Popocatépetl

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  • Mexico
  • Mexico
  • Stratovolcano(es)
  • 2013 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 19.023°N
  • 98.622°W

  • 5426 m
    17797 ft

  • 341090
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
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9 April-15 April 2014

CENAPRED reported that during 8-15 April seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor, gas, and occasional small amounts of ash. Cloud cover sometimes prevented visual observations. On 9 April some of the larger emissions were accompanied by crater incandescence. A steam-and-gas plume containing small amounts of ash rose 1-1.1 km above the crater and drifted E. Explosions on 10, 12, and 13 April ejected incandescent material 100 m from the crater; ejecta on 12 April landed on the E flank. Nighttime incandescence was visible during 10-15 April. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



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2000: November | December


9 April-15 April 2014

CENAPRED reported that during 8-15 April seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor, gas, and occasional small amounts of ash. Cloud cover sometimes prevented visual observations. On 9 April some of the larger emissions were accompanied by crater incandescence. A steam-and-gas plume containing small amounts of ash rose 1-1.1 km above the crater and drifted E. Explosions on 10, 12, and 13 April ejected incandescent material 100 m from the crater; ejecta on 12 April landed on the E flank. Nighttime incandescence was visible during 10-15 April. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


5 March-11 March 2014

CENEPRED reported that incandescence from Popocatépetl’s crater was visible at night during 5-11 March, and steam-and gas emissions visible during the day drifted E, NE, and NW. An explosion at 0334 on 6 March ejected material 600 m onto the flanks. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


26 February-4 March 2014

On 26 February CENAPRED reported that, with support from the Navy, scientists aboard an overflight of Popocatépetl observed that lava dome 48 had been destroyed, leaving a funnel-shaped cavity about 80 m deep. A new dome 20-30 m wide was at the bottom of the cavity. On 27 February activity decreased considerably. During 27 February-3 March gas-and-steam plumes were observed drifting E, ESE, W, and NE. On 2 March an ash plume rose more than 2 km above the crater and drifted NE. On 4 March at 0552 an explosion ejected incandescent tephra 700 m onto the NE flank and produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


19 February-25 February 2014

CENAPRED reported that at 0944 on 19 February a gas-and-vapor plume containing moderate amounts of ash rose 1.5 km above Popocatépetl's crater and drifted NE and SW. At 2338 a gas-and-vapor plume containing small amounts of ash rose 1 km and drifted E. A small explosion at 0409 on 21 February ejected incandescent tephra which mostly fell back inside the crater, and produced an ash plume that rose 2 km. An explosion at 1233 ejected incandescent tephra 600 m from the crater rim. An ash plume rose 4 km and drifted NE. Another explosion at 1541 produced an ash plume with lower ash content that rose 2 km and also drifted NE. At 0312 on 22 February an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted SE. Explosions at 0615 and 0619 ejected incandescent tephra and produced ash plumes that rose 1 km and drifted SE. On 25 February steam-and-gas plumes drifting SE were occasionally seen during times of good visibility. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


30 October-5 November 2013

During 30 October-5 November, CENAPRED maintained Alert Level Yellow, Phase Two. Explosions were frequently detected, varying from 30 to 97 events per day. Though cloudy conditions obscured the view at times, ash plumes were detected on 30-31 October and 1 November. The ash event on 31 October generated a plume that reached an altitude of 1 km and drifted NW.

An Mc 2.1 volcanic-tectonic (VT) earthquake was recorded on 31 October and 4 November; an Mc 2.3 VT earthquake was also detected on 4 November. The largest VT earthquake during this time period was a magnitude 2.5 that occurred at 1031 on 5 November. Tremor was frequently detected during this reporting period; on 1 November, 3 hours and 21 minutes of high frequency tremor were detected.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


23 October-29 October 2013

CENAPRED reported that during 23-25 October seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor, gas, and occasional small amounts of ash; cloud cover sometimes prevented observations of the crater. On 24 October an explosion at 2111 produced an ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted SW. Eight low-intensity explosions on 26 October increased gas and steam emissions and produced slight amounts of ash. Incandescence from the crater was observed overnight during 26-27 October. An explosion was detected on 27 October; cloud cover prevented visual observations. An ash plume rose 1 km and drifted W on 28 October. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


4 September-10 September 2013

CENAPRED reported that during 4-10 September seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor, gas, and small amounts of ash; cloud cover sometimes prevented observations of the crater. Incandescence from the crater was observed on most nights. Steam, gas, and ash plumes drifted SE on 8 September and NW on 9 September. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


28 August-3 September 2013

CENAPRED reported that during 28 August-3 September seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions; cloud cover sometimes prevented observations of the crater. Incandescence from the crater was observed on most nights. On 28 August gas, steam, and ash plumes rose 200-800 m and drifted SW. Gas-and-steam plumes were observed the next day. On 30 August gas and steam plumes that sometimes contained ash rose 1 km above the crater and drifted W. During 1-2 September steam and gas plumes containing minor amounts of ash drifted WSW. Ashfall was reported in Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW) and Ocuituco (24 km SW) on 1 September, and in Ecatzingo (15 km SW) on 2 September. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


14 August-20 August 2013

CENAPRED reported that during 14-20 August seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions; cloud cover sometimes prevented observations of the crater. Incandescence from the crater was observed and occasionally intensified with some emissions. On 14 August a period of tremor was accompanied by an ash emission that drifted W. Ashfall was reported in the towns of Ozumba (18 km W), Tepetlixpa (20 km W), Atlautla (17 km W), and Ecatzingo (15 km SW) in the State of México. Later that day an ash plume rose 1 km above the crater and drifted W. Gas-and-steam plumes were observed during 15-16 August. A period of tremor on 17 August was accompanied by an ash plume that rose 1.5 km and drifted WSW. Ash fell in Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW), Ocuituco (24 km SW), Yecapixtla (31 km SW), Tlayacapan (40 km WSW), Cuautla (43 km SW), Ayala (45 km SW), and Cuernavaca (65 km WSW). On 18 August high-frequency, low-amplitude tremor was accompanied by an ash emission that rose 1.2 km and drifted SW. On 19 August minor steam-and-gas emissions drifted W. During 19-20 August emissions likely contained small amounts of ash but cloud cover prevented confirmation. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


31 July-6 August 2013

CENAPRED reported that during 31 July-6 August seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that sometimes contained ash; cloud cover often prevented visual confirmation. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally observed. On 31 July a clear decrease in the size of the water vapor and gas plumes was observed; plumes were pushed by winds down the NW flank and rose only 100 m above the crater rim. An explosion was detected at 2312 on 1 August, but cloud cover prevented confirmation of any ejecta. On 2 August minor amounts of ash fell in the Tepetlixpa, Atlautla, Ecatzingo, and Ozumba municipalities of Mexico State. On 4 August emissions of gas, steam, and ash drifted NW. During 5-6 August a few observed plumes rose 1-2 km and drifted WNW, W, and WSW. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


24 July-30 July 2013

CENAPRED reported that on 23 July the Coordinación Nacional de Protección Civil (CNPC) of the Secretaría de Gobernación (SEGOB), CENAPRED, and a Scientific Advisory Committee lowered the Alert Level at Popocatépetl to Yellow, Phase Two. Access to the crater within a 12-km radius was prohibited.

During 24-30 July seismicity indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that sometimes contained ash; cloud cover often prevented visual confirmation. During 24-27 July often continuous plumes rose 200 m above the crater and drifted W, NW, and SW. Incandescence from the crater was observed most nights. Ash in the emissions was observed during 26-27 July. At 1237 and 1917 on 28 July, and 0733 on 29 July, ash plumes rose as high as 2 km and drifted W.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


17 July-23 July 2013

CENAPRED reported that during 17-23 July seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that sometimes contained ash; cloud cover often prevented visual confirmation. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally observed. On 17 July an explosion was detected at 1516. During a period of clear weather on 19 July observers noted steam-and-gas plumes drifting W. An explosion at 1533 generated a steam, gas, and ash plume that rose 700 m above the crater and drifted NW. Another explosion was detected at 2257. On 20 July steam-and-gas plumes rose 1 km and drifted SW; steam, gas, and ash emissions rose 1.2 km and drifted WSW. Steam-and-gas plumes were bluish on 21 July; the plumes rose 500 m and drifted NW. An explosion at 0343 on 23 July generated an ash plume that rose 1.1 km and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


10 July-16 July 2013

CENAPRED reported that scientists aboard an overflight of Popocatépetl on 10 July confirmed the presence of a new lava dome that was 250 m wide and 20 m thick. During 10-16 July seismicity indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that sometimes contained ash; cloud cover often prevented visual confirmation. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night during 9-11 July. Plumes with small amounts of ash were observed at 1556 and 1736 on 10 July, and an explosion was detected at 2259. Medium-sized explosions at 1949 on 11 July, and at 0137 and 0300 on 12 July, ejected incandescent tephra 2 km onto the E flank and 1 km onto the N flank. According to a news article, on 12 July a flight into and out of México City’s (65 km NW) international airport was canceled and operations at a small airport in Puebla (~50 km to the E) were suspended.

Early on 13 July a gas-and-ash plume was observed drifting NE. During 13-14 July steam, gas, and ash emissions rose from the SE part of the crater, some incandescence from the crater was observed, and a dense steam-and-gas plume was noted. On 15 July a plume of steam, gas, and ash rose 1 km and drifted W. During an overflight later that day scientists observed a 200-m-wide and 20-to-30 m deep crater where the lava dome had been; explosions during the previous few days had destroyed the dome. At 0036 on 16 July a steam-and-gas plume containing minor amounts of ash rose from the crater. Incandescence emanating from the crater was also observed early that day. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Three.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Agence France-Presse (AFP)


3 July-9 July 2013

CENAPRED reported that on 3 July the seismic network detected 84 emissions from Popocatépetl. Diffuse ash plumes at 0705 and 0825 rose almost 2 km above the crater. Starting at 1742 tremor was accompanied by persistent emissions of gas and ash that rose 3.5 km. Incandescent tephra was ejected short distances onto the N and E flanks. During 3-4 July tremor and 99 emissions were detected, and incandescence from the crater was observed. Steam-and-gas plumes continued to rise above the crater and incandescent tephra was ejected onto the N and E flanks. According to news articles, multiple airlines canceled 47 flights to and from the México City (65 km NW) and Toluca (105 km WNW) airports on 4 July. Flights resumed later that day. Ash fell in areas as far as México City (70 km NW).

Gas, steam, and ash plumes drifted NW on 5 July, and almost continuous tremor was recorded. CENAPRED staff, with support of the Ministry of the Navy of México, conducted an overflight and observed continuously ejected incandescent tephra deposited at most 1.5 km away on almost all flanks, and an ash plume that rose 2 km. Cloud cover often obscured visual observations. A news article stated that four airlines canceled a total of 17 flights.

On 6 July low-frequency, high-amplitude tremor was accompanied by gas, steam, and ash emissions that rose 2 km and drifted NW. At 1330 the low-frequency tremor amplitude decreased, followed by diminishing emissions of gas and ash which drifted NW. The National Coordination of Civil Protection (CNPC) of the Ministry of Interior (SEGOB), CENAPRED, and Scientific Advisory Committee raised the Alert Level to Yellow, Phase Three. The public was reminded not to approach the crater within a 12-km radius. Later that day gas-and-ash plumes rose 3 km and drifted NW. Three explosions were detected, but cloud cover prevented visual confirmation. News articles noted ash again in parts of México City; ash accumulation was much greater in areas closer to the volcano.

During 7-9 July tremor was accompanied by persistent emissions of steam, gas, and small amounts of ash that drifted WSW and NW; cloud cover continued to hinder visual observations. Three explosions increased gas-and-ash emissions. Incandescence and ejected incandescent tephra were sometimes observed. During an overflight on 7 July, scientists observed that a new lava dome, 250 m in diameter, had recently formed in the crater. Explosions on 8 July generated ash plumes that rose 1 km and drifted NW, and explosions on 9 July generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km and drifted SW.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Agence France-Presse (AFP), Associated Press, Stuff


19 June-25 June 2013

CENAPRED reported that at 1448 on 18 June an explosion from Popocatépetl generated an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater and drifted NW, and ejected incandescent tephra 100 m from the crater. During 19-25 June seismicity indicated gas-and-steam emissions that sometimes contained small amounts of ash; cloud cover often prevented visual confirmation although plumes were observed most days. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally observed and sometimes increased with accompanying emissions. During 23-24 June a water vapor, gas, and ash plume rose 800 m and drifted NW. On 24 June ashfall was reported in Amecameca (20 km NW). The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


12 June-18 June 2013

CENAPRED reported that during 12-18 June seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that sometimes contained small amounts of ash; cloud cover often prevented visual confirmation. During 12-13 June a total of about 45 minutes of low-amplitude harmonic and high frequency tremors were detected. An explosion at 1716 on 14 June produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater. Another explosion at 1727 produced an ash plume that rose almost 3 km. The next day an explosion at 0716 generated an ash plume that rose 2 km. Explosions were also detected at 1610 and 1813.

During 14-17 June periods of low-amplitude harmonic tremor and high-frequency tremor continued to be detected. On 16 June an explosion at 0611 ejected incandescent tephra 500 m onto the N flank. An explosion on 17 June produced an ash plume that rose more than 4 km, and ejected incandescent tephra up to 2 km from the crater. Some of the high-temperature fallout caused small fires in grasslands on the flanks. Ashfall was reported in Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW), Ocuituco (24 km SW), Yecapixtla (31 km SW), Atlatlahucan (30 km WSW), Cuautla (43 km SW), Tlayacapan (40 km WSW), Yautepec (50 km WSW), Jiutepec (60 km WSW), and Xochitepec (70 km WSW) in Morelos state. Ash also fell in Ecatzingo (15 km SW), Atlautla (17 km W), and Ozumba (18 km W) in México state. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


5 June-11 June 2013

CENAPRED reported that during 5-11 June seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that sometimes contained small amounts of ash; cloud cover often prevented visual confirmation. Incandescence from the crater was observed some nights; during 8-9 June incandescence increased with accompanying emissions. On most days steam-and-gas plumes were observed drifting SW and SSW. On 7 June the Alert Level was lowered to Yellow, Phase Two. An explosion on 8 June generated an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater and drifted SW. On 9 June ash plumes rose 0.6-2.5 km and drifted SE and E.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


29 May-4 June 2013

CENAPRED reported that during 29 May-4 June seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that contained variable amounts of ash; cloud cover often prevented visual confirmation. Incandescence from the crater was often observed at night. On most days steam-and-gas plumes were observed drifting SW and SSW. Some periods of high-frequency and low-amplitude tremor were detected on 31 May and 1 June. During the early morning on 3 June a continuous plume of steam and ash was observed drifting SW. Later that day an ash plume rose 1 km on 3 June. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


22 May-28 May 2013

CENAPRED reported that during 22-28 May seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that contained variable amounts of ash; cloud cover occasionally prevented observations, especially during 26-27 May. Incandescence from the crater was often observed at night.

