible, and an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 300 m and drifted E. During 8-11 December avalanches were produced from the fronts of lava flows on the SE, S, and SW flanks. A recent lava flow traveled 700 m down the S flank. Ash plumes that rose from the avalanches drifted 10 km W and SW. Crater incandescence was observed at night. A special bulletin on 11 December noted that a new lava flow had traveled down the N flank. Crater incandescence continued to be observed at night.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


28 November-4 December 2012

INSIVUMEH reported in a special bulletin on 28 November that collapses of the fronts of lava flows on the flanks of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated pyroclastic flows and ash plumes that rose 2.4 km and drifted 30 km S, SW, and W. Activity decreased during 28-29 November. During 29-30 November block avalanches were generated from the S edge of the crater. Pyroclastic flows generated ash plumes that rose 3.2 km and drifted 10-15 km SW, WSW, and W. Rumbling sounds were reported in areas 7 km away. During 1-2 December incandescent avalanches descended the SW lava dome. During 3-4 December a new lava flow in the crater was incandescent, and produced block avalanches and ash plumes which drifted 10 km W and SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


21 November-27 November 2012

INSIVUMEH reported in a special bulletin on 21 November that collapses of the fronts of lava flows on the NE, SE, S, and SW flanks of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated pyroclastic flows and ash plumes that rose 1 km. Ash plumes drifted 15 km S and SE, producing ashfall in Las Marías, Calaguache (9 km S), and Nuevo Palmar (12 km S). During 24-27 November incandescence was observed, lava flows were active on the SW and SE flanks, and ash plumes rose 500 m and drifted 15 km SW. On 27 November pyroclastic flows traveled short distances, and generated ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted 10 km S and SE.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


24 October-30 October 2012

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from INSIVUMEH, the Washington VAAC reported that on 24 October an 11-km-wide ash plume from Santa María drifted over 30 km SW. A diffuse gas-and-ash plume drifted 18 km S the next day.

INSIVUMEH reported that during 24-25 October explosions from Caliente dome produced ash plumes that rose 600 m and drifted W and almost 20 km S. Lava flows were visibly active on 26 October. Cloud cover prevented observations on 28 October. On 30 October a weak explosion generated an ash plume that rose 700 m and drifted SW. A few avalanches were produced by lava flows.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 October-16 October 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that during 11-12 October white plumes from Santa María's Caliente dome rose 3.9 km and drifted S and SE. According to the Washington VAAC, INSIVUMEH reported a lava-dome collapse on 14 October. An ash plume observed in satellite imagery drifted WSW and W, and then dissipated. INSIVUMEH noted that during 15-16 October white plumes rose 400 m and drifted SW and W. An explosion generated a white plume that rose 600 m, and white plumes rose 50 m above the fronts of active lava flows.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 September-2 October 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that during 29 September-1 October explosions from Santa María's Caliente dome generated ash plumes that rose 600-800 m and drifted W and SW. Active lava flows generated block avalanches that traveled S down the Rio Nima I and Rio Nima II during 29 September-2 October.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


29 August-4 September 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that on 29 August fumarolic plumes from Santa María's Caliente dome rose 250-300 m and drifted SE. Small avalanches were active on the S part of the dome. Explosions on 3 September produced ash plumes that rose 200-800 m above Caliente dome and drifted W and SW. Four active lava flows generated block avalanches that traveled S down the Rio Nima I and Rio Nima II drainages. On 4 September hot lahars traveled S down the Rio Nima I and San Isidro drainages. The lahar in the San Isidro channel was 30 m wide and 2 m deep, emitted a sulfur odor, and carried blocks up to 1 m in diameter.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


22 August-28 August 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that during 22-26 August explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 700 m above Caliente dome and drifted SW. Block avalanches originated from the fronts of multiple active flows, particularly on the SE flank. Fumarolic plumes rose 150-400 m and drifted SW. During 25-26 August ashfall was reported in Monte Claro (S). An explosion on 27 August produced a white plume that rose 600 m and drifted SE, causing ashfall in San Jose. Avalanches descended the SE flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


15 August-21 August 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that during 15-16 and 18-20 August explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 400-900 m above Caliente dome and drifted 10 km W and NW. Block avalanches originated from the fronts of multiple active flows. White gas plumes rose 200 m and drifted WNW and SW. During 18-20 August ashfall was reported in Monte Claro (S), El Rosario (45 km SW), Palajunoj (S), and surrounding areas. Sounds resembling avalanches were reported on 21 August, however weather conditions prevented visual observations.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


25 July-31 July 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that during 26-27 July an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced an ash plume that rose 400 m above Caliente dome. White gas plumes rose 200 m and drifted SW; incandescence from the crater was reflected in the plume. On 29 July pyroclastic flows descended the S flank and generated ash plumes that rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted 15 km SW. The next day explosions produced ash plumes that rose 1.5 km and drifted 12 km WSW. During 30-31 July explosions produced ash plumes that rose 1.5 km above Caliente dome and drifted 12 km WSW. Block avalanches on the S flank generated pyroclastic flows that traveled to the base of the volcano.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


4 July-10 July 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that during 4-6 and 9-10 July an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced an ash plume that rose 300-800 m above Caliente dome and drifted SW. Ashfall was reported in La Florida (5 km S), Monte Claro (S), and Palajunoj (SW). Tephra avalanches from the lava dome traveled down the SE and SW flanks. During 7-8 July fumarolic plumes rose 200 m above the crater and drifted SW. One explosion generated an ash plume that rose 300 m and drifted SW. During 8-9 July gas plumes rose from the crater and avalanches descended the SE and SW flanks. Active lava flows were observed at night during 9-10 July; incandescent material traveled down the SE and SW flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


27 June-3 July 2012

Based on seismic data and visual observations, INSIVUMEH reported that on 27 June a 16-m-wide, 90-cm-deep lahar traveled down Santa María's Rio Nima I drainage, carrying rocks up to 80 cm in diameter. During 28-29 June block avalanches again traveled down the SE flank and fumarolic plumes drifted SW. During 1-3 July explosions produced ash plumes that rose 700 m above the crater and drifted SW. Ashfall was reported in La Florida (5 km S) and Monte Claro (S). Avalanches from lava flow fronts descended the SW flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


20 June-26 June 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that on 22 June an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced an ash plume that rose 700 m above Caliente dome and drifted E and SE. Ashfall was reported in Santa María de Jesús. Block avalanches from the dome traveled down the SE flank. On 23 June lahars traveled S down the Rio Nima I and San Isidro drainages, carrying tree branches and blocks 30-80 cm in diameter. During 25-26 June an explosions generated an ash plume that rose 600 m and drifted SE. Ash fell on the San José and La Quina ranches. Block avalanches again traveled down the SE flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


6 June-12 June 2012

Based on seismic data and visual observations, INSIVUMEH reported that on 6 June a lahar traveled down Santa María's Rio Nima I drainage. During 6-7 and 10-12 June explosions from Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 400-800 m above the crater and drifted SW. Lava flows produced block avalanches.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


23 May-29 May 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that during 22-23 and 28-29 May explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 400-900 m above Caliente dome and drifted E, SE, and S. During 26-27 May explosions produced ash plumes that drifted W. Avalanches were generated by the W part of the lava dome and from lava flows. On 29 May lahars traveled S down the Rio Nima I and San Isidro drainages, carrying tree branches and blocks 1-1.5 m in diameter.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


16 May-22 May 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that on 21 May a lahar traveled down Santa María's Rio Nima II drainage, carrying tree branches and 40-cm-wide lava blocks. On 22 May explosions produced ash plumes that rose 900 m above Caliente dome and drifted 10 km SE. Ashfall was reported in San Felipe (15 km SSW), El Nuevo Palmar (12 km SSW), and areas on the E flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


9 May-15 May 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-14 May incandescent explosions from Santa María's Caliente dome produced ash plumes that rose 700 m above the crater and drifted WSW. Avalanches from the dome and lava-flow fronts descended the flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


25 April-1 May 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that on 25 April a lahar traveled down Santa María's Rio Nima II drainage, carrying 1.5-m-wide blocks and tree branches. During 30 April-1 May white plumes rose 300-600 m above the lava dome. Lava flows continued to produce avalanches that descended the flanks. Ashfall was reported in Quetzaltenango (18 km WNW) and surrounding areas.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


18 April-24 April 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that during 22-24 April explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 900 m above the crater and drifted SE. Ash possibly fell in Santa María de Jesus and Calahuache.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 April-10 April 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and reports from INSIVUMEH, the Washington VAAC reported that on 7 April multiple ash clouds from explosions at Santa María drifted 37 km SW and 11 km S. INSIVUMEH reported that during 8-10 April explosions from Caliente dome generated ash plumes that rose 600-900 m above the dome and drifted 15 km S and SW. Lava flows continued to produce avalanches that descended the flanks.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 March-27 March 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and reports from INSIVUMEH, the Washington VAAC reported that on 23 March diffuse gas-and-ash plumes from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex drifted 33 km SW. Ashfall was noted in areas within 18 km of the volcano. On 24 March an ash plume drifted 26 km SW. The next day rockfalls occurred around the summit area and gas-and-ash plumes drifted 28 km SE, S, and SW. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery at night.

