Los Azufres

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 19.85°N
  • 100.63°W

  • 3400 m
    11152 ft

  • 341824
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Los Azufres.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Los Azufres.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Los Azufres.

The Los Azufres volcanic center is one of several silicic volcanic complexes with active geothermal systems that lie north of the axis of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. Located about 200 km NW of Mexico City, the Los Azufres center consists of a 18 x 20 km wide early Pleistocene caldera that was later partially filled by resurgent dacitic-to-rhyolitic lava domes. Two magmatic cycles lasting about 200,000 years each took place between 1.4 and 0.8 Ma (million years), consisting of silicic, followed by basaltic volcanism. The latest magmatic cycle, beginning about 0.6 Ma, involved resurgent doming of the southern part of the caldera, the eruption of chemically diverse basaltic-to-rhyolitic products, and the emplacement of dacitic-rhyolitic lava domes. The latest paroxysmal eruptions produced ignimbrites between 38,000 and 26,000 years ago. Hot springs and fumaroles are located along E-W-trending faults, and Los Azufres is an active producing geothermal field.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Los Azufres. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Los Azufres page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Domes
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Chinapo, Cerro Dome
Chino, Cerro el Dome
Gallo, Cerro el Dome
Guangoche, Cerro el Dome
Humaredas, Cerro las Dome
Jilguero, Cerro el Dome
Mesa el Bosque Dome
Mesa el Carpintero Dome
Mesa el Rosario Dome
Pizcuaro, Cerro Dome
Providencia, Cerro la Dome
San Andrés, Cerro de Dome
Los Azufres is one of several silicic volcanic complexes with active geothermal systems that lie north of the axis of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. Located about 200 km NW of Mexico City, Los Azufres consists of a 18 x 20 km wide early Pleistocene caldera that was later partially filled by resurgent dacitic-to-rhyolitic lava domes. This view shows the Agua Fria fault and thermal features looking NE from Cerro Pizcuaro.

Photo by Pat Dobson, 1982 (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory).
Steam rises from the Lagunas de Los Azufres, a thermal area namesake of Los Azufres volcanic center. Hot springs and fumaroles at Los Azufres are located along a series of major east-west-trending faults. The geothermal reservoir at Los Azufres lies in andesitic rocks that are capped by younger, altered rhyolitic lava domes and flows. In 1998 the field was producing 88 MW of power, with the potential to more than double the electrical output.

Photo by Pat Dobson, 1982 (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory).
Los Azufres goethermal field has been producing electricity since 1982. A 5 MW power plant is located at well AZ-6, shown here, which descends to a depth of 900 m. The well is located in the southern (Tejamaniles) section of the geothermal field. Surface exposures here consist of the roughly 1-million-year-old Agua Fria rhyolitic rocks. Exploratory drilling began at Los Azufres in 1976. By 1998, 67 wells had been drilled in an area of 60 sq km, of which 33 were producing electricity.

Photo by Pat Dobson, 1982 (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Campos-Enriquez J O, Garduno-Monroy V H, 1995. Los Azufres silicic center (Mexico): inference of caldera structural elements from gravity, aeromagnetic, and geoelectric data. J Volc Geotherm Res, 67:123-152.

Dobson P F, Mahood G A, 1985. Volcanic stratigraphy of the Los Azufres geothermal area, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 25: 273-287.

Gonzalez-Partida E, Birkle P, Torres-Alvarado I S, 2000. Evolution of the hydrothermal system at Los Azufres, Mexico, based on petrologic, fluid inclusion and isotopic data. J Volc Geotherm Res, 104: 277-296.

Pradal E, Robin C, 1994. Long-lived magmatic phases at Los Azufres volcanic center, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 63: 201-215.

Segovia N, De la Cruz-Reyna S, Mena M, Ramos E, Monnin M, Seidel J L, 1989. Radon in soil anomaly observed at Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan; a possible precursor of the 1985 Mexico earthquake (Ms = 8.1). Nat Hazards, 1: 319-329.

Torres-Rodriguez M A, Flores-Armenta M, 1998. Pressure and enthalpy evolution in wells of the Los Azufres geothermal field. Trans Geotherm Res Council, 22: 339-358.

Volcano Types

Caldera
Lava dome(s)
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Los Azufres Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.