On 22 May an ash plume rose 2 km above the crater and drifted NE. Periods of tremor were accompanied by emissions of steam, gas, and sometimes ash. Two plumes rose 1.3 km and drifted W. Overnight incandescent tephra was ejected 300 m above the crater and rolled down the flanks. Tremor amplitude increased on 23 May, and ash emissions drifted SE, S, and SW. An explosion at 0254 ejected large fragments that landed 1.5 km away from the crater. At 1240 an explosion generated a gas-and-ash plume that rose 2.5 km. Later that day tremor decreased; periods of tremor continued to be detected through 27 May, accompanied by emissions of steam, gas and variable amounts of ash that rose 500-900 m and drifted SW.

On 25 May incandescent tephra were ejected onto the highest parts of the N and NE flanks, and a gas-and-ash plume rose 2 km. An explosion at 0547 ejected incandescent tephra 1.5 km onto the NNE flank. An explosion at 1040 on 26 May generated an ash plume that rose 2 km. A small explosion was detected at 1228. On 28 May an explosion at 0503 produced an ash plume that rose more than 2 km and drifted SW, and ejected incandescent tephra 1.5 km onto the NE flank. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


15 May-21 May 2013

CENAPRED reported that during 15-21 May seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that contained variable amounts of ash; the plumes were sometimes visually confirmed although cloud cover often prevented observations. Incandescence from the crater was often observed at night.

At 0956 on 14 May an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 3 km above the crater and drifted NE, and ejected tephra onto the NE flank at a distance of 600 m. Volcanologists aboard an overflight observed a lava dome 350 m in diameter and 50 m thick, that had slightly deflated after the earlier explosion. An explosion at 0146 on 15 May again generated an ash plume that rose 3 km above the crater, and ejected incandescent tephra onto the flanks at a maximum distance of 1.5 km. At 1804 an explosion produced an ash plume that rose at least 3.5 km and drifted N.

On 16 May gas-and-ash plumes rose 2 km and drifted NE. Minor ashfall was reported in Paso de Cortés, 7 km N. Incandescent tephra was ejected onto the N and NE flanks at a maximum distance of 400 m. The ejections corresponded with several periods of high-frequency, low-amplitude tremor detected between 2020 and 2308, and a swarm that began at 0011 on 17 May. At 2214 an intense explosion ejected incandescent tephra 1.5 km from the crater, and generated an ash plume that rose over 3 km and drifted NE.

At 0028 on 17 May another strong explosion ejected incandescent tephra 1.5 km from the crater, and generated an ash plume that rose over 4 km and drifted NE. Later that day plumes of vapor and gas rose 1 km and drifted SW. During an overflight on 18 May volcanologists observed a crater 200 m wide and 40 m deep in the dome’s surface; the material was likely excavated by the explosions during 14 and 16-17 May. The rest of the dome was covered with rock fragments. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 500 m and drifted SW.

During 19-20 May gas-and-ash plumes drifted E and SW and incandescent tephra was deposited mainly on the NE flanks 400 m away, although most ejected fragments fell back inside the crater. On 21 May steam-and-gas plumes rose a few meters then drifted SSE.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


8 May-14 May 2013

CENAPRED reported that an episode of high-amplitude spasmodic tremor detected at Popocatépetl began between 1928 on 7 May and 0159 on 8 May. The seismic increase was accompanied by an ash plume that rose 3 km above the crater and drifted SE, producing ashfall in San Pedro Benito Juarez (10-12 km SE), San Juan Tianguismanalco (22 km SE), Atlixco (23 km SE), and in some areas of Puebla (~50 km to the E). Incandescent tephra ejected from the crater landed 500 m away on the NE flank. On 8 May an explosion produced an ash plume that drifted SE. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night. The next day gas-and-steam plumes drifted SE.

On 10 May steam, gas, and ash plumes were detected; one of two explosions produced an ash plume that drifted E. A series of ash emissions and periods of harmonic tremor occurred between 1142 and 1443; cloud cover prevented clear views of the ash plumes. On 11 May steam, gas, and ash plumes were again detected. An explosion produced an ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted NE, and ejected incandescent tephra 500 m down the NE flank. Ash possibly fell in villages downwind. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 0.1-2 km and drifted ENE and NE. During 11-12 May periods of spasmodic and harmonic tremor were detected, and activity increased overall.

On 12 May CENAPRED noted that there had been an increase in activity during the previous two weeks, and another intensification that day prompting the Alert Level to be raised to Yellow, Phase Three. Access to the crater within a 12-km radius was prohibited. Stream-and-gas plumes with small amounts of ash rose from the carter. Sporadic ejections of incandescent tephra fell back into the crater and onto the NNE flank, 300 m from the crater rim. On 13 May steam-and-gas plumes were observed rising from the crater during periods of good visibility. On 14 May an explosive event generated an ash plume that rose 3 km and ejected incandescent tephra that landed 600 m away on the NE flank. Cloud cover again obscured summit views. Seismicity remained elevated.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


24 April-30 April 2013

CENAPRED reported that during 24-27 April seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that sometimes contained ash. Incandescence from the crater was often observed at night. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 1 km and drifted NE and ESE. On 24 April an explosion generated a steam-and-ash plume that rose 1.2 km above the crater and drifted W; incandescent tephra ejected from the crater landed 500 m away on the N flank. On 25 April a dense steam-and-gas plume rose 1.5 km and drifted W. The next day an explosion generated a gas-and-ash plume that rose 2 km. Atmospheric clouds made observations difficult. On 28 April gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.2 km and drifted NE, and on 29 April gas-and-ash plumes rose 1 km; cloud cover continued to impede observations. On 30 April an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 300 m and drifted E. Ejected incandescent tephra landed 800 m away on the NE flank. Gas-and-vapor plumes rose 500 m. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


10 April-16 April 2013

CENAPRED reported that during 10-16 April seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that sometimes contained ash. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night and sometimes increased in conjunction with emissions. On 10 April gas-and-steam plumes rose 800 m above the crater and drifted ESE, and ash plumes rose 900 m and also drifted ESE. During 11-13 April gas-and-ash plumes rose 500 m and drifted NE. An explosion on 13 April produced a steam-and-ash plume that rose 400 m and drifted NE. Ashfall was reported in the towns of San Nicolas de los Ranchos (15 km ENE) and Huejotzingo (27 km NE), and in the northern part of Puebla (40 km E). On 14 April a period of tremor was accompanied by continuous emissions of dense steam-and-gas plumes with small amounts of ash that rose as high as 1 km and drifted NE. The next day ash plumes rose 1.5 km above the crater, and incandescent tephra ejected from the crater landed 400 m away on the NE flank. On 16 April gas-and-steam plumes rose 1 km and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


27 March-2 April 2013

CENAPRED reported that during 26 March-1 April seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that contained ash. Although views of the volcano were often obscured by cloud cover, gas-and-ash plumes were observed daily. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night and sometimes increased in conjunction with emissions. On 26 March incandescent fragments ejected as far as 1 km from the crater landed on the NNE flanks. An explosion produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater. On 29 March incandescent fragments ejected 700 m from the crater landed on the N and NE flanks. On 31 March ash emissions were observed continuously for about an hour. Ash plumes rose over 2 km and drifted E. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


20 March-26 March 2013

CENAPRED reported that during 19-26 March seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that contained ash on most days. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night and increased in conjunction with emissions. During 19-20 March incandescent fragments were ejected 50 m from the crater and landed on the E flank. An explosion on 24 March ejected incandescent fragments 500 m away from the crater that again landed on the E flank. An ash plume rose 1.5 km and drifted E, causing ashfall in villages downwind. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


6 March-12 March 2013

CENAPRED reported that during 5-12 March seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that contained ash on most days. On 7 March seismicity increased, and incandescent tephra was ejected up to 1 km above the crater and fell on the NE flanks. An eruption plume rose 1.5 km above the crater; ashfall was reported in Puebla (50 km to the E). Activity decreased later that day. On 10 March incandescent tephra was ejected 100 m above the crater and again fell on the NE flanks, 400 m away from the crater. The next day incandescent tephra ejected from the crater fell back into the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


20 February-26 February 2013

CENAPRED reported that during 19-26 February seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions sometimes containing ash. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night. On 19 February an ash plume rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted E. The next day gas-and-steam emissions rose 800 m above the rim and a diffuse bluish plume rose 1 km. On 21 February a gas-and-ash plume rose 800 m, and on 22 February a gas-and-ash plume rose 1.5 km. Multiple ash plumes that drifted NE were observed on 23 February. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


13 February-19 February 2013

CENAPRED reported that during 13-19 February seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night. Observers reported that gas-and-steam plumes drifted NE, E, and SE; a plume rose 1.2 km above the crater on 19 February. During 18-19 February the emissions possibly contained ash. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


2 January-8 January 2013

CENAPRED reported that during 2-8 January views of Popocatépetl were often obscured by cloud cover. Seismicity indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that most days contained minor amounts of ash. Variable incandescence from the crater was observed most nights. During 4-8 January, steam-and-gas plumes rose 300 m above the crater and drifted NE or SE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


12 December-18 December 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 12-18 December seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that contained minor amounts of ash. Variable incandescence from the crater was observed most nights. During 13-15 December gas-and-steam plumes rose at most 1 km above the crater and drifted NE, E, and SE. On 17 December ejected incandescent tephra landed 500 m away from the crater on the NE flank. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


5 December-11 December 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 4-11 December seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that contained minor amounts of ash. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night. Cloud cover often prevented observations; gas-and-steam plumes were observed drifting NE, E, and SSE during periods of clearer weather. Ash plumes observed during 7-8 December rose at most 1 km and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


31 October-6 November 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 31 October-6 November seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that contained ash. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night. Cloud cover often prevented observations; gas-and-steam plumes were observed drifting E and NE during periods of clearer weather. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


24 October-30 October 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 23-30 October seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that contained ash. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night during 23-24 and 28-30 October. Incandescent tephra was ejected from the crater on 26 October. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


17 October-23 October 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 15-23 October seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that occasionally contained variable amounts of ash; the plumes rose 0.5-1 km and drifted NW, W, and SW. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night. During 15-16 and 20 October incandescent tephra was ejected 1 km above the crater and fell back in the crater or on the flanks. On 20 October ashfall was reported in Tetela del Volcan (20 km SW). The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


10 October-16 October 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 10-16 October seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions; during 10-13 the emissions observed drifting W and NW. During 14-16 October ash was present in the gas-and-steam plumes. Plumes rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted W, WSW, and NW. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


26 September-2 October 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 25 September-2 October seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions; cloud cover often prevented visual observations of the volcano. Incandescence from the crater was sometimes observed at night. On most days gas-and-steam plumes rose at most 1.5 km above the crater and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


12 September-18 September 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 12-18 September seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that sometimes contained ash; cloud cover often prevented visual observations of the volcano. Incandescence from the crater was observed most nights. On 13 September gas-and-steam plumes rose 2 km above the crater and drifted NE. Later that day a gas-and-ash plume rose 2 km. Incandescent tephra was ejected 500 m and fell on the NE flanks. On 14 September incandescent tephra fell on the N flank and gas-and-ash plumes rose 1 km. The next day gas-and-ash plumes again rose 1 km. During 16-18 September gas plumes continued to rise 1 km at most and drifted NE, NW, and SW. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


29 August-4 September 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 29 August-4 September seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that may have contained ash; cloud cover often prevented visual observations of the volcano. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night. Gas plumes, that were sometimes bluish, rose up to 1 km above the crater and drifted NE, W, SW, and WSW. On 1 September the Alert Level was lowered to Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


22 August-28 August 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 22-28 August seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that may have contained ash; cloud cover often prevented visual observations of the volcano. During 22-28 August gas-and-steam plumes rose from the crater, and drifted WSW, W, and WNW during 22-24 August. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night during 23-26 August. Bluish steam-and-gas plumes rose from the crater on 27 August. At 2233 an explosion produced an ash plume and ejected incandescent tephra that fell back into the crater. More robust emissions that rose 500 m were sometimes accompanied by incandescence from the crater. Later a plume rose 1.5 km. The next day bluish steam-and-gas plumes rose 1.2 km. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


15 August-21 August 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 15-21 August seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that may have contained ash; cloud cover often prevented visual observations of the volcano. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night. A gas-and-ash plume rose from the crater on 15 August, and steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 1 km and drifted NW the next day. On 17 August seismicity significantly increased. Incandescent tephra ejected from the crater fell onto the flanks and rolled 800 m. On 18 August an ash plume rose 2 km above the crater and drifted E. Ejected incandescent tephra fell onto the SE flank. A small ash emission and ejected incandescent tephra were observed on 19 August. The next day a steam-and-gas plume rose 900 m and drifted NNW. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


8 August-14 August 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 8-14 August seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that may have contained ash on 8 August; cloud cover prevented observations during most of this period. Incandescence from the crater was periodically observed. Gas-and-steam plumes were observed rising from the crater during 8-9 and 14 August. A small ash emission was observed on 14 August. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


1 August-7 August 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 1-7 August seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that may have contained ash during 4-6 August; cloud cover prevented observations during most of this period. Incandescence from the crater was periodically observed. Gas-and-steam plumes were observed almost daily rising from the crater as high as 2.5 km above the rim. The plumes drifted SW and NW. On 5 August ash plumes rose 1.5 km and drifted SW. On 6 August ash plumes again rose 1.5 km above the crater, and at 1758 an ash plume rose 4 km. Some explosions ejected incandescent tephra that landed on the flanks. Gas-and-steam plumes drifted SW the next day. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


25 July-31 July 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 25-31 July seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-ash emissions that sometimes probably contained ash; cloud cover prevented observations during most of this period. Incandescence from the crater was periodically observed. Steam-and-gas plumes were observed daily rising from the crater as high as 1.5 km above the rim. The plumes drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


18 July-24 July 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 18-23 July seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-ash emissions; cloud cover prevented observations during most of this period. Incandescence from the crater was periodically observed and sometimes increased with accompanying emissions. A steam-and-gas plume rose from the crater on 19 and 24 July, and ash-and-gas plumes were observed on 20 and 22 July. Activity increased for a period during 20-21 July; incandescent tephra was ejected 500 m above the crater and ashfall was reported in Ozumba (18 km W). The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


11 July-17 July 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 10-17 July seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-ash emissions; cloud cover prevented observations during most of this period. Incandescence from the crater was periodically observed and sometimes increased with accompanying emissions. On 11 July a gas-and-steam plume rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted WSW. On 16 July an ash plume rose 1.2 km and drifted SE. A few minutes later a gas-and-steam plume rose 1.5 km. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