INSIVUMEH reported that during 25-27 March explosions generated ash plumes that rose 800-900 m above the crater and drifted in multiple directions. Lava flows continued to produce avalanches that descended the flanks. Ashfall was reported 5 km S at Observatory Vulcanológico de Santiaguito (OVSAN), at the El Faro, La Florida, and Patzulin ranches (SW), and in the village of Santa María de Jesús (SE). On 26 March an explosion was followed by a pyroclastic flow that traveled down the W flank of Caliente Cone.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 March-13 March 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that during 8-9 March explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 800-1,000 m above the crater and drifted W and SW. Block avalanches descended the SE and NW flanks. Ashfall was reported in the communities of Loma Linda, San Marcos, and Palajunoj. During 11-12 March explosions generated ash plumes that rose 800 m above the crater and drifted 20 km SSW. Ashfall was reported at the observatory, on the El Faro and Patzulin ranches, and in the village of Las Marías. Lava flows continued to produce avalanches.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


29 February-6 March 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that during 1-2 March explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 800 m above the crater and drifted 20 km W and SW. Block avalanches descended the SW flank, and lava flows were active on the S, SW, and NE flanks. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that during 3-4 March ash plumes drifted SW. On 5 March an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 February-28 February 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that during 22-24 and 27-28 February explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 600-1,300 m above the complex and drifted WSW, W, and WNW. Pyroclastic flows were generated during 22-23 February, and ash fall was reported in El Rosario (45 km SW), Monte Bello (S), Palajunoj (SW), and Quetzaltenango (18 km WNW) on 23 February. Clouds of gas and tephra were also observed on 23 February. Constant avalanches descended the S flank during 23-24 and 27-28 February. Ash fall was reported in Monte Claro (S), San Marcos (46 km NW), Buena Vista (49 km NW), El Rosario, Monte Bello, and Palajunoj during 24 and 27-28 February. White plumes rose from the Caliente Cone and drifted WSW on 27 February.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


1 February-7 February 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that active lava flows on the S and SE flanks of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated block avalanches during 1-3 February. Explosions sent ash plumes 500-600 m above the complex that drifted S, SW, and WSW. Ashfall was reported in Monte Claro (S) and Palajunoj (SW) on 1 February, and in La Florida (5 km S), San Marcos (46 km NW), and Palajunoj during 2-3 February. Strong winds caused re-suspended ash to rise 1 km high and drift several kilometers W and S. Rumbling noises were heard 15 km away on the S and W flanks during 1-3 February. Gas plumes rose 500 m above the Caliente Cone and drifted S and SW during 2-3 February.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


25 January-31 January 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that active lava flows on the S and SE flanks of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated block avalanches on 27 and 30 January. Moderate explosions generated ash plumes that rose 700 m above the complex and drifted SW and S. Strong winds caused re-suspended ash to rise 1 km high and drift several kilometers W and S. Ashfall was reported in Monte Claro (S) and Palajunoj (SW) on 27 January.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


18 January-24 January 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that active lava flows on the SE flanks of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated block avalanches during 18-19 and 23 January. On 19 and 23 January explosions generated ash plumes that rose 400-800 m above the complex. On 19 January ashfall was reported in communities of La Florida (5 km S), Palajunoj (SW flank), and San Marcos (46 km NW). Crater incandescence was observed at night on 23 January.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


11 January-17 January 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that during 11-12 and on 16 January explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 600-800 m above the complex and drifted SW. Lava flows on 16 January on the SE and SW flanks generated block avalanches and rumbling noises.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


4 January-10 January 2012

INSIVUMEH reported that on 6 and 10 January explosions Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 600 m above the complex and drifted N and W, respectively. Crater incandescence was observed at night and active lava flows on the SE and SW flanks generated block avalanches. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume drifted 18.5 km E of the Mexico border.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 December-13 December 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that on 9 December plumes from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex rose 300 m above the crater and drifted SW and explosions generated rumbling noises. On 13 December block avalanche activity increased on the S flank and created pyroclastic flows that were deposited into the San Isidro drainage.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


23 November-29 November 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that during 24-25 November block avalanches originated from the crater at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex as well as from lava flows. Ash plumes rose 500 m above the crater and drifted SW. During 28-29 November explosions generated shock waves and rumbling noises, as well as ash plumes that rose 700 m above the crater and drifted W. Incandescence was observed at night from Caliente dome and avalanches from lava flows descended the S and NE flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


2 November-8 November 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that during 1-2 November explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 600-1,000 m above the complex and drifted S and SW, causing ashfall in villages downwind. The explosions were heard in areas 12 km to the S and SW. Lava flows on the SE and S flanks generated block avalanches. During 3-4 and 7-8 November explosions produced ash plumes that rose 500-800 m above the complex and drifted SW and W. Explosions and rumbling were heard in areas to the S and SW. Lava flows on the SE flank continued to generate block avalanches. .

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that during 5-6 November possible ash plumes drifted 18-28 km SE and a thermal anomaly over the volcano was detected. On 8 November a possible ash plume drifted 45 km SW, coincident with an enhanced thermal anomaly.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 October-1 November 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that during 26-27 October gas plumes from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex rose 200 m above the crater and lava flows on the SE and SW flanks generated block avalanches that were deposited into the Río Nimá II drainage. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 26 October an ash plume drifted 16.7 km SW and then rapidly dissipated. The next day satellite imagery showed a possible ash plume and a thermal anomaly.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


19 October-25 October 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 25 October a narrow ash plume from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 30 km WNW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


28 September-4 October 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that on 29 September a lahar 28 m wide and 2 m deep traveled down Santa María's Rio Nima II drainage, carrying 2-m-wide blocks and tree branches. During 29-30 September and 3-4 October explosions from the Santiaguito lava dome complex produced gray ash plumes that rose 1 km above the crater and drifted 15 km E and SW. Avalanches from the lava-flow fronts descended the flanks. During 3-4 October avalanches from the lava dome occasionally generated pyroclastic flows; lava flows were active on the SW and SE flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


14 September-20 September 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-16 September lava flows were active on the SW and SE flanks of Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex. Avalanches from the lava-flow fronts also descended the flanks. Ash plumes drifted ENE. An explosion accompanied by rumbling generated an ash plume that rose 700 m above the crater and drifted SW. On 15 September a small lahar traveled down the Rio Nima II drainage. Incandescence emanated at night during 15-16 September from the lava flows and during 15-16 and 19-20 September from the crater.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


13 July-19 July 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-14 July explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 500 m above Caliente dome and drifted E. An explosion and loud rumbling was heard 10 km away. Lava flows were active on the E and SW flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


29 June-5 July 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that on 29 June a lahar descended Santa María's Nima I drainage, passing by the Observatory Vulcanológico de Santiaguito (OVSAN), about 5 km S of the lava dome. The lahar was 1.5 m high, 25 m wide, and carried fine material as well as different-sized blocks. During 3-4 July a steam plume rose 300 m above the crater and drifted SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


11 May-17 May 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that during 12-13 May explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 900 m above Caliente dome and drifted SE, depositing fine ash in areas downwind. During 14-15 May explosions produced ash plumes that rose 2 km above Caliente dome. Pyroclastic flows descended the SW and E flanks. Rumbling noises and block avalanches were also noted. Ash was deposited on the E, S, SW, and W flanks including the communities of Loma Linda, San Marcos, and Palajunoj. During 16-17 May explosions produced ash plumes that rose 0.7-1 km above Caliente dome and drifted SW. A pyroclastic flow traveled E.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


4 May-10 May 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that during 5-6 May ash plumes from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and dissipated within about 75 km SW. On 6 May ash plumes also rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and dissipated within 10 km NW. Plumes also drifted S and SE. During 5-6 May INSIVUMEH reported that an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 800 m above Caliente cone and drifted W. Ash fell at beach areas and weak avalanches occurred with a lava flow on the E flank. Two areas of incandescence were observed on the S flank of the lava dome. During 8-9 May steam plumes rose 100 m above the Caliente cone crater and a few avalanches descended the SE flank. Explosions during 9-10 May produced ash plumes that rose 1.2 km above the crater and pyroclastic flows from the SW edge of the crater that were deposited in the Río Nima I and Río Nima II drainages. Ash plumes drifted W and block avalanches descended the E, S, and W flanks.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 April-3 May 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that during 28-29 April explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 600-800 m above the crater and drifted S, SW, and W. Block avalanches descended the flanks of Caliente dome. At night pyroclastic flows traveled down the Rio Nima I and Rio Nima II drainages.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


30 March-5 April 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that on 28 March explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 300-800 m above Caliente dome and drifted NNE, depositing fine ash in Quetzaltenango (10 km NNE). During 30-31 March and 4-5 April explosions produced ash plumes that rose 400-700 m above the dome and drifted S; ashfall was reported in nearby areas downwind. Avalanches descended the SW and E flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


23 March-29 March 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that on 24 March a loud explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex was followed by a pyroclastic flow that descended the E flank. A few hours later an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 600 m above Caliente dome and drifted W. Based on a METAR notice, information from INSIVUMEH, and analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported a diffuse ash plume on 28 March. Explosions reported by INSIVUMEH during 27-28 March produced ash plumes that rose 300-600 m above the dome and drifted over nearby farms and villages. Block avalanches descended the flanks.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 March-22 March 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that during 17-18 March avalanches and a pyroclastic flow from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex traveled down the E flank. An ash plume rose 800 m and drifted SE. During 20-22 March explosions produced ash plumes that rose 700-800 m above the crater and drifted W and SW. On 22 March avalanches descended the S flank of Caliente dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


9 March-15 March 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that during 8-9 March a pyroclastic flow from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex traveled down the E flank, depositing material in Rio Nima I. An ash plume rose 1 km and drifted E. Ashfall was reported in Quetzaltenango (10 km NNE) and Retalhuleu (27 km SW) from plumes produced during the previous few days. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that ash-and-gas plumes drifted 22 km SW and 19 km W on 10 March.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 March-8 March 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that during 2-3 March explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 800 m above Caliente dome and drifted SW. Avalanches traveled S, SE, and SW, and ashfall was reported in Monte Claro, Patzulín, La Florida, and El Faro on the S and SE flanks. Two pyroclastic flows were also detected. On 3 March an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 800 m above Caliente dome and drifted W and SW. Ashfall was reported in multiple areas downwind. The explosion was accompanied by a pyroclastic flow that traveled 2.5 km down Rio Nima I on the SE flank. A few explosions occurred during 3-4 March; ash plumes rose 900 m above Caliente dome. Ash fell in La Florida, El Faro, and Palajunoj (SW flank). Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that ash was detected on 6 March. The next day an ash plume drifted almost 20 km SW.

During 7-8 March the seismic network detected explosions, avalanches, and pyroclastic flows. At least eight pyroclastic flows descended the E flank and deposited material in Rio Nima II. Ash plumes rose 1 km and drifted S and SW causing ashfall in areas downwind.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 February-1 March 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that during 24-25 February a few explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 800 m above Caliente dome and drifted SW. Incandescent avalanches descended the E and SW flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


16 February-22 February 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that during 16-17 February explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 800 m above Caliente dome and drifted S and SW. Avalanches traveled S, and ashfall was reported in Palajunoj, on the SW flank. According to the Washington VAAC, ash plumes were observed in satellite imagery drifting more than 10 km SSW. During 18-19 February, thermal anomalies were detected in satellite imagery. An ash plume drifted 25 km W on 18 February and again W at an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. on 19 February.

