Pico de Orizaba

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  • Mexico
  • Mexico
  • Stratovolcano
  • 1846 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 19.03°N
  • 97.268°W

  • 5675 m
    18614 ft

  • 341100
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

There are no activity reports for Pico de Orizaba.

 Available Weekly Reports

There are no Weekly Reports available for Pico de Orizaba.

Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1846 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1687 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1613 Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations
1569 1589 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1566 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1545 1555 ± 10 years Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1533 ] [ 1539 ] Uncertain 2  
[ 1351 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1260 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
[ 1187 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1175 Unknown Confirmed 3 Anthropology
[ 1157 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
0220 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0140 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0090 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0040 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0780 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1500 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
2110 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
2300 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) La Perla unit
2500 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
2780 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
4690 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
6220 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
6710 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Upper Citlaltépetl ignimbrite
7030 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Lower Citlaltépetl ignimbrite
7530 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Cantagrel J-M, Gourgaud A, Robin C, 1984. Repetitive mixing events and Holocene pyroclastic activity at Pico de Orizaba and Popocatepetl (Mexico). Bull Volc, 47: 735-748.

Capra L, Macias J L, Scott K M, Abrams M, Garduno-Monroy V H, 2002. Debris avalanches and debris flows transformed from collapses in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Mexico - behavior, and implications for hazard assessment. J Volc Geotherm Res, 113: 81-110.

Carrasco-Nunez G, 2000. Structure and proximal stratigraphy of Citlaltepetl volcano (Pico de Orizaba), Mexico. In; Delgado-Granados H, Aguirre-Diaz G J, Stock J M (eds), {Cenozoic Tectonics and Volcanism of Mexico}, Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap, 334: 247-262.

Carrasco-Nunez G, 1997. Lava flow growth inferred from morphometric parameters: a case study of Citlaltepetl volcano, Mexico. Geol Mag, 134: 151-162.

Carrasco-Nunez G, 1999. Holocene block-and-ash flows from summit dome activity of Citlaltepetl volcano, Eastern Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 88: 47-66.

Carrasco-Nunez G, Ban M, 1994. Geologic map and structure sections of the Citlaltepetl volcano summit area, Mexico. Univ Nac Auton Mexico, Cartas Geologicas Mineras no. 9.

Carrasco-Nunez G, Diaz-Castellon R, Siebert L, Hubbard B, Sheridan M F, Rodriguez S R, 2006. Multiple edifice-collapse events in the Eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt: the role of sloping substrate and implications for hazard assessment. J Volc Geotherm Res, 158: 151-176.

Carrasco-Nunez G, Gomez-Tuena A, 1997. Volcanogenic sedimentation around Citlaltepetl (Pico de Orizaba) volcano and surroundings, Veracruz, Mexico. In: Aguirre G J, Aranda J J, Carrasco G, Ferrari L (eds) {Magmatism and tectonics of central and northwestern Mexico - a selection of the 1997 IAVCEI General Assembly excursions}, Mexico, D F: UNAM, Inst Geol, p 131-151.

Carrasco-Nunez G, Rose W I, 1995. Eruption of a major Holocene pyroclastic flow at Citlaltepetl volcano (Pico de Orizaba), Mexico, 8.5-9.0 ka. J Volc Geotherm Res, 69: 197-215.

Carrasco-Nunez G, Vallance J W, Rose W I, 1993. A voluminous avalanche-induced lahar from Citlaltepetl volcano, Mexico: implications for hazard assessments. J Volc Geotherm Res, 59: 35-46.

Crausaz W, 1993. Pico de Orizaba or Citlaltepetl: geology, archaeology, history, natural history, and mountaineering routes. Amherst, Ohio: Geopress Internatl, 594 p.

De la Cruz-Reyna S, Carrasco-Nunez G, 2002. Probabilistic hazard analysis of Citlaltepetl (Pico de Orizaba) Volcano, eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt. J Volc Geotherm Res, 113: 307-318.

Gomez-Tuena A, Carrasco-Nunez G, 1999. Fragmentation, transport and deposition of a low-grade ignimbrite; the Citlaltepetl Ignimbrite, eastern Mexico. Bull Volc, 60: 448-464.

Hoskuldsson A, Robin C, 1993. Late Pleistocene to Holocene eruptive activity of Pico de Orizaba, Eastern Mexico. Bull Volc, 55: 571-587.

Luhr J F, Kimberly P G, Siebert L, Aranda-Gomez J J, Housh T B, Kysar Mattietti G, 2006. Quaternary volcanic rocks: insights from the MEXPET petrological and geochemical database. In: Siebe S, Macias J-L, Aguirre-Diaz G J (eds) Neogone-Quaternary continental margin volcanism: a perspective from Mexico, {Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap}, 402: 1-44.

Mooser F, Meyer-Abich H, McBirney A R, 1958. Central America. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 6: 1-146.

Negendank J F W, Emmermann R, Krawczyk R, Mooser F, Tobschall H, Werle D, 1985. Geological and geochemical investigations on the eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Geof Internac, 24: 477-575.

Robin C, Cantagrel J M, 1982. Le Pico de Orizaba (Mexique): structure et evolution d'un grand volcan andesitique complexe. Bull Volc, 45: 299-315.

Rossotti A, Carrasco-Nunez G, Rosi M, Di Muro A, 2006. Eruptive dynamics of the "Citlalteptel Pumice" at Citlaltepetl volcano, eastern Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 158: 401-429.

Schaaf P, Carrasco-Nunez G, 2010. Geochemical and isotopic profile of Pico de Orizaba (Citlaltepetl) volcano, Mexico: insights for magma generation processes . J Volc Geotherm Res, 197: 108-122.

Sheridan M F, Carrasco-Nunez G, Hubbard B E, Siebe C, Rodriguez-Elizarraraz S, 2001. Mapa de peligros del Volcan Citlalteptel (Pico de Orizaba). Inst Geog, Univ Nac Autonoma Mexico, 1:250,000 scale.

Siebe C, Abrams M, Sheridan M F, 1993. Major Holocene block-and-ash fan at the western slope of ice-capped Pico de Orizaba volcano, Mexico: Implications for future hazards. J Volc Geotherm Res, 59: 1-33.

Siebe C, Macias J L, Abrams M, Rodriguez S, Castro R, 1997. Catastrophic prehistoric eruptions at Popocatepetl and Quaternary explosive volcanism in the Serdan-Oriental Basin, east-central Mexico. IAVCEI General Assembly, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, January 19-24, 1997, Fieldtrip Guidebook, Excursion no 4, 88 p.

Zimbelman D R, Watters R J, Firth I R, Breit G N, Carrasco-Nunez G, 2004. Stratovolcano stability assessment methods and results from Citlaltepetl, Mexico. Bull Volc, 66: 66-79.

Pico de Orizaba (Volcán Citlaltépetl), México's highest peak and North America's highest volcano, was formed in three stages beginning during the mid-Pleistocene. Orizaba lies at the southern end of a volcanic chain extending north to Cofre de Perote volcano and towers up to 4400 m above its eastern base. Construction of the initial Torrecillas and Espolón de Oro volcanoes was contemporaneous with growth of Sierra Negra volcano on the SW flank and was followed by edifice collapses that produced voluminous debris avalanches and lahars. The modern Citlaltépetl volcano was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene of viscous andesitic and dacitic lavas, forming the current steep-sided cone. Repetitive explosive eruptions beginning during the early Holocene accompanied lava dome growth and lava effusion. Historical eruptions have consisted of moderate explosive activity and the effusion of dacitic lava flows. The latest eruption of the volcano occurred during the 19th century.