4 July-10 July 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 4-10 July seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-ash emissions. Incandescence from the crater was often observed at night. On 4 July a gas-and-steam plume drifted W. The next day a steam-and-gas plume that likely contained ash rose 2 km above the crater and drifted WSW. Some emissions were accompanied by increased incandescence from the crater. During 6-10 July steam-and-gas plumes rose from the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


27 June-3 July 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 27 June-3 July meteorological weather conditions often prevented observations of Popocatépetl. Gas-and-steam emissions were detected by the seismic network probably occasionally contained ash. Incandescence from the crater was intermittently observed at night and accompanied emissions during June 30-1 July. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 0.5-2 km above the crater on 27 and 29 June. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 1-2.5 km above the crater during June 30-1 July. The Alert Level remained at Yellow Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


20 June-26 June 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 20-25 June meteorological weather conditions often prevented observations of Popocatépetl's crater. Emissions were detected by the seismic network and an occasional steam plume was seen rising from the crater. On 24 June a gas-and-steam plume containing a small amount of ash drifted NE and a dense gas-and-steam plume drifted SW. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally visible at night. The next day emissions sometimes contained small amounts of ash. On 26 June visibility improved. Increased incandescence from the crater was accompanied by gas and very dark ash emissions that rose 0.8-2 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


13 June-19 June 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 13-19 June meteorological cloud cover often prevented observations of Popocatépetl's crater. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally visible at night. During 13-15 June gas-and-ash plumes that rose above the crater sometimes drifting NW and W. Ejected tephra fell onto the E, N, and W flanks, as far away as 500 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


6 June-12 June 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 6-12 June gas-and-ash plumes from Popocatépetl rose above the crater, sometimes as high as 2 km, and drifted NNW, E, ESE, SSE, and S. Cloud cover occasionally prevented observations of the crater and plumes. Incandescence from the crater was visible on some nights. Incandescent fragments ejected from the crater fell onto the flanks on 8 and 11 June, and back into the crater on 10 June. The Alert Level remained at Yellow Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


30 May-5 June 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 30 May-5 June gas-and-ash plumes from Popocatépetl rose as high as 2 km above the crater and drifted mostly W and SW, but also NW and ENE. Cloud cover occasionally prevented observations of the plumes and crater. Incandescence from the crater was visible on most nights. Incandescent fragments were ejected from the crater on 5 June. The Alert Level remained at Yellow Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


23 May-29 May 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 23-29 May gas-and-ash plumes from Popocatépetl rose up to 2 km above the crater and drifted in multiple directions. Cloud cover occasionally prevented observations of the plumes. Ashfall was reported in San Pedro Benito Juarez (10-12 km SE) and Huejotzingo (27 km NE) on 23 May, and in Atlixco (23 km SE) and San Pedro Benito Juarez on 25 May. Incandescent fragments ejected from the crater landed on the flanks during 23-26 May. Incandescence from the crater was visible on 27 May. The Alert Level remained at Yellow Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


16 May-22 May 2012

CENAPRED reported that, although cloud cover often prevented observations of Popocatépetl during 16-22 May, multiple gas-and-ash plumes were observed daily rising as high as 1.5 km above crater. Plumes drifted NW, NE, SE, and SW. Incandescent fragments ejected from the crater landed on the flanks as far as 800 m away. Seismicity remained high. The Alert Level remained at Yellow Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


9 May-15 May 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 8-10 May multiple gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.5 km above Popocatépetl's crater and drifted NE. Incandescent fragments ejected from the crater landed on the N and E flanks as far as 500 m away. According to a news article an airport in Puebla was closed due to ash plumes on 8 and 10 May. Seismicity increased on 11 May. Ash plumes rose 3 km above the crater and drifted NE and incandescent fragments ejected from the crater rolled 1 km down the flanks. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 2.5 km and drifted ENE. On 12 May gas-and-ash plumes rose 4 km above the crater. Incandescent tephra was ejected 2 km above the crater and again rolled 1 km down the flanks. Ashfall was reported in most municipalities within the state of Tlaxcala (50 km NE of the volcano), in addition to smaller towns nearer to the volcano such as Santiago Xalitzintla (15 km NE) and San Nicolás de los Ranchos (16 km ENE). An airport in Puebla was again closed due to ash. During 13-15 May gas-and-ash plumes rose from the crater and drifted NE, and incandescent tephra was ejected from the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow Phase Three.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Reuters


2 May-8 May 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 2-3 May activity at Popocatépetl increased significantly. Spasmodic tremor was detected along with a dense and continuous plume of gas and ash that drifted W, NW, and NNE. Ash fell in multiple areas, including Amecameca (20 km NW), Atlautla, Ozumba (18 km W), Ecatzingo (15 km SW), Chalco (35 km NW), and some parts of SE México City (70 km NW). On 3 May gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted W and NE. Incandescent fragments ejected from the crater landed on the flanks as far as 800 m away. Explosion-generated gas-and-ash plumes the next day rose 2.5 km above the crater and drifted NW. Spasmodic tremor was detected along with a dense and continuous plume of gas and ash that drifted WNW. Later that day gas-and-ash plumes rose 1 km. During 5-6 May gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted N, NE, and E. Light ashfall was reported in Atlixco (25 km SE), San Juan Tianguismanalco (22 km SE), Tochimilco (16 km SSE), San Pedro Benito Juárez (10 km SE), and San Nicolás de los Ranchos (16 km ENE). During 5-7 May incandescent fragments ejected from the crater landed on the flanks as far as 500 m away. A gas-and-ash plume drifted ESE on 7 May. The next day activity remained high; seismic events were accompanied by dense and continuous plumes of steam, gas, and ash that drifted mainly ESE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


25 April-1 May 2012

CENAPRED reported that gas-and-steam plumes, occasionally containing ash, rose from Popocatépetl during 25-29 April. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.5 km above the crater on 25 and 27 April. On 28 April incandescent fragments ejected from the crater landed on E flank as far as 1 km. The next day steam-and-gas plume rose from the crater. On 1 May gas-and-steam plumes, that occasionally contained low amounts of ash, and rose 1 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


18 April-24 April 2012

CENAPRED reported that multiple gas-and-ash plumes rose from Popocatépetl on 18 April; one of the emissions was accompanied by increased incandescence in the crater. An explosion ejected incandescent fragments that landed on the N and NE flanks as far as 800 m from the crater. The fragments landed on snow and generated small lahars. A dense gas, steam, and ash plume drifted E and SE. On 19 April gas-and-ash plumes rose above the crater and drifted ESE, and incandescent fragments rolled 1 km down the flanks. The next day an episode of spasmodic tremor was accompanied by a dense plume of gas, water vapor, and ash that rose 1.5 km and drifted E. During 21-23 April gas-and-steam emissions that sometimes contained small amounts of ash drifted SE, E, and SW. Seismicity was low during 21-22 April and again increased on 23 April. That same day an ash plume drifted NE and incandescent fragments were ejected W. The Alert Level remained at Yellow Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


11 April-17 April 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 11-15 April steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl occasionally contained ash; emissions contained a substantial amount of ash on 12 April. Seismicity increased on 13 April and at 2220 an explosion ejected incandescent blocks that landed on the NE flank as far as 500 m away from the crater rim. A larger explosion at 2236 ejected incandescent blocks that landed even further away on all flanks; an ash plume rose 2 km above the crater and drifted ENE. Ashfall was reported in San Pedro Benito Juarez (10-12 km SE), where the explosion was also heard. On 14 April gas-and-steam plumes that contained small amounts of ash drifted SW. Multiple emissions occurred with increased incandescence from the crater. Ejected incandescent blocks landed back in the crater or on the flanks 500-800 m from the rim. Gas-and-ash plumes drifted ESE. Ashfall was reported in multiple towns, including Puebla (50 km to the E), San Pedro Benito Juarez, Santiago Xalitzintla (15 km NE), Tianguismanalco, and Atlixco (25 km SE).

On 15 April an ash plume rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted E. Gas-and-ash emissions rose 1 km above the crater on 16 April and were accompanied by ejected incandescent fragments that were deposited on the flanks, especially to the N and NE. Later that day ash plumes rose 2 km above the crater and drifted E. Ashfall was again reported in Puebla. CENAPRED increased the Alert Level at the volcano from Yellow Phase Two to Yellow Phase Three. During 16-17 April incandescence extended 300 m above the crater and gas-and-steam emissions were constant. Gas-and-ash plumes rose from the crater on 17 April.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


28 March-3 April 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 27 March-3 April steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl. Emissions contained small amounts of ash on 28 and 30 March and crater incandescence was observed at night during 31 March-3 April.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


14 March-20 March 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 14-20 March steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl and incandescence from the crater was observed at night. Emissions contained small amounts of ash on 14 March. On 18 March emissions again contained a small amount of ash and were accompanied by increased incandescence from the crater.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


29 February-6 March 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 1-6 March steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl. Emissions contained small amounts of ash on 1 March and crater incandescence was observed at night. During the night on 2 March crater incandescence rose 200-300 m above the crater.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


22 February-28 February 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 22-28 February steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl and crater incandescence was observed at night. Ash plumes rose 500-900 m above the crater during 22-24 February.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


15 February-21 February 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 15-21 February steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl; some of the emissions contained small amounts of ash on 16 and 20-21 February. Crater incandescence was observed during 16 and 19-21 February.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


8 February-14 February 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 8-14 February steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl; some of the emissions contained small amounts of ash on 14 February. Crater incandescence was observed during the morning of 8 and 14 February and from the S on 13 February. Clouds prevented views during 9-12 February.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


1 February-7 February 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 1-7 February steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl; some of the emissions contained small amounts of ash during 1-4 February. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 200-800 m above the crater during 1-5 February. Crater incandescence was observed at night on 1 and 5 February. Clouds prevented views on 7 February.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


25 January-31 January 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 25-31 January steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl; some of the emissions contained moderate amounts of ash on 25 and 29 January. On 25 January an ash plume rose 3 km above the crater and drifted NE. Crater incandescence was observed at night on 29 and 31 January.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


18 January-24 January 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 18-24 January steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl, that occasionally contained small amounts of ash during 19-22 January. On 19 January a plume rose 2.5 km above the crater and drifted NE. Crater incandescence was observed at night during 19-21 January.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


11 January-17 January 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 11-17 January steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl; the plumes contained small amounts of ash during 13-17 January. Crater incandescence was observed at night during 16-17 January.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


4 January-10 January 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 4-10 January steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl; the plumes contained small amounts of ash during 4-5 January and 8-10 January. On 5 January two explosions generated incandescence in the crater.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


28 December-3 January 2012

CENAPRED reported that during 28 December-3 January steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl and a gas plume rose to an altitude of 1 km on 28 December. Two small landslides were recorded inside the crater on 2 January. During 2-3 January gas plumes rose to an altitudes of 600-700 m above the crater and drifted NE.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


21 December-27 December 2011

CENAPRED reported that during 21-27 December steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl; the plumes contained small amounts of ash during 22-24 December. On 21 December a bluish gas plume was observed and during 22-23 December ash plumes rose 0.9-1 km above the crater. Crater incandescence was observed at night during 26-27 December.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


14 December-20 December 2011

CENAPRED reported that during 14-20 December steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl. Those emissions occasionally contained small amounts of ash on 14, 15, and 20 December. On 15 December an ash plume rose 1.2 km above the crater and drifted NE. During 18-19 December crater incandescence was observed early in the morning. An ash plume rose 900 m above the crater on 20 December.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


7 December-13 December 2011

CENAPRED reported that during 7-13 December steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl and occasionally contained small amounts of ash. On 7 December ashfall was reported in San Pedro (13.5 km NW). Crater incandescence was observed during 9-11 December and on 9 December incandescence ballistic fragments were observed on the upper slopes of the cone.

Based on reports from CENEPRED and the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported an ash plume that drifted 12.9 km W on 7 December.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 November-6 December 2011

CENAPRED reported that during 30 November-6 December steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl and crater incandescence was observed during most nights and early mornings. Steam-and-gas emissions occasionally contained small amounts of ash on 30 November and 5 December.

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE on 5 December. That same day satellite imagery showed the ash plume had dissipated.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 November-29 November 2011

CENAPRED reported that during 22-28 November steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl and crater incandescence was observed during most nights and early mornings. Steam-and-gas emissions occasionally contained small amounts of ash on 29 November.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


16 November-22 November 2011

During 16-20 November CENAPRED reported steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl. A series of emissions was detected on 18 November; clouds prevented ground observations and no ashfall was reported. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO however, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW that same day. Satellite imagery showed another ash plume drifting E at an approximate altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. CENAPRED noted that at 1201 on 20 November an explosion produced an ash plume that rose approximately 2 km above the crater and drifted N. The explosion was heard in Amecameca (19 km NW). Steam-and-gas plumes rose from the crater during 21-22 November.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 October-25 October 2011

CENAPRED reported that during 19-23 October steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl. Emissions during 23-25 October occasionally contained small amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


21 September-27 September 2011

During 21-25 September CENAPRED reported steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl. An explosion on 26 September ejected incandescent fragments and produced an ash plume that rose 2.5 km above the crater. Following the explosion, a series of 11 gas-and-steam plumes containing small amounts of ash rose from the crater.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


31 August-6 September 2011

CENAPRED reported that on 29 August instances of emissions of gas, steam, and some ash from Popocatépetl increased. The next day an ash plume rose 1 km above the crater and drifted WNW, producing ashfall in San Pedro Nexapa (14 km NW) and Amecameca (19 km NW). CENAPRED noted that recent rain in the area may have contributed to the recent increase in activity. During 30-31 August there were 111 plumes of gas, steam, and some ash detected by the network, in addition to periods of harmonic tremor. Signals from detectors near drainages possibly indicated lahars. During 1-4 September the monitoring network registered 4-12 instances daily of emissions of gas, steam, and some ash. Periods of tremor continued to be detected.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


24 August-30 August 2011

CENAPRED reported that, although cloud cover often prevented observations of Popocatépetl during 24-30 August, steam-and-gas emissions were occasionally noted. Based on reports from CENEPRED and the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported ash emissions during 28-29 August.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 August-16 August 2011

CENAPRED reported that late on 9 August an ash plume from Popocatépetl rose 1 km above the crater and drifted W. During 11-12 August steam-and-gas emissions occasionally contained small amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