INSIVUMEH reported that during 20-21 February activity was low. Explosions produced ash plumes that rose up to 500-900 m above Caliente dome. On 21 February a few avalanches and pyroclastic flows accompanied the explosions. Incandescent avalanches originated from the top of Caliente dome on 22 February.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 February-15 February 2011

Based on information from INSIVUMEH, the Washington VAAC reported that ash observed in satellite imagery from a pyroclastic flow at Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex on 9 February had dissipated. INSIVUMEH reported that early on 10 February explosions produced ash plumes that rose almost 800 m above Caliente dome. Cloud cover prevented observations through the day. Seismic data suggested a block avalanche at 1230. During 11-12 February ash from pyroclastic flows was detected in satellite imagery and rose to altitudes of 3.4-4.3 km (11,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. On 13 February INSIVUMEH noted that a pyroclastic flow was detected, but not visually observed due to cloud cover. Explosions during 13-15 February produced ash plumes that rose 300-1,200 m above the dome. Block avalanches originated from the E crater rim. Ash fell in the La Florida and El Faro fincas (ranches) to the S.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 February-8 February 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 2 February an ash plume from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted less than 30 km SW and quickly dissipated. INSIVUMEH reported that during 2-3 February explosions produced ash plumes that rose 300 m above Caliente dome and drifted S and SW. On 4 February the VAAC noted that an ash plume was detected in satellite imagery. INSIVUMEH notices also stated that fumarolic plumes rose as high as 150 m above the dome during 2-3 and 6-7 February and drifted SE and W. Several landslides on the flanks occurred during 6-7 February. Explosions during 7-8 February produced ash plumes that rose 400 m above the dome and drifted SE.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 January-25 January 2011

Based on a METAR weather notice, the Washington VAAC reported ash above Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome on 20 January. Satellite imagery showed a small plume drifting NNE at a possible altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. During 20-21 January, INSIVUMEH reported that steam plumes rose 150 m above the crater and drifted SW. Avalanches originated from the lava dome SW of Caliente lava dome. On 21 January, the VAAC reported that an ash plume detected in satellite imagery drifted SW at an estimated altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. They also noted that INSIVUMEH reported mostly steam plumes and rockfall-generated small ash plumes that drifted within 5 km of the crater. During 23-24 January fumarolic plumes rose 300 m above the crater and drifted N.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 January-11 January 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that during 5-6 January explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 400-500 m above Caliente dome and drifted SW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 8 January a gas plume possibly containing ash drifted less than 30 km SSW. During 10-11 January, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 600 m above the dome and drifted SW and W. Avalanches descended the S and E flanks.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 December-4 January 2011

INSIVUMEH reported that during 29-30 December a few explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 300-600 m above Caliente dome and drifted S and SE. Ashfall was reported in local villages downwind. The Washington VAAC reported that several small emissions observed in satellite imagery drifted W on 1 January. During 3-4 January, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions produced ash plumes that rose 700 m above the complex and drifted SW. Avalanches descended the W part of the dome.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 December-14 December 2010

INSIVUMEH reported that on 8 December explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 700 m above Caliente dome and drifted SE. Ashfall was reported on the SE flanks and in the village of San José. The seismic network recorded block avalanches in addition to the explosions. The Washington VAAC stated that on 10 December an ash plume was observed in satellite imagery drifting 21 km W. According to INSIVUMEH, explosions ejected ash plumes that rose 300-700 m above the crater and drifted SE on 13 December. During 13-14 December block avalanches were detected by the seismic network. On 14 December weak pyroclastic flows were observed.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 November-23 November 2010

INSIVUMEH reported that on 17 and 22 November explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 0.7-1 km above the crater and drifted E and SW, respectively. On 19 November cloud cover prevented observations of the volcano. Ashfall was reported from farms to the S.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


27 October-2 November 2010

INSIVUMEH reported that on 29 October an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 900 m above Caliente dome and drifted SW. A weak pyroclastic flow from the lava dome traveled down the SE flank. Ashfall was reported in the Finca La Florida (5 km S), and Palajunoj and San José on the SW flank. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 31 October an ash cloud drifted W.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 October-26 October 2010

INSIVUMEH reported that on 22 October explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 300 m above Caliente dome and drifted SW. Block avalanches traveled down the S and SW flanks. On 26 October steam plumes rose 150 m above the crater.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


8 September-14 September 2010

INSIVUMEH reported that an eruption from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex on 11 September generated two pyroclastic flows that traveled 3 km SW and deposited material in the Nimá II drainage. Ash plumes rose 1 km above the crater and drifted E and SE. On 13 September white plumes rose 100 m and drifted S.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


1 September-7 September 2010

INSIVUMEH reported that on 1 September fumarolic plumes from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex rose less than 100 m above the crater and drifted SE. Ashfall was reported in an area to the SW. On 2 September block avalanches descended the W flank. On 2 and 6 September explosions produced ash plumes that rose 500-1,000 m and drifted W and SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


4 August-10 August 2010

On 5 August, INSIVUMEH reported that lahars descended Santa María's Nima I, Nima II, and San Isidro rivers, carrying tree branches as well as blocks up to 2 m in diameter. The next day, steam plumes rose above Caliente dome and drifted SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


14 July-20 July 2010

INSIVUMEH reported that 16 explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex during 19-20 July produced ash plumes that rose 300-900 m above Santiaguito and drifted SE and W. Ashfall was reported downwind in San José and La Quina. The seismic network had recorded a total of 24 explosions within the 48 hour period.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


2 June-8 June 2010

On 4 June, INSIVUMEH reported that a 12-m-wide lahar descended Santa María's Nima I river, carrying blocks up to 60 cm in diameter. Tropical storm Agatha had brought abundant rain to the area.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


26 May-1 June 2010

INSIVUMEH reported on 29 May that abundant rains from tropical storm Agatha triggered lahars in Santa Maria's S ravines.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


19 May-25 May 2010

During 19-20 May, INSIVUMEH reported that hot lahars traveled down Santa María's Nima I, Nima II, and San Isidro rivers. The lahar in the San Isidro channel was 30 m wide and 1.5-2 m deep, emitted a sulfur odor, and carried blocks up to 2 m in diameter. Explosions from the Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 2.9-3.4 km (9,500-11,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The next day, an explosion produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and a pyroclastic flow that traveled SW. On 21 May another lahar descended the Nima II River.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


5 May-11 May 2010

On 7 May, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.9-3.4 km (9,500-11,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Seismic stations recorded 17 explosions within 24 hours. On 10 May a white plume rose 75 m high. No explosions were noted.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


28 April-4 May 2010

On 30 April, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.7 km (9,200-12,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW. Ashfall was reported in towns downwind. Fumarolic plumes rose 300 m above Caliente dome. A lahar travelled S down the Nima I River, carrying blocks up to 90 cm in diameter. On 4 May an ash plume rose to a maximum altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


21 April-27 April 2010

On 20 April, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.4 km (9,200-11,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SE. On 26 April, ash explosions and pyroclastic flows generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 8.3 km (27,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and N. Ashfall was reported in Quetzaltenango (18 km WNW) and other areas to the W, NW, and N. According to news articles, schools in 10 communities were closed and flights were banned from within a 20-km-radius of the volcano.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Associated Press


24 March-30 March 2010

On 29 March, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3-3.3 km (10,000-10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W over inhabited areas. Avalanches from a lava flow descended the SW flank. The Washington VAAC reported that on 30 March a diffuse ash plume seen in satellite imagery drifted between the NW and NE.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 March-9 March 2010

On 4 March, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.7-3 km (8,900-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Ash fell in inhabited areas downwind. The Washington VAAC reported that on 8 March an ash plume was seen in satellite imagery drifting WNW.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 February-2 March 2010

On 2 March, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.1 km (9,200-10,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE. Ash fell in areas downwind.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


20 January-26 January 2010

INSIVUMEH reported that on 21 January ashfall was reported in areas near Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex. The next day an explosion produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.2 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume seen on satellite imagery drifted less than 10 km.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 January-12 January 2010

INSIVUMEH reported that incandescent avalanches traveled down the SW flanks of Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex on 8 January. A few explosions on 11 and 12 January produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.1-3.4 km (10,200-11,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and SW. Avalanches from a lava flow descended the W flank of the dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


30 December-5 January 2010

On 30 December and 5 January, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3-3.4 km (10,000-11,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW. The Washington VAAC reported that ash plumes seen on satellite imagery drifted more than 30 km WSW. Avalanches occasionally descended the SW flank of the dome.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 December-15 December 2009

On 11, 14, and 15 December, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.5 km (9,200-11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW. Avalanches occasionally descended the SE flank of the dome. On 15 December, explosions generated pyroclastic flows that descended the E and SW flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


18 November-24 November 2009

On 20 November, INSIVUMEH reported that two explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced an ash plume that drifted SW. Avalanches descended the SW flank of the dome. An explosion on 24 November produced an ash plume the rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


11 November-17 November 2009

On 13 November, INSIVUMEH reported that an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced a plume that drifted SW. Avalanches descended the SW flank of the dome. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 16 November multiple ash plumes drifted WSW.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 November-10 November 2009

On 6 November, INSIVUMEH reported that an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced a plume that rose 900 m and drifted SW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 8 November a small gas plume possibly containing ash drifted less than 10 km SSW. Another small plume was seen later that day.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 October-27 October 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 22 October multiple ash plumes from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted less than 20 km SW. On 23 and 26 October, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions produced ash plumes that rose above Caliente dome to altitudes of 3-3.3 km (10,000-10,800 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted W and SE and caused ashfall in areas downwind. Avalanches descended the SW flank of the dome. Degassing sounds resembling airplane engines were heard.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 September-15 September 2009

On 14 September, INSIVUMEH reported that an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted SW and cause ashfall downwind. Avalanches descended the SW flank of the dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


