El Chichón

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  • Mexico
  • Mexico
  • Lava dome(s)
  • 1982 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 17.36°N
  • 93.228°W

  • 1150 m
    3772 ft

  • 341120
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

There are no activity reports for El Chichón.



 Available Weekly Reports

There are no Weekly Reports available for El Chichón.

Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1982 Mar 28 1982 Sep 11 Confirmed 5 Historical Observations Tephra unit A
1850 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Anthropology
1360 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra unit B
1190 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra unit C
0780 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra unit D
0590 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra unit E
0480 ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra unit F
0190 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra unit G
0020 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra unit H
0700 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra unit I
1340 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra unit J
2030 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra unit K
6510 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra unit L

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Armienta M A, De la Cruz-Reyna S, 1995. Some hydro-geochemical fluctuations observed in Mexico related to volcanic activity. Applied Geochem, 10: 215-227.

Armienta M A, De la Cruz-Reyna S, Macias J L, 2000. Chemical characteristics of the crater lakes of Popocatepetl, El Chichon, and Nevado de Toluca volcanoes, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 97: 105-125.

Casadevall T J, De la Cruz-Reyna S, Rose W I, Bagley S, Finnegan D L, Zoller W H, 1984. Crater Lake and post-eruption hydrothermal activity, El Chichon volcano, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 23: 169-191.

De la Cruz-Reyna S, Mena M, Segovia N, Chalot J F, Seidel J L, Monnin M, 1985. Radon emanometry in soil gases and activity in ashes from El Chichon volcano. Pure Applied Geophys, 123: 407-421.

Duffield W A, Tilling R I, Canul R, 1984. Geology of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 20: 117-132.

Espindola J M, Macias J L, Tilling R I, Sheridan M F, 2000. Volcanic history of El Chichon Volcano (Chiapas, Mexico) during the Holocene, and its impact on human activity. Bull Volc, 62: 90-104.

Garcia-Palomo A, Macias J L, Espindola J M, 2004. Strike-slip faults and K-alkaline volcanism at El Chichon volcano, southeastern Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 136: 247-268.

Jimenez Z, Espindola V H, Espindola J M, 1999. Evolution of the seismic activity from the 1982 eruption of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. Bull Volc, 61: 411-422.

Luhr J F, Kimberly P G, Siebert L, Aranda-Gomez J J, Housh T B, Kysar Mattietti G, 2006. Quaternary volcanic rocks: insights from the MEXPET petrological and geochemical database. In: Siebe S, Macias J-L, Aguirre-Diaz G J (eds) Neogone-Quaternary continental margin volcanism: a perspective from Mexico, {Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap}, 402: 1-44.

Macias J L, Capra L, Arce J L, Espindola J M, Garcia-Palomo A, Sheridan M F, 2008. Hazard map of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico: constraints posed by eruptive history and computer simulations. J Volc Geotherm Res, 175: 444-458.

Macias J L, Espindola J M, Bursik M, Sheridan M F, 1998. Development of lithic-breccias in the 1982 pyroclastic flow deposits of El Chichon Volcano, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 83: 173-196.

Macias J L, Espindola J M, Taran Y, Sheridan M F, Garcia A, 1997. Explosive volcanic activity during the last 3,500 years at El Chichon volcano, Mexico. IAVCEI Puerto Vallarta, Mexico Plenary Assembly, Excursion no. 6 Field Guide, p. 1-53.

Macias J L, Sheridan M F, Espindola J M, 1997. Reappraisal of the 1982 eruptions of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico: new data from proximal deposits. Bull Volc, 58: 459-471.

McGee J J, Tilling R I, Duffield W A, 1987. Petrologic characteristics of the 1982 and pre-1982 eruptive products of El Chichon Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. Geof Internac, 26: 85-108.

Mooser F, Meyer-Abich H, McBirney A R, 1958. Central America. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 6: 1-146.

Rose W I, Bornhorst T J, Halsor S P, Capaul W A, Plumley P J, De la Cruz-Reyna S, Mena M, Mota R, 1984. Volcan El Chichon, Mexico: pre-1982 S-rich eruptive activity. J Volc Geotherm Res, 23: 147-168.

Sigurdsson H, Carey S N, Espindola J M, 1984. The 1982 eruptions of El Chichon volcano, Mexico: stratigraphy of pyroclastic deposits. J Volc Geotherm Res, 23: 11-38.

Taran Y A, Fischer T P, Pokrovsky B, Sano Y, Aurora-Armienta M, Macias J L, 1998. Geochemistry of the volcano-hydrothermal system of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. Bull Volc, 59: 436-449.

Tilling R I, Rubin M, Sigurdsson H, Carey S, Duffield W A, Rose W I, 1984. Holocene eruptive activity of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. Science, 224: 747-749.

El Chichón is a small, but powerful trachyandesitic tuff cone and lava dome complex that occupies an isolated part of the Chiapas region in SE México far from other Holocene volcanoes. Prior to 1982, this relatively unknown volcano was heavily forested and of no greater height than adjacent nonvolcanic peaks. The largest dome, the former summit of the volcano, was constructed within a 1.6 x 2 km summit crater created about 220,000 years ago. Two other large craters are located on the SW and SE flanks; a lava dome fills the SW crater, and an older dome is located on the NW flank. More than ten large explosive eruptions have occurred since the mid-Holocene. The powerful 1982 explosive eruptions of high-sulfur, anhydrite-bearing magma destroyed the summit lava dome and were accompanied by pyroclastic flows and surges that devastated an area extending about 8 km around the volcano. The eruptions created a new 1-km-wide, 300-m-deep crater that now contains an acidic crater lake.