1 June-7 June 2011

CENAPRED reported that during 31 May-1 June steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl occasionally contained small amounts of ash. At 0637 on 3 June an ash plume rose 3 km above the crater following seismic tremor. The lower-altitude portion of the plume drifted W (towards the state of Morelos) and the higher-altitude portion of the plume drifted ENE (over Puebla, 40 km E). Within a few hours ashfall was reported in the Morelos state, municipalities of Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW), Zacualpan (31 km SW), Jonacatepec (43 km SW), and Axochiapan (60 km SSW). At 2112 high-frequency, low-amplitude tremor was detected that was followed by an ash plume at 2116 that rose 1 km above the crater and drifted W. By 2130 activity had returned to normal levels. On 4 June an ash plume rose 1 km above the crater and drifted SSW at lower altitudes and NE at higher altitudes.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


25 May-31 May 2011

CENAPRED reported that on 30 May an ash plume from Popocatépetl rose 800 m above the crater and drifted E.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


18 May-24 May 2011

CENAPRED reported that on 19 May steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl occasionally contained small amounts of ash. The Washington VAAC noted that satellite imagery on 22 May showed a rapidly dissipating area of ash about 650 km SW.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 May-17 May 2011

CENAPRED reported steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl during 11-17 May. The emissions occasionally contained small amounts of ash during 14-17 May.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


23 March-29 March 2011

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, analyses of satellite imagery, and web-camera views, the Washington VAAC reported that on 26 March an ash-and-gas plume from Popocatépetl drifted ESE and SE. A subsequent notice that day stated that the ash had dissipated approximately 140 km SE. On 27 March a small ash plume drifted almost 150 m E.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 March-15 March 2011

CENAPRED reported that during 9-14 March steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl occasionally contained small amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


2 March-8 March 2011

CENAPRED reported that during 2-4 and 6 March steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl occasionally contained small amounts of ash. The Washington VAAC noted that a gas-and-ash plume drifting 130 km SE at an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. on 3 March.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 February-8 February 2011

CENAPRED noted that steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl during 2-8 February.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


26 January-1 February 2011

CENAPRED noted that steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl during 26 January-1 February. An explosion at 2056 on 31 January ejected incandescent fragments as far as 500 m down the E flank and produced an ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted E. The Washington VAAC noted that the ash plume was observed in satellite imagery on 1 February drifting more than 275 km NE.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 December-7 December 2010

CENAPRED noted that steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl during 1-7 December. Based on a SIGMET notice, the Washington VAAC reported that a small and brief emission of gas and ash on 5 December was too small or diffuse to be detected in satellite images.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 November-16 November 2010

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported a small and brief emission from Popocatépetl on 12 November. CENAPRED reported four steam-and-gas emissions during 12-13 November.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 September-5 October 2010

CENAPRED reported that during 30 September-4 October steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl occasionally contained small amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


18 August-24 August 2010

CENAPRED reported that on 23 August an ash plume from Popocatépetl rose 1 km above the crater.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


9 June-15 June 2010

CENAPRED reported that during 9-11 June steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl occasionally contained small amounts of ash. On 10 June an ash-and-steam plume rose 800 m above the crater. The next day an ash-and-gas plume rose 1 km above the crater. Later that day, another ash-and-gas plume rose 600 m.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


2 June-8 June 2010

CENAPRED reported that during 2-3 and 7-8 June steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl occasionally contained small amounts of ash. The seismic network detected a few periods of harmonic tremor. Steam-and-gas emissions continued during 4-7 June. On 8 June a moderate explosion generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 8.4 km (27,600 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


5 May-11 May 2010

CENAPRED reported emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl during 5-11 May. Plumes contained small amounts of ash on 7 May.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


7 April-13 April 2010

CENAPRED reported that most days during 7-13 April emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl contained minor amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


24 February-2 March 2010

CENAPRED reported emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl during 24-28 February. Plumes contained small amounts of ash on 28 February and 1 March.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


27 January-2 February 2010

CENAPRED reported that during 27-31 January and 1 February emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl contained minor amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


6 January-12 January 2010

CENAPRED reported that on 10 and 11 January emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl contained minor amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


18 November-24 November 2009

CENAPRED reported that during 18-20 November steam-and-gas plumes from Popocatépetl sometimes contained ash. A small explosion detected by the seismic network on 21 November was accompanied by an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 8.9 km (29,200 ft) a.s.l. The ash plume drifted E and caused ashfall in Atlixco (23 km SE), Huejotzingo (27 km NE), and areas in the state of Tlaxcala.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


11 November-17 November 2009

CENAPRED reported that on 14 November an ash plume from Popocatépetl rose to an altitude of 7.4 km (24,300 ft) a.s.l. During 14-17 November, steam-and-gas plumes sometimes contained ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


28 October-3 November 2009

CENAPRED reported that on 29 October a small explosive event from Popocatépetl produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.4 km (21,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


30 September-6 October 2009

CENAPRED reported that during 3-6 October emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl contained slight amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


9 September-15 September 2009

CENAPRED reported that during 10-14 September emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl contained slight amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


2 September-8 September 2009

CENAPRED reported that during 2-3 September emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl contained slight amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


26 August-1 September 2009

CENAPRED reported that during 26-27 August emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl sometimes contained slight amounts of ash. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 27 August an ash plume rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 August-25 August 2009

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO and analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 20 August an ash plume from Popocatépetl rose to an altitude of 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 13 km W. An ash plume that drifted more than 35 km NNE was seen in satellite imagery on 25 August. CENAPRED reported that during 20-25 August emissions of steam and gas contained slight amounts of ash.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 August-18 August 2009

CENAPRED reported that during 10 and 12-17 August emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl sometimes contained slight amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


10 June-16 June 2009

CENAPRED reported that during 10-16 June emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl sometimes contained slight amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


3 June-9 June 2009

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 3-9 June; the plumes contained slight amounts of ash during 8-9 June.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


27 May-2 June 2009

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 27 May-2 June; the plumes contained slight amounts of ash during 27-29 May.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


29 April-5 May 2009

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 29 April-5 May; the plumes contained slight amounts of ash on 29 April.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


1 April-7 April 2009

CENAPRED reported that on 1 April an ash plume from Popocatépetl rose 1 km above the summit. A small ash emission was seen the next day.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


18 March-24 March 2009

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 18-24 March; the plumes contained slight amounts of ash during 20-21 and 23 March. An explosion on 23 March ejected incandescent fragments that landed near the crater. Based on information from CENEPRED, the Washington VAAC reported that a minor emission on 23 March produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. A small ash plume was seen on satellite imagery drifting SE.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 March-10 March 2009

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 4-10 March; the plumes contained slight amounts of ash on 5 March.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


18 February-24 February 2009

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 18-24 February; the plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


11 February-17 February 2009

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 11-17 February; the plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash. On 13 February, a plume with low ash content rose to an altitude of 7.2 km (23,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE at 2230; 95 minutes of increased seismicity followed.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 February-10 February 2009

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 4-10 February; the plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash. On 6 February, an ash plume rose 800 m above the crater at 0839, and was followed by 75 minutes of increased seismicity.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


21 January-27 January 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, information from the Mexico City MWO, and views from the web camera operated by CENAPRED, the Washington VAAC reported that on 21 January an ash plume from Popocatépetl rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE. A thermal anomaly was also detected. CENAPRED reported that during 21-27 January emissions of steam and gas were noted, and occasionally contained slight amounts of ash during 22-25 January. On 22 January, a small explosion produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7.4 km (24,300 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 November-2 December 2008

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 26-2 December. The plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


19 November-25 November 2008

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 19-25 November. The plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


12 November-18 November 2008

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 12-18 November. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 17 November an ash plume rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and WSW. A thermal anomaly was also detected. According to CENAPRED, the emissions contained slight amounts of ash on 18 November.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 November-11 November 2008

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 5-11 November. The plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash on 5 November.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


29 October-4 November 2008

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 29 October-4 November. The plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


22 October-28 October 2008

CENAPRED reported emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl during 22-28 October. The plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash on 27 and 28 October.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


15 October-21 October 2008

CENAPRED reported emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl during 15-21 October. The plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash on 20 and 21 October.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


12 March-18 March 2008

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 12-18 March. The plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash. Ash plumes on 17 March rose to altitudes of 7.4-7.9 km (24,300-26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


5 March-11 March 2008

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 5-11 March. The plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash. An explosion on 8 March resulted in ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 6.4 km (21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. An ash plume was spotted the next day that rose to the same altitude and also drifted NE.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


20 February-26 February 2008

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 20-26 February. The plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash. Explosions on 21 and 22 February resulted in ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 7.4 km (24,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Incandescent fragments were ejected from the crater and fell on the flanks. On 22 February, the ejected fragments fell on the SE flank.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 February-19 February 2008

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 12-19 February. The plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash. An explosion on 12 February resulted in an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and ejected fragments that fell in the crater. On 14 February, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 8.4 km (27,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


6 February-12 February 2008

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 6-12 February. The plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash. On 8 February, ash emissions were occasionally accompanied by explosions and propelled incandescent fragments that landed in the vicinity of the crater. Two explosive events on 11 February resulted in ashfall in the town of Huejotzingo, Puebla.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


30 January-5 February 2008

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 30 January-5 February. The plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash. On 4 February, ash emissions were accompanied by an explosion that propelled incandescent fragments 300 m from the crater.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


23 January-29 January 2008

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 23-29 January. The plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash. On 28 January, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 8.6 km (28,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


9 January-15 January 2008

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 9-14 January. The plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash during 9-12 January. On 14 January, high-frequency seismic tremor was followed by an explosion that produced ash emissions and propelled fragments from the crater.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


2 January-8 January 2008

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam-and-gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 2-8 January. On 5 January, a steam-and-gas plume with low ash content was reported. An altitude of the plume was unknown due to cloud cover. About two hours later, CENAPRED received reports of slight ashfall in Paso de Cortés, about 7.5 km N of the summit.

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO and observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, NE, and SE on 5 January.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 December-1 January 2008

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam-and-gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 30 December-1 January. On 31 December, a 13-minute-long high-frequency tremor event was followed by an emission of a plume with low ash content. The plume rose to an altitude of 7.4 km (24,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 November-4 December 2007

CENEPRED reported that multiple gas-and-steam plumes from Popocatépetl were observed during 28 November-4 December. On 1 December, high frequency seismic tremor was accompanied by an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7.4 km (24,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, and then NE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind. Based on observations of satellite imagery, reports from the Mexico City MWO, and the web camera operated by CENEPRED, the Washington VAAC reported that the ash plume rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 August-7 August 2007

According to the Washington VAAC, CENAPRED reported that on 28 July an eruption plume from Popocatépetl with minor ash content was visible on a web camera. The plume rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW. A pilot reported an ash plume on 3 August. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery on either day.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 June-3 July 2007

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO and a web camera operated by CENEPRED, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Popocatépetl rose to an altitude of 6.4 km (21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSW on 28 June.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 March-3 April 2007

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Popocatépetl rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE on 1 April.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 February-20 February 2007

According to the Washington VAAC, a puff with little ash content emitted from Popocatépetl was reported from the MWO and visible from the camera operated by CENEPRED on 14 February. A very diffuse plume was seen drifting to the E on satellite imagery. Base on an aerial photograph taken on 24 January, CENEPRED reported that the lava-dome dimensions have slightly increased since 24 November 2006.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 January-9 January 2007

According to the Washington VAAC, puffs with little ash content emitted from Popocatépetl were reported from the MWO and visible from the camera operated by CENEPRED during 7-8 January. The resulting eruption clouds drifted NE and N. A hotspot at the summit was detected in satellite imagery.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 December-27 December 2006

During 21-27 December, several emissions of gas, steam, and small amounts of ash occurred at Popocatépetl. A moderate explosion on 25 December produced an ash plume to ~8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. that drifted ENE.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 December-26 December 2006

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, pilot reports, and satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Popocatépetl rose to an altitude of 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E on 20 December. A hotspot was also visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 December-19 December 2006

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO and satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Popocatépetl rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. on 18 December.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 August-5 September 2006

According to the Washington VAAC, emissions of gas, steam, and possibly ash from Popocatépetl were visible from the camera operated by CENEPRED during 4-5 September. The resulting eruption cloud drifted W and did not rise high above the summit. Incandescence was periodically observed at the summit.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 August-8 August 2006

According to the Washington VAAC, the Meteorological Watch Office reported emissions from Popocatépetl on 3 August. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery. A bright glow was visible with the camera operated by CENEPRED.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 July-1 August 2006

According to the Washington VAAC, ash plumes from Popocatépetl were visible on satellite imagery on 25 and 27 July. These were reported by the Mexico City Meteorological Watch Office to reach altitudes of 9.8 km (32,000 ft.) a.s.l. and drift WSW.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 March-4 April 2006

The Washington VAAC reported that ash from Popocatépetl was visible on satellite imagery on 3 April at 0245 at a height of ~7.3 km (~24,000 ft) a.s.l., drifting S. The Mexico City MWO indicated that there was an eruption around this time that emitted small amounts of ash.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 February-28 February 2006

During 22-28 February, small steam-and-gas emissions occurred at Popocatépetl. Airphotos taken on 10 February showed a 130-m-diameter lava dome at the bottom of the crater.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 February-7 February 2006

During 1-7 February, several small-to-moderate emissions of steam, gas, and small amounts of ash occurred at Popocatépetl. On the 4th, an explosion produced a plume that rose to ~6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 January-31 January 2006

During 24-30 January, several emissions of gas, steam, and small amounts of ash occurred at Popocatépetl. A moderate explosion on 26 December at 0957 produced an ash plume to ~3 km (9,850 ft) a.s.l. that drifted NE.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 January-10 January 2006

A small explosion occurred at Popocatépetl on 6 January around 0042. According to the Washington VAAC, the resultant ash plume was visible on satellite imagery at a height of ~5.8 km (19,000 ft a.s.l.), extending NE. CENAPRED reported that after the explosion overall activity decreased to previous levels.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 December-20 December 2005

During 14-20 December, several emissions of gas, steam, and small amounts of ash occurred at Popocatépetl. Small explosions produced ash plumes to a height of ~2.5 km above the summit (or 26,000 ft a.s.l.).

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


7 December-13 December 2005

On 1 December at 0653, a moderate explosion at Popocatépetl produced an ash plume to a height of ~5 km above the volcano's summit (or 34,200 ft a.s.l.). An intense episode lasted ~2 minutes, and was followed by high-frequency tremor for 30 minutes. Ash drifted NE and fell in Amecameca, ~20 km NW of the volcano. An explosion on 1 December at 0920 produced an ash plume to ~2.5 km above the summit (or 26,000 ft a.s.l.) that also drifted NE. After this explosion, there was an increase in the number of small explosions, some of which involved small amounts of ash. After an explosion on 4 December, ash fell in the states of Tlaxcala (50 km NE of the volcano) and Puebla (60 km E of the volcano) and the volcanic activity returned to previous lower levels. As of 12 December, only emissions of steam and gas occurred.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


19 October-25 October 2005

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that an emission from Popocatépetl occurred on 23 October around 1700. The resultant ash cloud rose to a height of ~6.4 km (21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 August-9 August 2005

Ash-and-steam emissions occurred at Popocatépetl during 3-9 August, with the highest rising plume reaching 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. on 3 August.