26 August-1 September 2009

On 28 August, INSIVUMEH reported an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex. On 1 September, fumarolic plumes rose 150 m above Caliente dome and drifted SW. Avalanches descended the SW flank of the dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


29 July-4 August 2009

On 31 July and 3 August, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes and that the Caliente lava dome was incandescent. On 3 August, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.1 km (10,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Fumarolic plumes rose 200 m above Caliente dome. Rumbling noises were occasionally heard.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


1 July-7 July 2009

INSIVUMEH reported that on 2 July lahars descended the Nimá I and Nimá II rivers on the S flank of Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex, carrying tree branches and blocks 50-75 cm in diameter. The lahars were 15 and 20 m wide. On 6 July, explosions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.2 km (9,200-10,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


24 June-30 June 2009

INSIVUMEH reported that on 26 and 29 June explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.9-3.3 km (9,500-10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW. Fumarolic plumes rose 100-200 m above Caliente dome. On 26 June, the seismic network detected a lahar that travelled S down the Nima I river. Steam plumes and a sulfur odor rose from the deposits. The lahar was 15 m wide and 1 m thick at the toe, and carried blocks up to 1.5 m in diameter.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


3 June-9 June 2009

INSIVUMEH reported that on 5, 8, and 9 June explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.3 km (9,200-10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Gas plumes that were sometimes gray rose 300-600 m above Caliente dome. Avalanches descended the S and W flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


22 April-28 April 2009

INSIVUMEH reported that during 24-28 April explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that drifted 5-8 km WSW. Gas plumes rose 25-75 m above Caliente dome. The number of explosions had decreased during the previous few weeks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


11 March-17 March 2009

On 12, 16, and 17 March, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.7-3.5 km (8,900-11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SW. A few avalanches originated from an active lava flow and traveled down the SW flank. White plumes rose 100 m and drifted W. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 12 March an ash plume drifted S. On 15 March, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and WSW.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 March-10 March 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that during 4-6 March ash plumes from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted W. On 6 and 10 March, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.4 km (9,200-11,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, NW, and N. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 February-3 March 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 26 February an eruption from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced an ash plume that drifted SW. On 27 February and 2 March, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.4 km (9,200-11,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Ashfall was reported in nearby areas. Avalanches were seen SW of Caliente dome.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 February-24 February 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 18 February a dense ash plume from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted W. On 20 February, INSIVUMEH reported that an explosion produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.2 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. On 24 February, an explosion produced a white plume that rose 500 m above the summit and drifted SW. Incandescence was seen SW of Caliente dome.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 February-17 February 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 12 February ash puffs from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted WSW and W. On 16 and 17 February, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.7-3.3 km (8,900-10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Small pyroclastic flows on 16 February descended the SE flank and reached the Nima I river. On 17 February, incandescent avalanches were noted and fumarolic plumes drifted SW.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 February-10 February 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 4 February multiple ash puffs from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted W. On 6 February, INSIVUMEH reported that fumarolic plumes rose 80 m above the crater and rifted S and SW. Explosions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.1 km (9,200-10,200 ft) a.s.l. and also drifted SW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 January-3 February 2009

INSIVUMEH reported that on 30 January and 3 February fumarolic plumes drifted 100 m above Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex. Explosions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.6-3.2 km (8,500-10,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, and S. Avalanches that were periodically incandescent descended the S and W flanks of Caliente lava dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


31 December-6 January 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that two small ash plumes from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted ESE on 1 January. During 4-5 January, gas and steam plumes possibly containing some ash drifted SW and WSW. INSIVUMEH reported that on 5 and 6 January fumarolic plumes drifted 100 m above the crater. Five explosions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.8-3 km (9,200-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SE. A few avalanches originating from a lava flow descended the W flank.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 December-30 December 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that a small ash plume from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted NW on 23 December. The next day a plume drifted W, and on 25 December a puff of ash drifted WNW.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 December-23 December 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that during 17-20 and 22 December ash plumes from Caliente dome in Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted SW, W, and NW. Plumes rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. on 18 December. On 22 December, INSIVUMEH reported that white plumes drifted SW and avalanches occurred from the crater rim. Explosions the next day resulted in pyroclastic flows that descended the flanks and ash plumes to an altitude of 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. that drifted S and SW.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 December-16 December 2008

INSIVUMEH reported that on 12 December explosions from Caliente dome in Santa María's Santiaguito complex produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.2 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. On 16 December, two ash puffs drifted W and WNW at altitudes of 4.3-4.6 km (14,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 November-18 November 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that ash puffs from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted SW on 11 and 15 November.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 September-30 September 2008

Based on information from the Tegucigalpa MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 18 September an ash plume from Caliente dome in Santa María's Santiaguito complex rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSW. INSIVUMEH reported on 24 September that explosions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.8 km (9,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Avalanches of material from the top of the lava dome descended the flank and lava flows traveled SW.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 September-16 September 2008

INSIVUMEH reported that on 10 September seismic stations monitoring Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex detected a lahar below the S flank in the Nima I River. The lahar, about 18 m wide and up to 2 m deep, carried blocks and smelled of sulfur. During 11-16 September, explosions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.3 km (9,200-10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Avalanches of material descended the flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


20 August-26 August 2008

INSIVUMEH reported that during 21-26 August explosions from Caliente, a unit of Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex, produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.3 km (9,200-10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, and W. Constant degassing was noted.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


23 July-29 July 2008

INSIVUMEH reported that on 22 July seismic stations monitoring Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex detected a lahar below the S flank in the Nima I river. Explosions observed on 23, 28, and 29 July from Caliente cone produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.3 km (9,200-10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind. A lava flow and avalanches of blocks descended the SW flank. On 28 July, weak pyroclastic flows also traveled down the SW flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


2 July-8 July 2008

On 4 July, INSIVUMEH reported that an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. A lahar traveled S down the Nima I river, carrying tree limbs and blocks up to 50 cm in diameter. On 7 and 8 July, sounds resembling avalanches descending the flanks were reported; visual observations were hindered due to cloud cover.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


18 June-24 June 2008

During 19-24 June, INSIVUMEH reported that weak-to-moderate explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.3 km (9,200-10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and S. An incandescent lava flow accompanied by constant avalanches of blocks descended the SW flank. On 20 June, a lahar traveled S down the Nima I river, carrying blocks up to 1 m in diameter.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


11 June-17 June 2008

INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-17 June, weak explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.1-4.4 km (13,500-14,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. On 13 June, gas-and-steam plumes rose from Caliente cone and drifted SE. The Washington VAAC reported that multiple small ash puffs were visible in satellite imagery on 16 June.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 June-10 June 2008

INSIVUMEH reported that lahars caused by heavy rainfall descended multiple drainages on Santa María on 3 June. On 9 June, a lahar about 15 m wide and up to 2 m deep descended S down the Nima I river, carrying blocks up to 1 m in diameter and smelling of sulfur.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


21 May-27 May 2008

INSIVUMEH reported explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex during 22-27 May. Resultant ash plumes seen during breaks in cloud cover rose to altitudes of 4.1-4.4 km (13,500-14,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SW. Ashfall was reported in areas nearby. Avalanches of blocks on the SW flanks were seen and heard. A lahar descended the Nima I river to the S on 25 May.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


7 May-13 May 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that ash puffs from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted NW on 13 May.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 April-29 April 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW on 25 April. On 28 April, INSIVUMEH reported that weak explosions produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4.1 km (13,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 April-22 April 2008

INSIVUMEH reported explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex during 15-21 April. Resultant ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.1-4.7 km (13,500-15,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Constant avalanches on the W and S flanks were noted. Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume drifted SW on 18 April.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 April-8 April 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that ash puffs from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted W on 2 April. During 3-7 April, INSIVUMEH reported that small explosions produced ash plumes; ashfall was reported in surrounding areas.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 March-1 April 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that ash puffs from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted SW on 1 April.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 February-19 February 2008

INSIVUMEH reported on 6 February that avalanches from lava flows on the W flank of Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex continued. Explosions produced ash-and-steam plumes that rose to an altitude of 3.9 km (12,800 ft) a.s.l. On 8 February, a strong phreatic explosion produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.7 km (15,400 ft) a.s.l. and caused ashfall in areas 4 km to the SW. Collapsing blocks of lava on the SW flank resulted in steam-and-ash plumes. On 12 and 18 February, lava flows on the S and SW flanks and avalanches of blocks that originated from the edge of the crater were noted. On 15, 18, and 19 February, explosions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.6-4.7 km (15,100-15,400 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported from areas 4 km to the SW on 15 February.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


30 January-5 February 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that gas plumes with possible ash content from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted SW on 30 January. Ash plumes drifted WNW on 3 February.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 January-15 January 2008

INSIVUMEH reported on 11 January that constant avalanches on the W and SW flanks of Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex were noted. Explosions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.1-4.5 km (13,500-14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


19 December-25 December 2007

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW on 21 December.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 December-18 December 2007

INSIVUMEH reported that during 12-17 December explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4.1-4.5 km (13,500-14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The explosions were accompanied by degassing sounds and constant avalanches on the W and SW flanks. Degassing from Caliente cone produced plumes that rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


24 October-30 October 2007

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that ash-and-gas plumes from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S on 26 October.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 October-16 October 2007

On 10 October, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4.4 km (14,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. A lava flow on the SW flank produced avalanches of blocks. On 12 October, lahars in multiple drainages that carried tree branches, fine sediment, and blocks of multiple sizes, flooded the Samala river (to the E and S) as far as the Pacific coast, 70 km S.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


26 September-2 October 2007

On 25 September, INSIVUMEH reported that a lahar, about 18 m wide, descended S down Santa María's Nima I river.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


29 August-4 September 2007

On 31 August, INSIVUMEH reported that a lahar, 8 m wide and 1.5 m high, descended S down Santa María's Nima I river, carrying fine material, tree branches, and blocks. Explosions from the Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to 4.3 km (14,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. During 3-4 September, explosions produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4.4 km (14,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. A lava flow on the SW flank produced avalanches.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


11 July-17 July 2007

During 11-12 July, INSIVUMEH reported 27 explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex based on seismic interpretation. Ash plumes from the explosions drifted SW. Explosions from Caliente dome on 13 July produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.3-5.3 km (14,100-17,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind. Incandescent avalanches of blocks from Caliente dome were observed.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


6 June-12 June 2007

CONRED reported that the Observatory Vulcanológico de Santiaguito (OVSAN) and several seismic stations registered a lahar from Santa María on 5 June. The lahar descended the Nima I river and carried blocks 1-1.5 m in diameter and tree branches. The approximately 12-m-wide by 3-m-thick deposit was hot and smelled of sulfur. On 7 June, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Caliente dome produced steam-and-ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.7 km (14,000-15,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. A plume rose from a cooling lava flow at the NE base of the lava dome. Continuous landslides of blocks and ash were noted on the SW flank.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED)


9 May-15 May 2007

Based on satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that ash plumes from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted S on 9 May. INSIVUMEH reported on 10 May that rain caused landslides S down the Nimá Primero river, near the Observatory Vulcanológico de Santiaguito (OVSAN), about 5 km S of the lava dome. Explosions from Caliente dome during 10-11 and 14 May produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.4-5.3 km (14,400-17,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and E. Ashfall was reported from areas S and SW on 10 May. Avalanches of blocks and ash from the SW edge of Caliente dome were observed on 14 May.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 April-1 May 2007

INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex on 26 April produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.4-4.8 km (14,400-15,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Based on satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that ash plumes and steam-and-ash plumes drifted S and WSW on 26 and 28 April, respectively. On 30 April, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions caused ashfall to the SW. Lava extrusion was low.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 April-24 April 2007

INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex on 20 and 23 April occasionally produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted SW and ashfall was reported from areas up to 9 km to the SW. On 23 April, lava flows on the SW and NE flanks of Caliente dome produced small landslides composed of blocks.

Based on satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that diffuse ash plumes on 18, 23, and 24 April, and gas plumes possibly containing ash on 20 April, drifted SW and W.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 April-17 April 2007

INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex occasionally produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E on 11 and 16 April. Lava-flow fronts on the SW flanks of Caliente Dome emitted gases on 11 April and produced avalanches of block and ash on 16 April. On 13 April, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume was visible on satellite imagery drifting W.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 March-3 April 2007

INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. on 29 March. Ashfall was reported near the Observatory Vulcanológico de Santiaguito (OVSAN), about 5 km S. On 30 March, the Washington VAAC reported that diffuse ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery drifting SW. On 2 April, INSIVUMEH reported that ash plumes rose to 4.4 km (14,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 March-27 March 2007

INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash-and-steam plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.8-4.8 km (12,500-15,700 ft) a.s.l. during 21-22 and 25 March and drifted W. Ashfall was reported from nearby areas. On 25 and 26 March, avalanches occurred from lava-flow fronts on the SW flanks of Caliente Dome. On 27 March, an explosion produced a pyroclastic flow that traveled down the SW flank.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 February-6 March 2007

Based on satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that a diffuse ash plume from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted SW on 5 March. A diffuse plume and a hotspot were seen on satellite imagery on 6 March.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 February-27 February 2007

Based on satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that diffuse ash plumes from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted mainly W and N during 22, 23, and 25-27 February. INSIVUMEH reported seven explosions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.4-4.6 km (14,400-15,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW on 26 February. Avalanches occurred from lava-flow fronts on the SW flanks and from the S edge of Caliente Dome. A hotspot was seen on satellite imagery. On 27 February, explosions occurring at an approximate rate of 3 per hour produced ash plumes that reached altitudes of 4.8 km (15,700 ft) a.s.l. Occasionally explosions were accompanied by pyroclastic flows that traveled SW.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 February-20 February 2007

Based on satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that diffuse plumes from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted NE on 15 February. INSIVUMEH reported that avalanches descended the SW flank to the base of Caliente Dome and explosions produced diffuse ash plumes that drifted SW on 15 February. Explosions on 19 February produced ash plumes and ashfall to areas SW. According to the Washington VAAC diffuse plumes were visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 February-13 February 2007

Based on satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that diffuse plumes from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted SW and S in a fan shape on 8 February. A hot spot was detected on satellite imagery.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 January-6 February 2007

INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex on 31 January and 5 February produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.8 km (15,700 ft) a.s.l. On 5 February, plumes drifted SW and S causing ashfall downwind. Block-and-ash avalanches descended the SW and S flanks of Caliente Dome. Fumarolic plumes drifted SW. Based on satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that ash plumes drifted SW on 31 January and W on 2 February.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 January-30 January 2007

Based on a pilot report and information from INSIVUMEH, the Washington VAAC reported that a diffuse plume from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex reached an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. on 24 January. A diffuse plume drifted SW on 30 January. INSIVUMEH reported that explosions produced minor ashfall on 25, 26, and 29 January. Block-and-ash avalanches descended the SW flank of Caliente Dome on 25 and 29 January.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 January-23 January 2007

INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex on 17, 19, and 23 January produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.1-4.7 km (13,500-15,400 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted SW. Incandescent blocks continuously rolled down the S and SW flanks. Based on satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that diffuse ash plumes drifted W on 18 January.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 January-16 January 2007

INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex on 12 January produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.9-4.2 km (12,800-13,800 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted SW and ashfall was reported from areas downwind. Explosions occasionally produced incandescent blocks that rolled SW on 12 and 16 January. Based on satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that diffuse ash plumes on 10, 12, and 14-16 January drifted SW and W. Plumes reached an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. on 14 January.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 January-9 January 2007

INSIVUMEH reported 37 weak to moderate explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex on 4 January. The moderate explosions caused ashfall S and SE in the ranching areas of Monte Bello and Monte Claro. About 21 block-and-ash flows were also observed. On 5 January, explosions produced ash clouds that rose to 4.3-4.8 km (14,000-15,700 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was noted from areas S and SE. The Washington VAAC reported that ash puffs were visible on satellite imagery during 7-8 January.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 December-2 January 2007

INSIVUMEH reported that on 28 December a series of small sector collapses from the SW edge of Santa María's Caliente dome produced pyroclastic flows that traveled about 2 km down a ravine. On 29 December, another collapse produced pyroclastic flows and incandescent blocks. Thick ash plumes associated with the pyroclastic flows on both days reached an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. According to the Washington VAAC, minor emissions of gas and possible ash were visible on satellite imagery on 1 and 2 January. The narrow ash plumes drifted WSW.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 December-12 December 2006

Based on satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes on 5, 7, and 10 December that drifted SW, NW, and W, respectively. INSIVUMEH reported constant incandescent avalanches on 8 December from the S and SE edge of Caliente dome and from the toe of the active lava flow on the SW flank. Ash plumes caused slight ashfall to the SW.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 November-21 November 2006

Explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced plumes that reached an altitude of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. on 15 November. Ashfall was reported from areas to the N. Lava flowed down the SW, S, and SE flanks of Caliente dome. On 17 November, explosions produced white-and-gray plumes that drifted SW, where light ashfall was reported. Based on satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported a series of brief gas-and-ash emissions on 19 November. Plumes drifted W.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 November-14 November 2006

According to the Washington VAAC, minor emissions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex were visible on satellite imagery on 14 November. The small ash clouds drifted WSW.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 October-31 October 2006

According to the Washington VAAC, minor emissions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex on 26, 27, and 30 October were visible on satellite imagery. The small plumes of gas and light ash drifted predominantly W.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 October-24 October 2006

According to the Washington VAAC, a series of minor emissions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex on 18 October was visible on satellite imagery. The small plumes of gas and light ash drifted W.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 September-3 October 2006

Explosive activity at Santa María has continued to be reported during 21-29 September by INSIVUMEH. Two explosions on 21 September caused minor ashfall and small block avalanches. A pyroclastic flow the next day was generated by material coming off of Caliente dome. Additional explosions reported on 26 and 29 September again caused ashfall to the SW. Lava extrusion on the 29th triggered avalanches that sent blocks to the base of the crater.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


9 August-15 August 2006

Explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex on 9 and 10 August produced gas-and-steam plumes with little-to-no ash content. These plumes reached heights of ~1.5 km above the summit (~17,300 ft a.s.l.) and drifted SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


28 June-4 July 2006

According to the Washington VAAC, on 1 July small ash plumes from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex reached altitudes of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. On 3 July, INSIVUMEH reported that an ash plume reached ~800 m above the summit (~15,000 ft a.s.l.). White "smoke" from an incandescent avalanche deposit was visible from the NE base of Caliente cone.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 June-27 June 2006

Explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex on 15-16, 18, 21, and 26 June produced gas-and-steam plumes with moderate to no ash content that reached heights of 1 km above the summit (15,700 ft a.s.l.). Lahars were observed on 18 and 19 June.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 April-18 April 2006

Explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex on 17 April produced ash plumes that reached heights between 500 and 900 m above the volcano (14,000-15,300 ft a.s.l.). Several pyroclastic avalanches occurred that sent material down the volcano's S flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


22 March-28 March 2006

A large number of weak-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex during 22-28 March, producing ash plumes that rose to ~1 km above the volcano (15,650 ft a.s.l.). The plumes drifted SW, depositing ash on properties 8-10 km away. On several days, short pyroclastic flows and block-and-ash avalanches descended the SW flank of Caliente Dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


8 March-14 March 2006

On 6 March around 0733, a moderate explosion at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced an ash plume and pyroclastic flows. A strong explosion later that day at 1025 sent an ash plume ~3 km above the volcano (or 22,200 ft a.s.l.) that deposited ash throughout the volcanic complex. The explosion was accompanied by pyroclastic flows that traveled down the volcano's NE and SW flanks. Fine ash drifted S and fell on properties in that direction. During 10-13 March, several moderate explosions occurred. On 12 March, there were avalanches of volcanic blocks and ash. On 13 March, a pyroclastic flow traveled down the S flank of Caliente Dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


1 March-7 March 2006

On 4, 6, and 7 March, satellite imagery showed small ash plumes emitted from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. The plumes reached ~3 km (~10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 February-21 February 2006