Sources: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


27 July-2 August 2005

Several ash-and-steam emissions occurred at Popocatépetl during 27 July to 2 August, with the highest rising plume reaching 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. on 29 July.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 July-26 July 2005

Several low-intensity emissions occurred at Popocatépetl during 21-25 July. On 21 July at 0906, an emission produced a plume to a height of ~2 km above the volcano's crater (~24,400 ft a.s.l.). Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that ash visible on the web video camera rose to ~2.8 km above the crater (27,000 ft a.s.l.). The Alert Level at Popocatépetl remained at Yellow Phase I.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 July-19 July 2005

On 14 July at 1005 a moderate-sized emission from Popocatépetl produced an ash plume to a height of ~2 km above the volcano's crater (~24,400 ft a.s.l.). The emission was preceded by high-frequency tremor. During the remainder of 14-18 July, there were small emissions from the volcano.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


22 June-28 June 2005

During 22-27 June, Popocatépetl volcano had several steam explosions. On 22 June, there was a volcano-tectonic micro-earthquake of magnitude 2.0, located 500 m NW of the crater at a depth of 4.6 km. On 23 June a pilot reported an ash cloud 8 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. This ash cloud was not observed in satellite imagery due to dense weather clouds. On 24 June a VT earthquake of magnitude 2.3, was located 2.5 km S of the crater and a depth of 6.4 km (21,000 ft). On 23 June CENAPRED received reports of ash fall in Tetela del volcán and Ocuituco, municipalities of Morelos.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 April-19 April 2005

Based on information from CENAPRED, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 April light gas emission and incandescence were visible in Popocatépetl's crater. Meteorological clouds obscured satellite views of the crater. The Washington VAAC reported that aircraft should avoid flying over Popocatépetl in case increased activity produced an ash plume.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 March-15 March 2005

During 9-15 March, Popocatépetl occasionally emitted steam, gas, and small amounts of ash. An ash emission on 9 March at 1304 produced a plume that rose to ~500 m above the summit crater and drifted E. Ash fell in the towns of Huejotzingo (~30 km NE of the volcano) and Puebla (~45 km E). The Alert Level at Popocatépetl remained at Yellow Phase I.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


2 March-8 March 2005

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash emission from Popocatépetl around 0151 on 5 March rose to a height of ~7.3 km a.s.l.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 February-8 February 2005

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that a small ash-bearing emission occurred on 3 February. No ash was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 January-25 January 2005

According to the Washington VAAC, an explosion at Popocatépetl on 22 January produced a NE-drifting ash plume. CENAPRED reported that aerial photographs taken on 14 January showed subsidence in the inner crater of Popocatépetl and no external lava dome at the bottom of the crater. Popocatépetl remained at Alert Level Yellow- Phase 1, with access restricted within a 12-km radius around the crater.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 January-11 January 2005

On 9 January, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume rose up to ~10 km a.s.l. from Popocatépetl and extended S. Satellite imagery indicated that by 10 January, ash clouds had reached the coast of Mexico to the volcano's S and SW.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Agence France-Presse (AFP)


26 May-1 June 2004

On 26 May at 0643 a small emission from Popocatépetl of steam, gas, and small amounts of ash produced a plume that reached a height of ~1.5 km above the volcano's crater. Ash fell in Tetela del Volcán, Morelos. Also, an M 2.4 volcano-tectonic microearthquake occurred 2 km E of the crater. Aerial photography taken on 14 April showed continued subsidence of the inner crater. No external lava dome at the bottom of the crater was distinguished. The Alert Level at Popocatépetl remained at Yellow Phase 1, therefore access was restricted in a 12-km-radius around the volcano.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Agence France-Presse (AFP)


24 March-30 March 2004

Popocatépetl remained at a low level of activity for the reporting period, occasionally producing gas-and-steam plumes. On 25 March the volcanic alert status was lowered to Yellow-1.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


24 December-30 December 2003

During December relatively low-level volcanic activity continued at Popocatépetl, with low-intensity steam-and-gas emissions occurring. An aerial photograph taken on 10 December showed subsidence of the inner crater and no external lava dome at the bottom of the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow Phase II.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


19 November-25 November 2003

Activity at Popocatépetl remained stable during the week with numerous gas-and-steam emissions. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume was emitted on 22 November that rose to ~9.5 km a.s.l. and extended ~19 km NE.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 November-11 November 2003

This tall volcano is commonly obscured by clouds and scientists are then forced to rely on seismicity detected by the monitoring network to define the number of "daily exhalations." Daily exhalations during the week of 5-11 November 2003 typically stood at ~5. By comparison, during March 1996 the daily exhalations reached ~180. Other monitored parameters during 5-11 November also indicated relative stability. Scientists also consider the energy released by the exhalation-related seismicity, and not surprisingly, this also stood much higher during mid-1996. A 17 October 2003 flight over the volcano allowed scientists to see into the crater; the crater floor looked comparatively flat, without signs of a rising dome. Good visibility on 6 November brought little sign of fumarolic steam rising from the volcano. No aviation ash advisories were issued for Popocatépetl during this week.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 October-28 October 2003

During October, moderate emissions of mainly gas and steam occurred at Popocatépetl. Aerial photographs taken on 17 October showed that the inner crater had subsided and that no external lava dome was visible at the bottom of the crater.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


17 September-23 September 2003

During 17-23 September, moderate emissions of mainly gas, steam, and sometimes ash occurred at Popocatépetl. According to the Washington VAAC, on 21 September a small possible ash cloud was visible on satellite imagery at a height of ~7 km a.s.l., extending NW from the summit. The cloud dissipated rapidly.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 August-2 September 2003

Aerial photography taken on 25 August revealed no external lava dome in Popocatépetl crater. On 28 August the number of low-level emissions increased in comparison to previous days. On 29 August at 1330 a low-density ash emission rose to ~1.5 km above the crater and drifted W. There were no reports of ash fall in villages near the volcano. This event was accompanied by episodes of high-frequency and low-amplitude tremor. By 1 September the number of emissions returned to levels recorded prior to the increase.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


6 August-12 August 2003

During 6-12 August, moderate emissions of mainly gas, steam, and sometimes ash occurred at Popocatépetl.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


30 July-5 August 2003

During 30 July-5 August, moderate emissions of mainly gas, steam, and sometimes ash occurred at Popocatépetl.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


23 July-29 July 2003

During 23-29 July, moderate emissions of mainly gas, steam, and sometimes ash occurred at Popocatépetl. Aerial photography taken on 21 July revealed than an external lava dome was not visible at the bottom of the crater. A significant explosion occurred on 25 July at 2053, throwing incandescent fragments on Popocatépetl's slopes. According to news reports, the loud explosion panicked some residents in nearby communities.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Associated Press


16 July-22 July 2003

During 16-22 July, moderate emissions of mainly gas and steam occurred at Popocatépetl. On 19 July at 0920 a moderate explosion produced an ash plume that rose ~3 km above the crater. After the event the volcano returned to its previous level of activity characterized by frequent and small steam-and-ash emissions. According to news reports, a small amount of ash fell in Mexico City. The international airport remained open, with minor disruptions to air traffic.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 July-15 July 2003

During 9-15 July, moderate emissions of mainly gas, steam, and sometimes ash, occurred at Popocatépetl. An eruption on 9 July at 0910 sent ash to a height of ~1 km above the summit.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 July-8 July 2003

During 2-8 July, moderate emissions of mainly gas, steam, and sometimes ash, occurred at Popocatépetl. A relatively large ash emission occurred on 2 July at 0755 that produced an ash cloud to ~3.5 km above the crater. After the event, volcanism returned to previous levels characterized by frequent and small emissions of steam and gas.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Associated Press


25 June-1 July 2003

During 25 June to 1 July, moderate emissions of mainly gas, steam, and sometimes ash, occurred at Popocatépetl. On 28 June the number of emissions was higher than on other days, and the plumes had a higher ash content. Ash fell in towns SW of the volcano.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 June-24 June 2003

During 18-24 June, moderate emissions of mainly gas and steam, and sometimes ash, occurred at Popocatépetl. In addition, isolated episodes of low-amplitude harmonic tremor were occasionally recorded. One of the more significant emissions, on 20 June at 0636, produced an ash-and-steam plume to a height of ~2 km above the volcano. Ash plumes were occasionally visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 June-17 June 2003

CENAPRED reported that a small eruption at Popocatépetl on 10 June at 1744 produced a W-drifting ash column to a height of ~3 km above the volcano. In addition, episodes of low-amplitude harmonic tremor were recorded for a total of 2 hours. According to the Washington VAAC, the volcano returned to just gas venting after the eruption. Based on information from the México City MWO, the Washington VAAC also reported that a small emission occurred on 15 June at 1401. Aviators reported that the cloud from this eruption rose to ~2 km above the volcano and drifted N.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 May-13 May 2003

During 7-10 May, moderate emissions of mainly gas and steam occurred at Popocatépetl. In addition, isolated episodes of low-amplitude harmonic tremor were occasionally recorded. No signs of a new lava dome were seen during a flight over the volcano on 20 April.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


23 April-29 April 2003

On 24 April at 2050 Popocatépetl issued a moderate explosion that threw incandescent fragments 1.5-2.0 km above the crater and generated an ash column that rose to ~2.5 km above the crater. The plume was initially carried E. This activity was related to the destruction of a small dome that formed in the past few days. After the explosion, activity dropped to its previous more tranquil levels.

A small explosion occurred late on 26 April, followed by a clear increase in vigor on 28 April, including another moderate explosion at 0120 that day. Incandescent fragments landed on the E and NE flanks up to ~800 m from the crater. The outburst included a 40-second phase of greatest intensity. Ash falls were not reported. Hours later on 28 April instruments began to register harmonic tremor of moderate amplitude, signals that continued for 13 hours.

During the next day the eruptive vigor dropped to modest levels (only four exhalations of low intensity occurred, a smaller number than typical, and chiefly containing steam and gas rather than ash). Scientists attributed the 28 April eruption and increased eruptive vigor to advanced rates of lava ascent and extrusion. They suggested that these may have been higher than seen either earlier this year or near the end of last year. The hazard status was raised one increment, to Yellow phase 3. In addition, the highway traversing the Cortés pass was closed to traffic for two days, 29-30 April.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


16 April-22 April 2003

The ongoing eruption at Popocatépetl was punctuated by a small explosion on 17 April, an event accompanied by incandescent fragments that reached 1 km E along the summit crater=s outer margin, and a modest ash plume directed toward the NE. Associated with the event, low-amplitude tremor persisted for about 2 hours, but no other significant geophysical changes were seen. More typical low-intensity outbursts also continued during the week, typically at rates of ten=s per day. The alert level still stood at Yellow, and the mountain road across the N flank remained open.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


9 April-15 April 2003

During 9-15 April, moderate emissions of mainly gas and steam occurred at Popocatépetl. In addition, isolated episodes of low-amplitude harmonic tremor were occasionally recorded. There were still remains of the lava dome in Popocatépetl's crater.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


2 April-8 April 2003

During 2-8 April, moderate emissions of mainly gas and steam occurred at Popocatépetl. In addition, isolated episodes of low-amplitude harmonic tremor were occasionally recorded. There were still remains of the lava dome in Popocatépetl's crater.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


26 March-1 April 2003

Several emissions of steam, gas, and ash occurred during 26 March to 1 April associated with the continued destruction of Popocatépetl's lava dome.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


19 March-25 March 2003

Several emissions of steam, gas, and ash occurred during 19-25 March associated with the continued destruction of Popocatépetl's lava dome.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


12 March-18 March 2003

Several emissions of steam, gas, and ash occurred during 12-18 March associated with the continued destruction of Popocatépetl's lava dome. The largest reported emission, on 13 March at 0916, produced a steam-and-ash cloud that reached a height of 1 km above the crater and drifted E. According to a news article, ash fell on several communities near the volcano.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press


5 March-11 March 2003

Several emissions of steam, gas, and ash occurred during 5-11 March associated with the continued destruction of Popocatépetl's lava dome. The largest reported emission, on 5 March at 1005, produced a steam-and-ash cloud that reached a height of 1 km above the crater. Also, a microearthquake and isolated episodes of low-amplitude harmonic tremor were recorded. The Alert Level at Popocatépetl remained at Yellow Phase II, with a 12-km-radius restricted area.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 February-4 March 2003

Several emissions of steam, gas, and ash occurred during 26 February to 4 March associated with the continued destruction of Popocatépetl's lava dome, although there were fewer larger emissions than the previous week. The largest reported emission occurred on 28 February at 0314, with incandescent volcanic fragments ejected ~1 km around the crater and an ash emission that initially drifted E.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 February-25 February 2003

Several emissions of steam, gas, and ash occurred during 19-25 February associated with the continued destruction of Popocatépetl's lava dome. One of the larger emissions occurred on 21 February at 1820 and produced a NE-drifting ash cloud to a height of 4 km above the volcano. It was followed by an emission the next day at 0239, which produced a NE-drifting ash cloud to 2 km above the volcano. Both emissions ejected incandescent fragments ~1.5 km from the volcano, causing fires in pasture land. According to the Washington VAAC, emissions on the 22nd produced two ash plumes that were visible on satellite imagery; one extended from the central Gulf of Mexico to the Yucatan Peninsula at a height ~10.7 km a.s.l., and a second smaller plume was over the Bay of Campeche at ~9.4 km a.s.l. Later that day, ash was visible on satellite imagery extending from Lake Okeechobee, Florida, NE into the Atlantic Ocean.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press


12 February-18 February 2003

A moderate explosion at Popocatépetl on 14 February at 0534 ejected incandescent fragments as far away as 3 km around the crater. Also, a dense ash column rose 5 km above the volcano and drifted NE. The ejected fragments caused some fires in pasture land. This eruption was related to the partial destruction of the lava dome. After the eruption, activity returned to low-to-moderate emissions of steam, gas, and ash.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 February-11 February 2003

During 4-10 February, several moderate-sized emissions at Popocatépetl sent ash plumes to a height of ~2 km. On 4 February at 0459 a moderate dome-destruction explosion ejected incandescent volcanic material that fell as far as ~2 km down the volcano's flanks. On 5 and 6 February similar sized emissions occurred that were accompanied by episodes of low-amplitude harmonic tremor for up to 3 hours. According to CENAPRED, due to the remains of a lava dome inside the crater, there remained a significant chance of further explosive activity, ash emissions, and incandescent ejections around the crater.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 January-4 February 2003

Volcanic activity continued at low-to-moderate levels at Popocatépetl during 28 January to 3 February. Activity consisted of small-to-moderate emissions of steam, gas, and small amounts of ash, and sporadic episodes of low-amplitude harmonic tremor. A moderate-sized emission occurred on 2 February at 0826 that produced an ash column to a height of ~2 km above the volcano. In addition, there were episodes of harmonic low-amplitude tremor during 2 hours.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 January-28 January 2003

Volcanic activity continued at low-to-moderate levels at Popocatépetl during 21-27 January. Activity consisted of small-to-moderate emissions of steam, gas, and small amounts of ash, and sporadic episodes of low-amplitude harmonic tremor. On 22 January at 0735 a significant increase in volcanic microsesimicity was recorded. According to the Washington VAAC, on the 25th an ash emission reached a height of ~10.7 km a.s.l. CENAPRED reported that the recorded seismic and volcanic activity were probably associated with the growth of a new lava dome inside the crater.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 January-21 January 2003

Volcanic activity continued at low-to-moderate levels at Popocatépetl during 15-20 January. Activity consisted of small-to-moderate emissions of steam, gas, and small amounts of ash, and sporadic episodes of low-amplitude harmonic tremor. On 9 January photographs of the lava dome revealed that the dome's inner crater had subsided.