Several explosions occurred at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex during 15-17 February, with ash plumes rising to ~1.5 km above the volcano (or 17,300 ft a.s.l.). Some explosions were accompanied by small pyroclastic flows that traveled SW and NE down Caliente dome. Avalanches of incandescent volcanic material spalled off of active lava-flow fronts.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


8 February-14 February 2006

During 9-14 February, weak-to-moderate explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced plumes that rose to a maximum height of 1.2 km above the volcano (or 16,300 ft a.s.l.) on the 9th. Several explosions were accompanied by small pyroclastic flows that traveled down the SW and SE sides of Caliente Dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


1 February-7 February 2006

During 1-3 February, weak-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, producing plumes that rose to a maximum height of 1 km above the volcano (or 15,650 ft a.s.l.). On 1 February at 0657 and 0708, moderate explosions occurred that were accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Lava extrusion at Caliente Dome produced block-and-ash flows that descended the dome's S,E, and W sides.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


18 January-24 January 2006

Volcanism continued from the Santiaguito lava-dome complex at Santa Maria during 18-24 January 2006. Intermittent ash explosions sent gray ash as high as 800 m (2,600 feet) above the crater, causing ashfall in some local communities. Avalanches of blocks and finer material from lava-flow collapses is constant on the S and SW flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


11 January-17 January 2006

During 11-13 January, several explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, producing ash plumes that rose to ~1.5 km above the volcano (or 17,300 ft a.s.l.) and drifted SW. Lava avalanches originated from the SW edge of the Caliente dome. An explosion on the morning of 11 January generated a small pyroclastic flow that traveled down Caliente dome to the NE. INSIVUMEH reported on 16 January that a slight decrease in explosive activity was observed at the volcnao during the previous month, with small-to-moderate explosions producing ash clouds that rose to ~1 km above the crater (or 15,650 ft a.s.l.). On the 16th there were reports of a small amount of ashfall in the urban area of San Felipe Retalhuleu.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


4 January-10 January 2006

During 4-9 January, several explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, producing ash plumes that rose to ~800 m above the volcano (or 15,000 ft a.s.l.) and drifted SW. Lava avalanches originated from the SW edge of the Caliente dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


28 December-3 January 2006

On 2 January several explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. Resultant ash emissions drifted SW. Lava avalanches originated from the SW edge of the Caliente dome, and from the fronts of active lava flows on the volcano's SW flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


14 December-20 December 2005

On 13 December, several weak-to-strong explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, producing ash plumes to a maximum height of ~2.5 km above the volcano (or 20,600 ft a.s.l.) that mainly drifted SW. Avalanches of volcanic material spalled off of the fronts of active lava flows.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


7 December-13 December 2005

On 24 November at 0955 an eruption at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced an ash cloud to a height of ~4 km above the volcano (or 25,500 ft a.s.l.). The eruption was accompanied by a pyroclastic flow that traveled to the S. Fine ash fell 6-7 km S of the volcano, impacting properties in the area. During 2-12 December, moderate-to-strong explosions produced ash plumes that rose to ~1.5 km above the volcano (or 17,300 ft a.s.l.). Pyroclastic flows occasionally accompanied explosions and traveled towards the SW. Several avalanches of volcanic material also occurred during the report period.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 November-22 November 2005

During 17-21 November, several weak-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, producing ash plumes to a maximum height of ~4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. Several small pyroclastic flows traveled down the SW and NE flanks of Caliente dome, stopping at the base of the dome. Avalanches of volcanic material spalled off of the fronts of active lava flows and traveled SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


9 November-15 November 2005

During 11-14 November, several explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, producing ash plumes to a height of 1.2 km above the volcano (or 16,300 ft a.s.l.). Several small pyroclastic flows traveled down the SW, NE, and S flanks of Caliente dome. Frequent avalanches of volcanic material occurred off of the fronts of active lava flows mostly to the W of Caliente dome, and less frequently to the S and NE. An ash-and-gas emission on 14 November produced a cloud that was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


2 November-8 November 2005

During 2-7 November, weak-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, producing plumes to a height of ~1 km above the dome (or 15,700 ft a.s.l.). A few weak avalanches of volcanic material were observed SW of the lava dome. A lava flow that formed on 21 October extended ~100 m down the volcano's W flank. Avalanches spalled from the lava flow.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


26 October-1 November 2005

During 26-31 October, small-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. Plumes were produced that rose to a maximum height of ~4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. on the 28th.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 September-13 September 2005

During 7-11 September, small-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. Plumes were produced that rose to a maximum height of ~1.5 km above the volcano (or 17,300 ft a.s.l.) on 8 September. On 7 September, a moderate lahar traveled down the volcano's flank. About a dozen pyroclastic flows, and avalanches of volcanic material occurred from the SW edge of the lava dome, and from the front of lava deposits on the SW flank of Caliente Dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


13 July-19 July 2005

During 13-18 July, weak-to-moderate explosions continued at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, with plumes rising to ~1.3 km above the volcano (16,600 ft a.s.l.) on the 13th. Avalanches of volcanic material were produced at the front of an active lava flow, and from the SW edge of Caliente Dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


6 July-12 July 2005

During 6-11 July, weak-to-moderate explosions continued at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, with plumes rising to ~1 km above the volcano (15,700 ft a.s.l.). Avalanches of volcanic material were produced at the front of an active lava flow, and from the SW edge of Caliente Dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


22 June-28 June 2005

On 22-24 June explosion columns from Santa Maria reached ~900 m above the crater (15,300 ft a.s.l.) and extended several kilometers to the SSW and W. On 27 June, in the region of Palajunoj, on the SW flank, constant avalanches of lava blocks were observed.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


1 June-7 June 2005

Moderate explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced plumes that rose to ~1.2 km above the volcano (16,300 ft a.s.l.). On 2 June, the partial collapse of the lava dome in the crater of Caliente Cone generated a pyroclastic flow that traveled ~4 km SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


18 May-24 May 2005

Constant avalanches occurred from lava-flow fronts on the SW flank of Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex on 17 May. Explosions during 17-20 May produced ash clouds to a height of ~1 km above the volcano (15,700 ft a.s.l.); ash fell 7-10 km from Caliente Dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


11 May-17 May 2005

Constant avalanches were reported on 10 May from the lava-flow front and the Caliente Dome, along with one small ash explosion. Minor explosions described in a 13 May report send gray ash plumes 400-600 m high. Avalanches from the SW-flank lava flow continued.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


4 May-10 May 2005

Continuing explosive activity from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex during 4-9 May sent ash columns as high as 1.3 km above the vent. Small collapses at the Caliente Dome generated pyroclastic flows 500-3,000 m long.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


20 April-26 April 2005

Several explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex during 21-25 April. Lava avalanches occurred down the SW flank of Caliente Dome. Ash plumes rose to ~1.2 km above the dome (~16,300 ft a.s.l.). Explosions on 25 April produced pyroclastic flows that traveled S down Caliente Dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


16 March-22 March 2005

During 16-21 March, several ash explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. Ash plumes rose to a maximum height of 1.3 km above the volcano (~16,600 ft a.s.l.). Lava avalanches traveled down the SW flank of Caliente Dome. On 16 March, small amounts of fine ash fell in Xepax, Xecavioc, Llanos de Pinal, Las Majadas, and Quetzaltenango. During 19-20 March, ash fell E of the volcano in the town of Zunil.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


2 March-8 March 2005

During 2-8 March, several weak-to-moderate explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes to a maximum height of ~1.2 km above the dome. Avalanches of volcanic blocks traveled down the E and SW flanks of Caliente Dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


22 December-28 December 2004

On 22 December, explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes to 700-1,300 m above the dome. Small collapses occurred from lava-flow fronts on the SW side of Caliente Dome. According to the Washington VAAC, ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery on several days during 22-27 December.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 December-21 December 2004

During 15-21 December, weak-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, producing plumes to a maximum height of 1.3 km above the crater. Block-lava avalanches traveled down the SW flank of Caliente Dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


8 December-14 December 2004

During 8-14 December, weak-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, producing plumes to a maximum height of 1.5 km above the crater. Block-lava avalanches traveled down the SW flank of Caliente Dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


1 December-7 December 2004

During 1-7 December, weak-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, producing plumes to a maximum height of 1.3 km above the crater. Block-lava avalanches traveled down the SW flank of Caliente Dome. A moderate explosion on 4 December caused a partial lava-dome collapse and a pyroclastic flow that traveled SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


24 November-30 November 2004

During 24-26 November, weak-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, producing plumes to a maximum height of 1.3 km above the crater. Block-lava avalanches traveled down the SW flank of Caliente Dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


17 November-23 November 2004

During 17-22 November, weak-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, causing the emission of ash columns to heights of 300-1000 m above the active crater. Slight amounts of light gray ash fell on the flanks of the volcano.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


10 November-16 November 2004

During 10-15 November, weak-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, causing the collapse of a small sector of the SW edge of the Caliente dome. A pyroclastic flow from that area was noted on 12 November. On 14 November at 2012, a tectonic earthquake caused a lava-flow collapse SW of the Caliente dome, triggering a pyroclastic flow that descended to the head of San Isidro ravine, an area of abundant accumulation of pyroclastic material and a known area for lahar initiation.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


3 November-9 November 2004

During 3-8 November, weak-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, producing gas-and-ash plumes to ~1 km above the volcano. Many explosions were accompanied by block-and-ash avalanches from the NE and SW edges of Caliente dome. The Washington VAAC reported that satellite imagery on 3 November showed a possible ash-bearing plume at a height of ~5 km a.s.l.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 October-2 November 2004

During 28-29 October, weak-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, producing gas-and-ash plumes to ~800 m above the volcano. Some explosions were followed by collapses of the lava dome in the crater of Caliente dome. Pyroclastic flows traveled down the volcano's NE and SW flanks after some collapses. The Washington VAAC reported on 31 October that satellite imagery showed a possible ash-bearing plume at a height of ~4.5 km a.s.l.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 October-26 October 2004

During 21-22 October, weak-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. Some explosions were followed by collapses of the SW edge of the lava dome in the crater of Caliente Dome. On 22 October two pyroclastic flows traveled down the volcano's flank. The Washington VAAC reported that hot spots and plumes possibly containing ash were occasionally visible on satellite imagery on 21 October.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 October-19 October 2004