The lava dome's volume was calculated to be approximately 500,000 m3. Explosive activity after the 15th was probably associated with the growth of a new lava dome. CENAPRED stated that in the next days moderate explosive activity, with ash and incandescent material emission, could occur.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Associated Press


31 December-6 January 2003

Based on information from the México City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that a thin plume was visible on satellite imagery on 1 January at 1245. According to the MWO, the plume was at a height of ~7.3 km a.s.l.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Associated Press, News 8 Austin


24 December-30 December 2002

A moderate explosion occurred at Popocatépetl on 23 December. The resultant ash cloud rose ~2 km above the volcano and deposited ash on nearby towns. CENAPRED indicated that this type of activity is related to the destruction of the lava dome. According to a news article, a series of small eruptions just before Christmas deposited ash in towns as far away as central Texas. According to the article, "Upper-level winds just happened to be flowing from the Pacific Ocean over central México towards Texas, and that 'jet stream' effectively transported the ash right into central Texas." There were reports of ashfall from San Antonio to New Braunfels, in addition to Austin, covering cars and vegetation with a light, white film.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Associated Press, News 8 Austin


18 December-24 December 2002

Moderate explosions occurred at Popocatépetl on 18 December. After a period of high-frequency tremor, an explosion occurred at 0148 that produced an ash cloud that reached 2 km above the crater. Later, at 0209 and 0214 two explosions sent ash to ~0.5 km above the crater. that drifted to the NE. Fragments were sent around the crater a distance of ~1.5 km. The volcano returned to its previous relatively low level of activity. Popocatépetl remained at Alert Level Yellow phase II.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), EFE News Service


11 December-17 December 2002

During December there were several emissions of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash at Popocatépetl. According to CENAPRED, new episodes of low-frequency tremor, beginning on 19 November, signaled the growth of a new lava dome within Popocatépetl's crater. Aerial photographs obtained by the Mexican Ministry of Communications and Transportation on 2 December confirmed the presence of a fresh lava dome measuring about 180 m in diameter at its base, and about 52 m high. The lava dome grew in episodes of variable duration, at a mean extrusion rate of 8-9 m3 per second.

These dome-growth episodes were distinctly recorded by the monitoring network as harmonic tremor. Small associated inflation was also recorded. CENAPRED stated that dome growth may continue and could conclude with dome-destruction episodes, which have occurred in the past. The Alert Level at Popocatépetl remained at Yellow.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


6 November-12 November 2002

A moderate eruption occurred at Popocatépetl on 6 November at 0735. According to aircraft reports, the eruption produced a small amount of ash that reached 4 km above the crater and drifted slightly to the N. An intense 3-minute-long phase was followed by high-frequency tremor. Minor ashfall occurred in towns including San Juan Tehuixtitlán, San Pedro Nexapa, Amecameca, Ecatzingo,Tepejomulco, Ozumba, and San Vicente Chimalhuacán. Four small eruptions also occurred during the day. The Alert Level remained at Yellow Phase II, with a restricted area of 12 km from the crater.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Associated Press


16 October-22 October 2002

During September until at least 22 October, there were several emissions of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash at Popocatépetl. Based on aerial photos taken on 17 September, the lava dome within the inner crater appeared to have subsided.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


28 August-3 September 2002

In August there were several emissions of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash at Popocatépetl. In addition, episodes of both harmonic and high-frequency tremor occurred. CENAPRED attributes this activity to a new lava dome that has been growing for several weeks.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


24 July-30 July 2002

During 23-30 July, there were small-to-moderate emissions of steam, gas, and ash at Popocatépetl. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 26 July an ash cloud rose 5.5-6.7 km a.s.l.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 July-23 July 2002

During 17-22 July, there were small-to-moderate emissions of steam, gas, and ash at Popocatépetl. In addition, several episodes of low-amplitude harmonic tremor were recorded.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


10 July-16 July 2002

During 8-15 July, there were small-to-moderate emissions of steam, gas, and ash at Popocatépetl. In addition, several episodes of low-amplitude harmonic tremor were recorded.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


3 July-9 July 2002

During 2-7 July, there were small-to-moderate emissions of steam, gas, and ash at Popocatépetl. In addition, several episodes of low-amplitude harmonic tremor were recorded.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


26 June-2 July 2002

During 26 June-1 July, there were small-to-moderate emissions of steam, gas, and ash at Popocatépetl. In addition, several episodes of low-amplitude harmonic tremor were recorded. The most notable emissions, on 26 June at 1110 and on 1 July at 0238, produced ash clouds to a height of ~2 km above the volcano.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


19 June-25 June 2002

During 18-24 June, activity at Popocatépetl mainly consisted of small steam-and-gas emissions.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


12 June-18 June 2002

During 12-18 June, activity at Popocatépetl mainly consisted of small steam-and-gas emissions. A photograph of the lava dome taken on 22 May revealed that it had diminished in size compared to 29 April. Based on information from ground reports, video footage, and MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that an eruption occurred on 17 June at 1140. An ash cloud was produced that rose to a height of ~8 km a.s.l. and drifted to the WSW.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 June-11 June 2002

During 5-11 June, seismic and volcanic activity were relatively low at Popocatépetl. Activity mainly consisted of small steam-and-gas emissions.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


29 May-4 June 2002

During 29 May-4 June, seismic and volcanic activity were relatively low at Popocatépetl. Activity mainly consisted of small steam-and-gas emissions.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


22 May-28 May 2002

During 21-28 May, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded. On 21 May at 1330 a small explosion occurred that was followed by 15 minutes of high-frequency tremor. According to a news report, a small amount of ash fell on communities neighboring the volcano on 22 May.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Associated Press


15 May-21 May 2002

During 15-21 May, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 May-14 May 2002

During 8-12 May, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded. A small explosion on 12 May at 0609 hurled incandescent pyroclasts less than 500 m down the volcano's N flank. Aerial photography taken on 29 April by the Department of Federal Roads and the Ministry of Communication and Transportation revealed a 170-m-diameter lava dome growing in the crater. According to CENAPRED, recent volcanic and seismic activity at Popocatépetl has been related to the growth of this lava dome.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 May-7 May 2002

During 1-7 May, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 April-30 April 2002

During 24-30 April, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded. On 29 April at 2232 an eruption produced an ash cloud to a height of 1.5 km and sent incandescent fragments 500 m from the crater. No ash was visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 April-23 April 2002

During 17-23 April, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Associated Press


10 April-16 April 2002

During 10-15 April, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


3 April-9 April 2002

During 3-9 April, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded. A moderate explosion on 8 April at 0438 produced an ash cloud to a height of ~7.6 km a.s.l. Incandescence was visible at the volcano during the eruption. A small ash cloud was visible on satellite imagery drifting to the E and by 1145 the cloud had drifted over the coast of México near the city of Veracruz.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 March-2 April 2002

During 27 March-2 April, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 26 March at 2132 seismicity suggested that an emission may have occurred. Extensive cloud cover precluded the detection of ash on satellite imagery.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 March-26 March 2002

During 20-26 March, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


13 March-19 March 2002

During 6-11 March, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


6 March-12 March 2002

During 6-11 March, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded. On 9 March a steam-and-gas emission rose to ~2 km above the crater.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


27 February-5 March 2002

During 28 February-5 March, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded. According to CENAPRED, volcanic and seismic activity during the report period was probably related to a new episode of lava-dome growth.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


20 February-26 February 2002

On 19 February frequent small-to-moderate emissions of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash occurred at Popocatépetl. In addition, small explosions occasionally threw incandescent volcanic fragments short distances from the crater. During 0750-0900 small amounts of ash fell in Paso de Cortés. Also, isolated episodes of harmonic tremor were registered. On 23 February at 2156 a small explosion threw incandescent fragments up to 200 m that fell within the crater and a low-volume ash column rose 700 m above the crater and drifted to the W. Later, isolated harmonic tremor was detected. According to CENAPRED, the activity on the 19th and 23rd was related to the partial destruction of the lava dome in the crater and low-level explosive activity was considered possible in the next days or weeks.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


13 February-19 February 2002

Seismicity increased slightly at Popocatépetl during 15-16 February after several weeks of low activity. Harmonic tremor and low-magnitude volcanotectonic micro-earthquakes were recorded. During the same period emissions of gas, steam, and some ash occurred. CENAPRED stated that the activity was possibly related to the ascent of magma and the formation of a new lava dome. They added that this activity could lead to explosions in the next days to weeks. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase II.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


6 February-12 February 2002

During the week, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


30 January-5 February 2002

Air photos taken on 24 January revealed that the new lava dome growing in Popocatépetl's summit crater was 180 m in diameter and 150 m high. During 30 January-5 February Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


23 January-29 January 2002

According to CENAPRED, on 23 January at 0517 a moderate eruption began at Popocatépetl. It was accompanied by continuous tremor. Incandescent volcanic fragments were ejected short distances from the crater, and a steam-and-ash cloud was produced. According to pilot reports, the cloud rose to ~9 km a.s.l. Satellite imagery showed that the cloud drifted to the NE; by 1845 it was visible near the city of Poza Rica, ~250 km to the NE. The cloud continued drifting NE and travelled over the Gulf of Mexico. Small amounts of ash fell in Paso de Cortés and the town of Tlaxcala. CENAPRED reported that the activity was related to the formation of a new lava dome. Following the 23 January eruption, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


16 January-22 January 2002

During the week of 16-22 January, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


9 January-15 January 2002

During the week, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded. The highest reported volcanic cloud, from an eruption on 13 January at 1709, reached a height of ~7.3 km and drifted to the ENE. A photograph of Popocatépetl 's summit area taken on 11 January confirmed that the lava dome reported in December 2001 had been partially destroyed.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 January-8 January 2002

During the week, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded. On 7 January at 1330 a small ash emission was visible on satellite imagery at a height of 7.6 km a.s.l.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 December-1 January 2002

During the week, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded. The highest reported ash cloud was produced from an eruption on 29 December at 0432 and rose 5.5-8.8 km a.s.l.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 December-25 December 2001

A period of lava-dome destruction and possible new dome growth during 18 to at least 26 December included several explosions and episodes of harmonic tremor. During a 3-minute-long eruption on 19 December starting at 1926, volcanic fragments were hurled 2 km to the E and NE. In addition, an ash cloud was probably produced, but was obscured by meteorological clouds. Another notable explosion, on 22 December at 1735, produced an ash cloud that rose 2.5 km above the volcano and drifted to the NE. After this event a small amount of ash fell in the town of Puebla, ~50 km E of the volcano. By 23 December volcanic activity decreased, with fewer eruptions, less fumarolic activity, and short episodes of high-frequency tremor. According to CENAPRED, the activity during the week was related to destruction of the lava dome first seen on 21 November 2001. They warned that similar activity may occur in the following days or weeks. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase II.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press


12 December-18 December 2001

During the week, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded. The highest reported ash cloud was produced from an eruption on 17 December at 2213. It rose 7.3 km a.s.l. and drifted to the SW. CENAPRED reported that a new 190-m-diameter lava dome in the volcano's crater was observed on 11 December.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 December-11 December 2001

On 10 December at 1830 an increase in activity began at Popocatépetl. There were more ash emissions at the volcano than in comparison to the previous weeks. Several small-to-moderate emissions ejected incandescent fragments about 1 km around the volcano. The strongest activity occurred during 2000 to 2200. Following the increased activity only sporadic emissions occurred. The Washington VAAC reported that ash clouds rose less than 1 km above the volcano and drifted to the ENE.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


28 November-4 December 2001

During the week, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


21 November-27 November 2001

During the week, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded. During a flight over the volcano on 21 November observers noticed a new 130-m-diameter lava dome growing inside the internal crater. The growth of this lava dome corresponded with increased emissions and seismicity on 17 and 18 November.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


14 November-20 November 2001

During the week, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash. There were episodes of increased emissions and seismometers recorded periods of harmonic tremor. According to CENAPRED, this type of activity may be associated with lava dome growth, as occurred on 15 August and 10 September 2001.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


7 November-13 November 2001

On 10 November at 0324 a small explosive event produced an ash column that rose 1 km above Popocatépetl's summit and drifted to the E. CENAPRED's volcano camera showed incandescent fragments hurled up to 300 m E. During the rest of the week, volcanic activity at Popocatépetl remained low, with emissions of small clouds of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 October-6 November 2001

Volcanic activity remained low at Popocatépetl, with emissions of small clouds of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash. Episodes of low-amplitude harmonic tremor also occurred. An aerial photograph of the crater was taken on 25 October by the Dirección General de Carreteras Federales, SCT. It showed that the lava dome, which was first reported on 20 September 2001, had subsided. In addition, a new, small 50-m-diameter lava dome had grown in the bottom of the internal crater. According to CENAPRED, a similar situation had been observed in April 2001 and the presence of the lava dome indicates the possibility of small explosions occurring in the next days to weeks. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase II.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 October-30 October 2001

On 25 October at approximately 0600 a steam column was observed rising 1-2.5 km above Popocatépetl's crater, drifting to the NW. Ground observations confirmed that the column did not include ash. The MWO reported to the Washington VAAC that another eruption column the same day at 1040 rose to ~6.7 km. A narrow plume of ash from the eruption was visible extending to the N on satellite imagery. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase II.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


17 October-23 October 2001

During the week, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash. In addition, seismometers recorded episodes of harmonic tremor.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