During 14-18 October, weak-to-moderate explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced plumes to a height of ~9 km above the volcano. Small lahars traveled down San Isidro Ravine on 14 and 15 October. A small collapse of the SW edge of the lava dome in the crater of Caliente Dome produced a pyroclastic flow on 17 October at 0749. The pyroclastic flow traveled down the S flank and produced a steam-and-ash plume to a height of ~800 m above the surface upon contact with dammed water. INSIVUMEH reported that this collapse, like those that occurred on previous days and weeks, was associated with a new cycle of magmatic refeeding and a new lava flow towards the SW flank could be emitted in the next weeks or months.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


6 October-12 October 2004

On 11 October, a partial lava-dome collapse to the SW at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced a pyroclastic flow that traveled toward the Nimá Segundo River. An ash cloud formed that rose to a height of ~500 m and covered most of the dome complex. The collapse was preceded by an explosion that produced an ash-and-gas cloud to ~1.5 km above the volcano. Small explosions on 12 October produced small lava-dome collapses to the SW that generated avalanches of lava blocks and ash.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


29 September-5 October 2004

During 30 September to 4 October moderate explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash-and-gas plumes to a maximum height of 1 km above the volcano. Some explosions were accompanied by avalanches of volcanic material down the S side of Caliente dome. Explosions on 4 October produced small 3-minute-long pyroclastic flows to the SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


22 September-28 September 2004

Moderate explosions occurred at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex during 21-27 September. On the 27th, several avalanches of volcanic material from active lava-flow fronts traveled SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


15 September-21 September 2004

Typical volcanic activity continued at Santa Maria during this report period, with explosive ash eruptions from the Caliente Dome rising up to 1 km above the vent, causing ashfall and triggering lava avalanches.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


8 September-14 September 2004

During 8-14 September, several weak-to-moderate explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash clouds to a maximum height of ~1 km above the volcano. Partial collapses of the lava dome caused several pyroclastic flows to travel down the volcano's SW flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


1 September-7 September 2004

During 2-3 September, several weak-to-moderate explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash clouds to a maximum height of 2 km above the volcano. Partial collapses of the lava dome caused several pyroclastic flows to travel down the volcano's NE and SW flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


25 August-31 August 2004

During 30 August to 1 September, several weak-to-moderate explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash clouds to a maximum height of ~1 km above the volcano. Avalanches of lava blocks and ash traveled down the S flank of Caliente dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


18 August-24 August 2004

During 18-23 August several explosions occured at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, producing ash plumes to ~1.3 km above the volcano. Two partial lava dome collapses on 23 August produced pyroclastic flows to the SE.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


11 August-17 August 2004

During 11-16 August several explosions occured at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, producing ash plumes to ~1 km above the volcano. Avalanches of lava blocks and ash traveled S down Caliente cone.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


21 July-27 July 2004

During 21-27 July, weak-to-moderate explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced plumes to heights ~700 m above the volcano. During the report period, several avalanches of volcanic material traveled SW down Caliente cone.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 July-20 July 2004

During 14-19 July, weak-to-moderate explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced plumes to heights ~1.3 km above the volcano. On 15 July at 1923 a pyroclastic flow traveled down the SSW side of Caliente cone. During the report period, several avalanches of volcanic material traveled S and SW down Caliente cone.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 July-13 July 2004

During 8-12 July weak to moderate explosions continued at the Santa Maria lava-dome complex, generating ash plumes as high as ~1.5 km above the volcano. Numerous avalanches of lava during 8-9 and 12 July formed small pyroclastic flows down the sides of Caliente dome.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 June-6 July 2004

During 1-6 July weak-to-moderate explosions occurred at the Santa María lava-dome complex, producing plumes to a maximum height of ~1.5 km above the volcano. Several partial lava-dome collapses produced avalanches that traveled down the sides of Caliente cone.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 June-29 June 2004

Weak-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex during 25-29 June. Plumes rose to ~1 km above the crater and there were sporadic, weak avalanches of volcanic material. On 28 June at 0622, a partial lava-dome collapse sent material down the W side of Caliente cone for ~40 minutes.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 June-22 June 2004

INSIVUMEH reported that on 18 June weak-to-moderate explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes to 0.4-1 km above the crater. The plumes drifted W, depositing fine ash on properties near the volcano. According to the Washington VAAC, satellite imagery showed three ash emissions on the 18th that rapidly moved W, becoming more diffuse near the Mexican border.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 June-8 June 2004

On 1 June, 33 weak to moderate explosions producing plumes up to 1.5 km above the summit were recorded at the Santiaguito dome of Santa María. Collapses on the SW side of the Caliente dome caused small pyroclastic flows to descend to the base of the Caliente and La Mitad domes. During 6-8 June, many weak to moderate explosions sending gas-and-ash plumes up to ~1.5 km above the summit of the Caliente dome were recorded, along with some avalanches and collapses on the flanks. Moderate lahars descended the Nimá Segundo river and San Isidro ravine on 1 and 6 June, respectively.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


26 May-1 June 2004

During 31 May to 1 June, weak-to-moderate explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose ~1.5 km above the crater. Small partial collapses at the edge of the Caliente lava dome produced avalanches of incandescent volcanic material down the SW flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


19 May-25 May 2004

During 18-21 May, weak-to-moderate explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose to ~1 km above the crater. Many of the moderate explosions were accompanied by avalanches of incandescent volcanic material. On 20 May around 1800 a small partial collapse at the edge of the Caliente lava dome produced an avalanche of incandescent volcanic material to the SW that reached the base of the dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


12 May-18 May 2004

During 10-17 May, weak-to-moderate explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose to ~1 km above the crater. Small partial collapses at the edge of the Caliente lava dome produced avalanches of incandescent volcanic material to the SW. On 17 May a lahar traveled S down Nimá River I.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


5 May-11 May 2004

During 5-7 May, weak-to-moderate explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose to ~900 m above the crater. Small partial collapses at the edge of the Caliente lava dome produced avalanches of incandescent volcanic material to the SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


28 April-4 May 2004

During 28 April to 4 May, weak-to-moderate explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose to ~1 km above the crater. Small partial collapses at the edge of the Caliente lava dome produced avalanches of incandescent volcanic material to the SW. An explosion on 27 April produced a pyroclastic flow that traveled ~3 km to the SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


21 April-27 April 2004

During 22-27 April, explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose to ~1 km above the crater. Small avalanches of incandescent volcanic material descended the SW side of the Caliente dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


14 April-20 April 2004

On 18 April, explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose up to ~0.8 km above the vent. Small avalanches of incandescent lava also descended the SW side of the Caliente dome. On 19 April, a gas-and-ash plume rose to ~4.5 km a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 April-13 April 2004

On 12 April weak-to-moderate explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced plumes to heights of 500-800 m above the volcano that drifted W. Avalanches of lava blocks and ash traveled down the volcano's S flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


31 March-6 April 2004

During 31 March to 6 April, weak-to-moderate explosions continued at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, producing plumes to 1.3 km above the volcano. Several partial lava-dome collapses produced avalanches down the volcano's S flank. A strong explosion on 1 April at 1706 caused a partial lava-dome collapse and produced a pyroclastic flow that traveled ~4 km SW toward the Nimá II river.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


24 March-30 March 2004

Weak to moderate explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome produced plumes up to 1 km above the vent. Light ashfall occurred in nearby areas on several occasions during the reporting period. On 25 March incandescent avalanches derived from the S flank of the Caliente dome flowed to the SE along various routes. Lahars descended the Nimá I river on 28 March and the Nimá I and Nimá II rivers on the evening of 29 March.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


17 March-23 March 2004

During 15-23 March, several small-to-medium explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash-and-gas plumes to ~1.5 km above the crater. Incandescent avalanches of volcanic material traveled SW from the lava dome. In addition, ash fell in proximal areas. A partial lava-dome collapse on 17 March sent a pyroclastic flow down the volcano's flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


10 March-16 March 2004

During 10-15 March, small-to-medium explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, producing ash-and-gas plumes to ~1.3 km above the crater. A small partial lava-dome collapse on 10 March at 0733 produced pyroclastic flows down the volcano's SSW flank. During the rest of the report period, weak avalanches of volcanic material traveled S and SW from the volcano.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


3 March-9 March 2004

During 4-9 March, small-to-medium explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, producing ash-and-gas plumes to 1.5 km above the crater. Avalanches of volcanic material traveled S and SW from the volcano.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


25 February-2 March 2004

During 25 February to 2 March, weak-to-moderate explosions continued at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. Ash-and-gas plumes rose to ~1.4 km above the crater, and ash fell in the mountainous region around the volcano. Weak-to-moderate avalanches of volcanic material traveled from lava-flow fronts.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


18 February-24 February 2004

On 19 February moderate explosions continued at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. Plumes rose 0.7-1 km above the volcano and mainly drifted SSW as fine ash fell in the mountainous region around the volcano. On 23 February avalanches of lava blocks and derived ash traveled SW down the lava dome.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


11 February-17 February 2004

During 11-16 February, small-to-moderate explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes to a maximum height of 1.4 km above the volcano. In addition, avalanches of volcanic material traveled down the volcano's SW flank. Explosions on 16 February deposited fine ash up to 12 km SW of the volcano.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


4 February-10 February 2004

During 4-9 February, small-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. In addition, relatively weak avalanches traveled down the volcano's SW flank. According to the Washington VAAC, ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery on 5 February at a height ~2.3 km above the volcano. INSIVUMEH reported that on the morning of 8 February, an explosion produced a gas-and-ash cloud that rose 1-1.3 km above the volcano and drifted WSW.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 January-3 February 2004

During 28 January to 2 February, small-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. During 31 January to 2 February, collapses occurred at the SW edge of the lava dome within Caliente cone. Ash plumes were produced that rose to ~1 km above the lava dome, as well as small avalanches of volcanic blocks and ash. According to the Washington VAAC, on 2 February ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery rising to ~1 km above the volcano. INSIVUMEH recommended that tourists not visit the S part of the volcano.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 January-27 January 2004

During 21-27 January, weak-to-moderate explosions continued at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. Avalanches of blocks of lava and ash descended the S and SW flanks of Caliente dome and explosions produced low-level ash plumes.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


14 January-20 January 2004

On the morning of 15 January a moderate explosion at Santa Maria's Santiguito lava-dome complex caused a collapse at the edge of the crater. Volcanic material traveled down the volcano's SW flank, reaching the base. Ash rose ~900 m above the crater and fell on the observatory and property near the volcano. Weak avalanches occurred in the SE portion of the lava dome. On 19 January moderate explosions occurred and avalanches descended the lava dome. The plumes produced from the explosions traveled E, depositing small amounts of fine ash around the volcano, including on the ranches of San Jose, Quina, and San Juan Patzulín.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 January-13 January 2004

During 7-12 January, several weak-to-moderate explosions and avalanches occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. A partial lava-dome collapse on 7 January produced avalanches down the SW flank. Many of the avalanches were moderate to strong, lasting 1-2 minutes as they traveled SW and S down Caliente cone. Explosions on 12 January produced plumes to ~500 m above the volcano. Ash plumes were also visible on satellite imagery several days during the report period.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 December-6 January 2004

According to seismic data, during 1-5 January weak-to-moderate explosions occurred from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. The explosions caused block-and-ash avalanches to travel 100-250 m down the volcano's SW and S flanks and down Caliente cone. Small amounts of ash fell around the volcano, including in Monte Bellow, La Florida, and El Faro ranches (locally termed fincas).

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


24 December-30 December 2003

On 30 December weak-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. The explosions sent ash-and-gas plumes 500-700 m above Caliente cone. They drifted SW and deposited fine ash in a mountainous region with several ranches (locally termed fincas) including, El Faro, Florida, Monte Claro and Monte Bello. Avalanches continued to spall off of lava-flow fronts on the volcano's SW and S flanks and occasionally from Caliente cone.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


17 December-23 December 2003

During 18-22 December, weak-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. The resultant plumes drifted mainly S and SE towards the Monte Claro, Monte Bello, La Florida, and El Faro fincas (ranches). Nearly constant avalanches of volcanic material traveled S and SW from the fronts of lava flows. Based on information from Retalhuleu airport, the Washington VAAC reported a minor emission from Santiaguito on 18 December. No ash was visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 December-16 December 2003

Weak-to-moderate explosions continued at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava dome during 10-16 December. On 10 December ash mainly drifted SE toward the areas of Sana María de Jesús and las Majadas. Avalanches travelled to the S and SW from the fronts of lava flows. According to the Washington VAAC, on 12 December ash clouds were visible on satellite imagery at a height of ~4.5 km drifting SW.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 December-9 December 2003

During 7-9 December, frequent, small explosive eruptions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome expelled ash to less than 1 km above the crater. Ash was dispersed in the local area to the NW. Moderate-sized avalanches from the S and SE sides of the dome were recorded during the same time period.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


26 November-2 December 2003

On 28 November the Santa María seismic network recorded several explosions at Santiaguito lava dome. INSIVUMEH noted that many of the explosions were followed by block-and-ash avalanches, which traveled SW and S down Caliente cone. At least five collapses of megablocks from the S edge of the active crater generated short pyroclastic flows that descended to the base of Caliente cone. On 1 December ash emissions traveled SE and nearly constant avalanches occcurred in the active lava-flow area.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


19 November-25 November 2003

Small eruptions on 18 and 23 November at Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome produced localized tephra fall. Small avalanches from the SW portion of the dome occurred on 18 November. On 24 November at 0745, five explosions occurred at 1-minute intervals, producing a gas-and-ash plume that rose to 2 km above the crater and was dispersed up to 12 km SSW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


12 November-18 November 2003

INSIVUMEH reported that as of 17 November, several weak-to-moderate eruptions took place from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome. Plumes rose to ~700 m above the crater and drifted SW. According to the Washington VAAC, a pilot saw a plume above Santa María on 16 November. The narrow plume was visible on satellite imagery extending ~35 km W.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 October-4 November 2003

INSIVUMEH reported that on 30 October three small collapses occurred at Santa María's crater edge. Moderate-to-weak explosions occurred and dozens of 2- to 3-minute long avalanches deposited material on the volcano's S flank. According to the Washingon VAAC, on 31 October low-level ash plumes from Santa María were visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 October-28 October 2003

INSIVUMEH reported that as of 24 October at Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome several moderate explosions occurred and block-and-ash avalanches traveled down the volcano's S flank. The ash from the avalanches mainly drifted SW. According to the Washington VAAC, on 26 October a pilot saw a small eruption at Santa María and satellite imagery showed a narrow plume extending ~20 km W.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


15 October-21 October 2003

As of 17 October Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome produced moderate explosions accompanied by block-and-ash flows that traveled SSW and NE. On 16 October at 1745 a strong explosion caused a portion of the SW crater to collapse, forming a pyroclastic flow that traveled ~4 km in ~3 minutes.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


8 October-14 October 2003

On 13 October an ash-and-steam plume emitted from Santa María at 0615 was visible on satellite imagery at a height of ~6.7 km a.s.l.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 September-30 September 2003

An ash emission on 28 September at 0802 from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex was visible on satellite imagery. Ash rose to ~4.3 km a.s.l., but was no longer visible by 1545.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 August-19 August 2003

On 14 August at 0715 a brief ash emission occurred at Santa María. The resultant ash cloud was visible on satellite imagery through 0745. The ash cloud was ~25 km long and 5 km wide.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 July-29 July 2003

Based on information from INSIVUMEH, the Washington VAAC reported the occurrence of small eruptions at Santa María around 22 July, one of which produced an ash column to ~4.5 km a.s.l. Satellite imagery indicated that the plume from an eruption on 23 July around 0730 drifted W.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 February-18 February 2003

Based on information from INSIVUMEH, the Washington VAAC reported that explosions occurred at Santa María during the evening of 16 February and the following morning. The explosions from Santiaguito lava dome produced ash plumes that rose to 600 m above the summit. An ash plume was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 August-20 August 2002

Based on information from INSIVUMEH, the Washington VAAC reported that a lava-dome collapse at Santa María on 16 August at 0919 produced ash that rose to near the summit. No ash was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 May-14 May 2002

Based on information from INSIVUMEH, the Washington VAAC reported that small amounts of ash fell near Santa María's summit on 13 May. An ash cloud was visible on satellite imagery drifting SW during the morning and more westerly later in the day. The densest ash was located very close to the summit, with light ash extending SW.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 March-19 March 2002

According to a news article, INSIVUMEH staff stated that beginning on 11 March volcanic activity increased at Santa María's lava-dome complex, Santiaguito. Until at least 14 March, ash was emitted from nearly constant explosions and fractures opened on the volcano. Ash rose 600-900 m above the volcano and fell in the towns of Retalhuleu (25 km SSE of the volcano) and San Marcos, and in areas that border México.

Source: Prensa Libre


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1922 Jun 22 2013 Sep 3 (continuing) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SW flank (Santiaguito)
1903 1913 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SW flank (east end of 1902 crater)
1902 Oct 24 1902 Nov 12 Confirmed 6 Historical Observations SW flank

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Anderson S W, Fink J H, Rose W I, 1995. Mount St. Helens and Santiaguito lava domes; the effect of short-term eruption rate on surface texture and degassing processes. J Volc Geotherm Res, 69: 105-116.

Bluth G J S, Rose W I, 2004. Observations of eruptive activity at Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala. J Volc Geotherm Res, 136: 297-302.

Conway F M, Diehl J F, Rose W I, Matias O, 1994. Age and magma flux of Santa Maria volcano, Guatemala; correlation of paleomagnetic waveforms with the 28,000 to 25,000 yr B.P. Mono Lake excursion. J Geol, 102: 11-24.

Harris A J L, Flynn L P, Matias O, Rose W I, Cornejo J, 2004. The evolution of an active silicic lava flow field: an ETM+ perspective. J Volc Geotherm Res, 135: 147-168.

Harris A J L, Rose W I, Flynn L P , 2003. Temporal trends in lava dome extrusion at Santiaguito 1922-2000. Bull Volc, 65: 77-89.

Harris A J L, Vallance J W, Kimberly P, Rose W I, Matias O, Bunzendahl E, Flynn L P, Garbeil H, 2006. Downstream aggradation owing to lava dome extrusion and rainfall runoff at Volcan Santiaguito, Guatemala. In: Rose W I, Bluth G J S, Carr M J, Ewert J W, Patino L C, Vallance J W (eds), Volcanic hazards in Central America, {Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap}, 412: 85-104.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Mooser F, Meyer-Abich H, McBirney A R, 1958. Central America. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 6: 1-146.

Rodriquez L A, Watson M W, Rose W I, Branan Y K, Bluth G J S, Chigna G, Matias O, Escobar D, Carn S A, Fischer T P, 2004. SO2 emissions to the atmosphere from active volcanoes in Guatemala and El Salvador, 1999-2002. J Volc Geotherm Res, 138: 325-344.

Rose W I, 1972a. Notes on the 1902 eruption of Santa Maria volcano, Guatemala. Bull Volc, 36: 29-45.

Rose W I, 1973. Pattern and mechanism of volcanic activity at the Santiaguito volcanic dome, Guatemala. Bull Volc, 37: 73-94.

Rose W I, 1987a. Santa Maria, Guatemala: biomodal soda-rich calc-alkalic stratovolcano. J Volc Geotherm Res, 33: 109-129.

Rose W I, 1987b. Volcanic activity at Santiaguito volcano, 1976-1984. Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap, 212: 17-27.

Rose W I Jr, Grant N K, Hahn G A, Lange I M, Powell J L, Easter J, Degraff J M, 1977. The evolution of Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala. J Geol, 85: 63-87.

Rose W I, Mercado R, Matias O, Giron J, 1989. Evaluation de riesgos del domo de Santiaguito, Guatemala (informe preliminar). INSIVUMEH, Guatemala, 21 p.

Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of the most prominent of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The 3772-m-high stratovolcano has a sharp-topped, conical profile that is cut on the SW flank by a large, 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit of Volcán Santa María to the lower flank and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.