10 October-16 October 2001

During the week, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash, and underwent episodes of harmonic tremor.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


3 October-9 October 2001

During the week, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash, and underwent episodes of harmonic tremor. According to reports from the México City MWO to the Washington VAAC, a small eruption on 9 October at 0712 produced an ash cloud that rose 2 km above the volcano and drifted to the W.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


26 September-2 October 2001

During the week, volcanic activity at Popocatépetl consisted of small emissions of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash, and episodes of harmonic tremor. Pilots reported that a steam emission rose 4 km above the volcano on 26 September at 1000.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


19 September-25 September 2001

During the week, volcanic activity at Popocatépetl consisted of small emissions of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash, and episodes of harmonic tremor. Analysis of aerial photographs taken on 20 September revealed that the lava dome had continued to grow since it was first observed on 10 August. The dome is growing inside the inner crater, which formed within the summit crater after a dome was destroyed in December 2000.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


12 September-18 September 2001

During the week, volcanic activity at Popocatépetl consisted of small emissions of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


5 September-11 September 2001

On 9 September at about 0815 an episode of frequent moderate-sized eruptions began at Popocatépetl. The eruptions produced steam-and-ash emissions that rose to a maximum height of 1 km above the crater and drifted to the NW. During the night a small explosion sent incandescent fragments up to 200 m from the crater. Eruptive activity continued through at least 1230 on 9 September.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 August-4 September 2001

Volcanic activity remained relatively low at Popocatépetl, with small emissions of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


22 August-28 August 2001

Volcanic activity remained relatively low at Popocatépetl, with small emissions of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


15 August-21 August 2001

Small emissions of steam, gas, and small amounts of ash continued at Popocatépetl. The Mexico City MWO reported that on 17 August at 1514 an ash emission produced a cloud that rose to 7.3 km a.s.l. The Washington VAAC reported that GOES-8 satellite imagery did not show an ash plume, but did show an occasional hotspot. CENAPRED reported that recent activity was related to the growth of a new lava dome inside the crater. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase II.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 August-14 August 2001

The number of small emissions composed of steam, gas, and small amounts of ash increased in comparison to the previous week. The Washington VAAC reported an ash emission on 9 August at 2300 produced an ash cloud that rose to 7.6 km a.s.l. According to CENAPRED, the increase in activity may have been related to several days of intense rain in the area.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 August-7 August 2001

Low-level volcanic activity occurred at Popocatépetl during the week. Several small emissions occurred at the volcano that were mainly composed of steam, gas, and small amounts of ash.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 July-31 July 2001

Several small-to-moderate sized emissions occurred at Popocatépetl that were mainly composed of steam, gas, and small amounts of ash. The Washington VAAC received a pilot report on 24 July at 1100 of an ash cloud ~5.5 km above the volcano drifting to the W. On 23 July CENAPRED reduced the Alert Level from Yellow Phase III to Phase II because volcanic activity was at lower levels than it was in December 2000 when the Alert Level was originally raised.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 July-24 July 2001

Several small-to-moderate sized emissions occurred at Popocatépetl that were mainly composed of steam, gas, and small amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


11 July-17 July 2001

Several small-to-moderate sized emissions occurred at Popocatépetl, including three on 14 July. According to the Washington VAAC, around 1045 an emission of steam, gas, and small amounts of ash rose to ~7.3 km a.s.l. and drifted to the W. Emissions also occurred at 2303 and 2341. A cloud from the latter emission rose to ~6.1 km a.s.l. and drifted to the W.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press


4 July-10 July 2001

On 3 July at 0410 and 0648 moderate-sized explosions occurred. The latter explosion lasted about 10 minutes and produced an ash cloud that rose ~4 km above the volcano. Initially the cloud drifted to the SE and later the highest portion of the cloud drifted to the NW. Based on information from pilot reports and ground observations, the Washington VAAC reported that the ash cloud was 9.3 km SE of Mexico City Airport at 0930. Ashfall occurred in several towns including Chalco, ~35 km NW of the volcano, and there were reports of light ashfall on the airport's runways.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press, CNN


27 June-3 July 2001

Volcanic activity at Popocatépetl remained at normal levels, with several small exhalations of steam, gas, and small amounts of ash. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC stated that on 1 July at 0915 a small eruption produced an ash plume that rose to less than 1 km above the volcano and drifted to the SSW. On 3 July at 0425 a moderate-sized exhalation produced an ash cloud seen on satellite imagery to spread in two directions; to less than 1 km above the volcano drifting to the NW, and ~4 km above the volcano drifting to the SE.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 June-26 June 2001

Volcanic activity at Popocatépetl remained at normal levels, with several small exhalations of steam, gas, and small amounts of ash. Based on information from CENAPRED, the Washington VAAC reported that on 24 June at 0900 a small eruption produced an ash cloud that rose ~0.5 km above the volcano and drifted to the SW.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 June-19 June 2001

Volcanic activity at Popocatépetl remained at normal levels, with several small exhalations of steam, gas, and small amounts of ash. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted 12-km-radius area.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


6 June-12 June 2001

Activity during 6-7 June remained at normal low levels, with minor gas-and-steam emissions, tremor, and a few small volcano-tectonic earthquakes at around 6 km depth below the crater. Increased emissions on 8 June sometimes included small amounts of ash. An explosion on 9 June at 0424 sent ash to an unknown height. Moderate activity continued through the next morning and decreased slightly. The Mexico City MWO reported an ash emission on 11 June at 1100 that rose 7.6 km a.s.l., but it was not seen on satellite imagery. The MWO warned of another ash emission on 12 June at 1648, but cloudy conditions prevented a height estimate. Typical low-to-moderate activity continued through 13 June, with the Yellow alert level unchanged.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 May-5 June 2001

CENAPRED reported that on 31 May at 2136 a moderate-sized eruption began with the most intense phase lasting ~1 minute. Incandescent material traveled 2-3 km down the NE flank of the volcano. According to the Mexico City MWO a steam-and-ash cloud was observed rising up to 7.6 km a.s.l. and drifting to the W. A smaller eruption occurred on 1 June at 0804 that sent a steam-and-ash cloud up to 7 km a.s.l.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 May-29 May 2001

Small-to-moderate sized exhalations occurred during the week. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that an eruption occurred on 26 May at 1122 that sent a steam-and-ash plume up to ~7 km a.s.l.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 May-22 May 2001

Small-to-moderate sized exhalations consisting mostly of gas and steam occurred at Popocatépetl during the week.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


9 May-15 May 2001

CENAPRED reported that at 2301 on 13 May a small explosion sent incandescent fragments as far away as 0.5 km from the crater. At 0939 on 14 May an ash-and-steam plume rose 1.5 km above the crater.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 May-8 May 2001

Several small exhalations at Popocatépetl produced small plumes of steam and ash with the largest plume rising up to 1.5 km above the crater. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted 12-km-radius area.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press


25 April-1 May 2001

CENAPRED reported that at 0819 on 29 April a moderate explosion occurred at Popocatépetl that lasted for 1 minute and produced an ash cloud that rose 2 km above the volcano's summit and drifted to the ENE. A pilot reported that the ash cloud reached an altitude of 9 km a.s.l. Light ash fall was reported in San Pedro Benito Juárez ~10 km SE of the volcano's summit. Throughout the day several episodes of harmonic tremor occurred. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that another eruption occurred later the same day at 1310. It produced an ash cloud that rose 6.7-7.6 km a.s.l. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted 12-km-radius area.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press


18 April-24 April 2001

Small-to-moderate exhalations continued at Popocatépetl. On 17 April a small lahar traveled down the Achupashal Gorge. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted 12-km-radius area.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press


11 April-17 April 2001

Several small-to-moderate exhalations occurred during the week at Popocatéptl. CENAPRED reported that at 1948 on 16 April a moderate explosion sent incandescent fragments up to 2 km away from the volcano's crater to the NE and NW and produced an ash plume that rose 4 km above the crater and drifted to the SW. The 40-second-long eruption partially destroyed the lava dome that had formed within the crater over the course of several weeks. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted 12-km-radius area.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press


4 April-10 April 2001

The CENAPRED reported that during the previous two weeks activity increased at Popocatépetl. Seismographs detected episodes of harmonic tremor totaling up to 8 hours per day, two tectono-volcanic earthquakes per day with magnitudes up to 2.3, and high-frequency tremor. This activity is related to the emplacement of a new lava dome, which was first observed on 14 March, that could produce explosive activity. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted 12-km-radius area.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


28 March-3 April 2001

CENAPRED reported that volcanic activity continued at Popocatépetl, with several small exhalations and moderate seismic activity. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted 12-km-radius area.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


21 March-27 March 2001

According to CENAPRED, volcanic activity remained low and relatively unchanged throughout 22-27 March. Low-intensity steam-and-gas exhalations continued, sometimes with small amounts of ash. Spoardic episodes of harmonic tremor were reported on most days, with the longest episode lasting 1.5 hours on the evening of 24 March. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted 12-km-radius area.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 March-20 March 2001

According to CENAPRED, volcanic activity that was relatively high during 14-16 March began to diminish on 17 March. On 14 and 15 March there were many small exhalations of steam, ash, and gas, as well as episodes of harmonic tremor that totaled 1 hour. On 15 March a new lava dome ~200 m in diameter and 40 m high was observed at the volcano's summit. By 17 March fewer exhalations occurred than on previous days and harmonic tremor was only detected for a total of 15 minutes. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted 12-km-radius area.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 March-13 March 2001

CENAPRED reported that Popocatépetl's activity was at low-to-moderate levels during most of the week, with small exhalations accompanied by steam emissions. Based on reports from the Mexico MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that at 2024 on 12 March an ash cloud from an exhalation of Popocatépetl was observed at a height of ~ 7 km a.s.l. The ash cloud was not visible on GOES-8 imagery. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted area of 12-km-radius.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 February-6 March 2001

CENAPRED reported that activity remained relatively low at Popocatépetl during the week, with small exhalations accompanied by steam emissions. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted area of 12-km-radius.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


21 February-27 February 2001

CENAPRED reported that small exhalations occurred at Popocatépetl during the week. The Washington VAAC did not report that ash was visible in satellite imagery. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted area of 12-km-radius.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)


14 February-20 February 2001

The Washington VAAC reported that an eruption occurred at 1642 on 15 February, producing an ash cloud that rose up to 7.9 km a.s.l. and drifted to the ENE. The cloud was visible on GOES-8 imagery and by 1802 it had traveled to the Gulf of Mexico. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted area of 12-km-radius.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 February-13 February 2001

The Washington VAAC reported several small ash-bearing eruptions during the week. At 1921 on 8 February an eruption produced a small ash cloud that rose up to ~7.6 km a.s.l. and blew to the NE. At 1400 on 9 February an eruption produced an ash cloud that rose up to ~6.7 km. A small ash plume produced from emissions that occurred at 1338 and 1348 on 11 February was visible in GOES-8 imagery. The ash plume rose up to ~7.9 km a.s.l. and blew to the S.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 January-6 February 2001

The Washington VAAC reported that during 1530 to 1545 on 30 January a moderate ash emission was visible on the CENAPRED camera; it rose to ~7 km a.s.l. and blew to the NNE. At 1345 on 1 February a small eruption was visible on GOES-8 imagery. The narrow plume of ash rose to ~6.7 km and blew to the NNE. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted area of 12-km-radius.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 January-30 January 2001

During the week several small-to-moderate sized eruptions occurred, with light ashfall reported in two towns and a pyroclastic flow stopping 8 km short of a town. The Washington VAAC reported that on 25 January an ash plume, which was produced by rockfall activity, rose to ~7 km a.s.l and was visible on GOES-8 imagery. According to CENAPRED, at 1338 on the same day an exhalation produced an ash cloud that rose to 3 km above the volcano and blew to the NW, depositing ash in San Pedro Nexapa, ~15 away. A minor eruption at 1212 on 27 January produced an ash cloud that rose to 6.4 km a.s.l. and blew to the NE, depositing light ash in the town of Santiago Xalitzintla, ~15 km from the volcano. An ash-and-steam eruption at 1155 on 28 January produced an ash cloud that that rose to 7 km and blew to the NE. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that an eruption occurred at 1104 on 29 January. A pilot report stated that the ash cloud from the eruption rose to ~11.9 km a.s.l., while CENAPRED reported that the cloud rose to ~8 km a.s.l. and blew to the NE. The eruption sent pyroclasts out to 1 km from the crater and produced pyroclastic flows that traveled down the NE flank of the volcano, stopping 8 km before reaching the town of Santiago Xalitzintla. The pyroclastic flows caused some melting of the summit glacier located primarily on the upper N and W flanks. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a 12-km-radius restricted area.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press


17 January-23 January 2001

In addition to multiple exhalations, Popocatépetl produced both pyroclastic flows and mudflows that traveled several kilometers downslope. The Washington VAAC reported that at ~1500 on 14 January a small exhalation sent ash to ~7.6 km a.s.l. They also reported that a larger explosive eruption occurred at ~1615 on 22 January that sent ash to 6-12 km a.s.l. CENAPRED reported that the eruption produced pyroclastic flows that descended ~4-6 km down several gorges on the N and NW flanks of the volcano. Ash was deposited on Santiago Xalitzintla, Atlixco, Tecamachalco, Tetela, and part of Puebla. A small (10 cm thick and 2 m wide) mudflow traveled up to 8 km from the town of Santiago Xalitzintla down the Huiloac gorge. Scientists believe the pyroclastic flows melted a small portion of the glacier near the volcano's summit and the glacial meltwater mixed with ash. Another explosive eruption that occurred at 1915 the same day was followed by ongoing ash exhalations through 23 January. An eruption at 1041 on 23 January sent ash to ~9.1 km a.s.l. that blew to the S. Several small explosions and continuous ash emissions followed. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III with a 12 km security radius.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 January-9 January 2001

CENAPRED reported that low-level activity continued at Popocatépetl. The Washington VAAC remotely detected two exhalations on GOES-8 imagery during the week; at 1300 on 4 January a small eruption sent ash to ~7.3 km a.s.l. that blew to the E, and at 0655 on 8 January a brief ash-and-steam emission sent a cloud to ~6 km a.s.l. that blew to the E. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a 12-km-radius restricted area.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 December-2 January 2001

CENAPRED reported that low-intensity exhalations occurred during most of the week. At 1118 on 30 December an intense seismic signal was recorded for 4 minutes that was characteristic of exhalations with explosive initial phases. At 1955 on 30 December a pilot report stated that an eruption sent an ash cloud to 8.5 km a.s.l. CENAPRED received reports that ash fell in the towns of Huejotzingo (~30 km to the NE of the volcano), San Pedro (~10 km to the SE), Cholula (~35 km to the E) and Puebla (~50 km to the E). GOES-8 imagery showed that ash from the eruption dissipated by 0100 on 31 December. Exhalations also occurred at 0507 on 31 December and at 0936 on 2 January, and sent ash clouds to 8.5 and 7.6 km, respectively.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Reuters, Associated Press


20 December-26 December 2000

Volcanic activity at Popocatépetl decreased in comparison to last week. The Washington VAAC reported that during 21 to 25 December there were intermittent emissions of mostly steam. In addition, several small-to-moderate explosive events occurred during the week; at 1555 on 24 December ash was erupted to ~9 km a.s.l. and then blown to the E; at 1045 on 25 December ash was erupted to between 5.5 and 7.6 km a.s.l., blown to the NE, and deposited less than 5 km from the summit; and moderate exhalations occurred at 0111 and 0631 on 27 December that sent ash up to 7.6 and 9.8 km, respectively. On 26 December CENAPRED reported that beginning on 24 December the volcano entered a new phase of activity. Moderate explosions were expected to continue for several days or weeks until the lava dome in the summit crater is destroyed. CENAPRED scientists determined that there was decreased likelihood of a large eruption. Most of the 41,000 residents near the volcano, who were evacuated beginning on 15 December, were permitted to return to their homes. The evacuees were warned to remain alert for further activity. The director of CENAPRED, Robert Quaas, told journalists at a press conference on 26 December that, "The volcano could continue to launch incandescent fragments as far as 5 km and could provoke a moderate rain of cooled fragments as far away as 10 km, because of events related to the destruction of the lava dome." The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, but the restricted area was reduced from 13 to 12 km. For more information about the present state of the volcano and the return of evacuees to their homes refer to CENAPRED's 26 December Bulletin.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Reuters, Associated Press, Notimex


13 December-19 December 2000

For the first time in 6 years, continuous-fountaining Strombolian-style eruptions of incandescent spatter occurred at Popocatépetl, marking a significant change in eruption behavior. In addition, strong harmonic tremor and high-mass flux rates have occurred. As of the end of the report period, the summit crater contained hot lava, and continuous ash emissions deposited ash in several towns surrounding the volcano. This report is updated weekly but volcanic activity can change rapidly. To obtain more up-to-date volcanic activity reports refer to the CENAPRED website and/or contact their hotline at 01-800-123-5050. In addition, the Washington VAAC website provides detailed accounts of ash-producing volcanic activity.

Since the large exhalation on 12 December sent ash to an altitude of ~10.6 km a.s.l., continuous ash emissions have occurred, with occasional large exhalations of ash reaching a maximum altitude of ~11 km a.s.l. High levels of seismic activity, including harmonic tremor, and other monitoring parameters led officials to raise the Alert Level at the volcano on 16 December from Yellow Phase II to Phase III, thus increasing the high-risk zone from 7 to 10 km. In addition, according to a Reuters article, officials called on ~30,000 residents living within a ~12-km-radius around the volcano to evacuate to 180 refugee centers. On 16 December CENAPRED scientists flew over the volcano and found that a new lava dome had formed in the crater. The Washington VAAC reported that an eruption involving lava began at 1915 on 18 December, sending an ash cloud to an altitude of ~7.3 km a.s.l. In addition, the eruption sent incandescent spatter 1 to 2 km SE of the volcano. CENAPRED reported that during 18 and 19 December a large increase in volcanic activity occurred, consisting mainly of Strombolian ejections. According to a Reuters article, there were concerns that a ~900-km-long glacier on the volcano's western face could be melted by lava and produce lahars. This led officials to extend the high-risk zone to ~20 km. Interior Minister Santiago Creel told a news conference on 19 December, "We are on maximum alert ... because we have to be ready for any possible contingency regarding the glacier." As of 20 December (the end of the report period) continuous ash emissions were occurring and a very large ash cloud covered a large portion of S Mexico, extended E across the southern Gulf of Mexico and to near the N tip of the Yucantan Penninsula.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Reuters, Associated Press, Stromboli On-Line


6 December-12 December 2000

A reduction in volcanic activity at Popocatépetl led CENAPRED to reduce the Alert Level on 6 December from Yellow Phase III to Phase II, thus reducing the high-risk zone from 10 to 7 km. The Washington VAAC reported that a small steam-and-ash exhalation sent an ash cloud to ~6.7 km a.s.l. at ~2034 on 6 December. Later in the week they reported that at 1607 on 12 December a massive exhalation of ash and steam sent a cloud to ~ 8.8-10.6 km a.s.l. The ash cloud was visible on CENAPRED's Popocatépetl "Web Cam" and GOES-8 imagery. The eruption ended by approximately 1830 and by 1845 GOES-8 imagery showed that the ash cloud extended 37 km to the NE and was 14 km wide. Imagery through 2315 showed two main areas of ash; the most dense area was at an altitude of ~10.6 km a.s.l., and the other area was between 4.9 and 5.5 km a.s.l. The local airport was alerted to the eruption and as of 12 December the volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase II.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Notimex


29 November-5 December 2000

Volcanic activity continued at a high rate at Popocatépetl, with several small-to-moderate exhalations and eruptions. Remote-sensing data, aviation sources, and CENAPRED provided more details. One of the larger series of eruptions occurred during 0900 to 1215 on 29 November, sending ash-and-steam plumes to ~7.3 km a.s.l to the ENE. Another moderate eruption at 1055 on 30 November sent an ash cloud to ~7.3 km a.s.l. GOES-8 imagery showed that by 1815 the cloud extended at least 204 km to the ENE and traveled over the Bay of Campeche, which is ~300 km to the E of the volcano. Between 0345 and 0402 on 4 December an eruption occurred that sent ash to ~7.6 km a.s.l. Throughout the week frequent exhalations sent ash to ~6-7.6 km.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 November-28 November 2000

Volcanic activity continued at a high rate at Popocatepetl, with several small-to-moderate exhalations and eruptions. Remote-sensing and aviation sources provided more details. The Mexico City MWO reported to the Washington VAAC that three exhalations at 0419, 0421, and 0500 on 21 November sent ash to 5-7 km a.s.l. A pilot report and information obtained from GOES-8 imagery revealed that an eruption at 1630 on 22 November produced an ash cloud that reached between 5.5 and 7.6 km a.s.l. Subsequent imagery through 1945 that day showed that there were two ash clouds from the eruption; one rose to ~5.8 km a.s.l., and the other rose to ~7.6 km a.s.l. On 27 November eruptions at 0330 and 1815 sent ash to 6-7 km a.s.l. A pilot report stated that a small eruption occurred sometime prior to 0700 on 28 November, sending ash to ~7 km a.s.l.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 November-21 November 2000

Volcanic activity continued at a high rate at Popocatepetl, with several small-to-moderate exhalations. The Mexico City MWO and the Washington VAAC reported that at 0947 on 14 November a small ash-and-steam exhalation produced a cloud that was visible on GOES-8 imagery; it reached an altitude of ~8 km a.s.l. The cloud rapidly dissipated as it moved briefly to the NNE. At 0910 on 17 November a steam-and-possible-ash emission produced a cloud that reached up to 6.5 km a.s.l. and was blown to the NNW. The Popocatepetl camera recorded an ash cloud from a steam-and-ash exhalation that occurred at 0730 on 20 November. The cloud reached ~6 km a.s.l., was blown to the NNW, and deposited light ash in the town of San Pedro Nexapa ~10 km to the NW of the summit. On 21 November three moderate ash-and-steam exhalations sent ash to between 6 and 7 km a.s.l. The volcano's alert level remained at Yellow Phase III.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 November-14 November 2000

During the week volcanic activity was high at Popocatepetl, with several exhalations and eruptions. CENAPRED reported that exhalations at 1456 and 1541 on 7 November sent ash clouds to 2 and 4.5 km above the volcano, respectively. The Mexico City MWO reported to the Washington VAAC that an ash-and-steam exhalation at 1150 on 9 November sent ash to ~9.5 km a.s.l. According to a Reuters article, CENAPRED stated that light ashfall occurred in Santiago Xalitzintla, the closest village to the crater. The Washington VAAC reported that on 11 November eruptions at 0739, 0818, 0845, and 1418 sent ash to a maximum altitude of ~9.5 km a.s.l. The volcano's Alert Level remained at Yellow Phase III.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Reuters, Associated Press


1 November-7 November 2000

The Washington VAAC, Mexico MWO, and CENAPRED reported that a series of small eruptions occurred during 1715-1806 on 1 November. GOES-8 imagery showed that ash rose to between 6 and 7 km a.s.l. and extended to the NNE. The series of eruptions lasted ~30 minutes and ash fall was reported in San Pedro Nexapa and Amecameca, which is ~20 km NW of the volcano. A Reuters article reported that on 4 November the increased level of volcanism caused Mexican authorities to carefully watch for signs of a strong eruption. CENAPRED increased the Alert Level at the volcano from Yellow phase two to Yellow phase three, which expanded the high-risk zone around the volcano from 7 to 10 km. At 2048 on 6 November an eruption sent an ash cloud to an altitude of 7.5-8.5 km a.s.l. It drifted towards the N and was followed by another eruption at 2130. Ash from both eruptions fell in the town of Santiago Xalitzinta. As of 7 November the Alert Level at the volcano remained at Yellow phase three.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Reuters


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2005 Jan 9 2013 Sep 9 (continuing) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2004 May 26 2004 May 26 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1996 Mar 5 2003 Nov 22 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1994 Dec 21 1995 Oct 5 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1947 Jan 1947 Feb Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1942 1943 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1933 Jan 23 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1925 1927 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1923 Nov 27 1924 Mar 7 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1919 Feb 19 (?) 1922 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 1852 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1  
[ 1834 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1  
[ 1827 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1  
1802 1804 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1720 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1697 Oct 20 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1666 1667 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1663 Oct 13 1665 Oct 19 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1642 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1592 1594 Oct Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1590 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1580 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1571 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1548 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1542 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1539 1540 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1530 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1528 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1519 Sep 1523 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1518 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1512 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1509 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1504 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1488 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1363 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1354 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1345 1347 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
0823 Mar 1 ± 90 days Unknown Confirmed 4 Ice Core
0250 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0200 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1890 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Volcán El Fraile
2370 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Volcán El Fraile
3700 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Volcán El Fraile
5150 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Volcán El Fraile
6250 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Volcán El Fraile
7150 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Volcán El Fraile

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Arana-Salinas L, Siebe C , Macias J L, 2010. Dynamics of the ca. 4965 yr 14C BP "Ochre Pumice" Plinian eruption of Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 192: 212-231.

Armienta M A, De la Cruz-Reyna S, Macias J L, 2000. Chemical characteristics of the crater lakes of Popocatepetl, El Chichon, and Nevado de Toluca volcanoes, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 97: 105-125.

Boudal C, Robin C, 1988. Relations entre dynamismes eruptifs et realimentations magmatiques d'origine profonde au Popocatepetl. Translated Title: Relations between eruption dynamics and deep magmatic replenishment of Popocatepetl. Can J Earth Sci, 25: 955-971.

Cadoux A, Missenard Y, Martinez-Serrano R G, Guillou H , 2011. Trenchward Plio-Quaternary volcanism migration in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt: the case of the Sierra Nevada range. Geol Mag, 148: 492-506.

Capra L, Macias J L, Scott K M, Abrams M, Garduno-Monroy V H, 2002. Debris avalanches and debris flows transformed from collapses in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Mexico - behavior, and implications for hazard assessment. J Volc Geotherm Res, 113: 81-110.

Capra L, Poblete M A, Alvarado R, 2004. The 1997 and 2001 lahars of Popocatepetl volcano (central Mexico): textural and sedimentological constraints on their origin and hazards. J Volc Geotherm Res, 131: 351-369.

Crausaz W, 1993. Pico de Orizaba or Citlaltepetl: geology, archaeology, history, natural history, and mountaineering routes. Amherst, Ohio: Geopress Internatl, 594 p.

De la Cruz-Reyna S, Quezada J L, Pena C, Zepeda O, Sanchez T, 1995. Historia de la actividad reciente del Volcan Popocatepetl. In: {Volcan Popocatepetl Estudios Realizados durante la Crisis de 1994-1995}, Mexico City: SINAPROC-CENEPRED-UNAM, p 3-22.

Delgado-Granados H, Cardenas-Gonzalez L, Piedad-Sanchez N, 2001. Sulfur dioxide emissions from Popocatepetl Volcano (Mexico); case study of a high-emission rate, passively degassing erupting volcano. J Volc Geotherm Res, 108: 107-120.

Espinasa-Perena R, Martin-del Pozzo A L, 2006. Morphostratigraphic evolution of Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico. In: Siebe S, Macias J-L, Aguirre-Diaz G J (eds) Neogone-Quaternary continental margin volcanism: a perspective from Mexico, {Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap}, 402: 115-137.

Luhr J F, Kimberly P G, Siebert L, Aranda-Gomez J J, Housh T B, Kysar Mattietti G, 2006. Quaternary volcanic rocks: insights from the MEXPET petrological and geochemical database. In: Siebe S, Macias J-L, Aguirre-Diaz G J (eds) Neogone-Quaternary continental margin volcanism: a perspective from Mexico, {Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap}, 402: 1-44.

Macias J L, Carrasco G, Delgado H, Martin del Pozzo A L, Siebe C, Hoblitt R, Sheridan M F, Tilling R I, 1995. Mapa de peligros volcanicos del Popocatepetl. Pub especial Inst Geofis, Univ Nac Auton Mexico.

Macias J L, Carrasco G, Siebe C, 1995. Zonificacion de peligros volcanicos del Popocatepetl. In: {Volcan Popocatepetl Estudios Realizados durante la Crisis de 1994-1995}, Mexico City: SINAPROC-CENEPRED-UNAM, p 79-92.

Macias J L, Siebe C, 2005. Popocatepetl's crater filled to the brim: significance for hazard evaluation. J Volc Geotherm Res, 141: 321-330.

Martin-Del Pozzo A L, Cifuentes G, Cabral-Cano E, Bonifaz R, Correa F, Mendiola I F, 2003. Timing magma ascent at Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico, 2000-2001. J Volc Geotherm Res, 125: 107-120.

Mooser F, Meyer-Abich H, McBirney A R, 1958. Central America. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 6: 1-146.

Robin C, 1984. Le Volcan Popocatepetl (Mexique): structure, evolution petrologique et risques. Bull Volc, 47: 1-25.

Robin C, Boudal C, 1987. A gigantic Bezymianny-type event at the beginning of modern Volcan Popocatepetl. J Volc Geotherm Res, 31: 115-130.

Siebe C, Abrams M, Macias J L, 1995. Derrumbes gigantes, depositos de avalancha de escombros y edad del actual. In: {Volcan Popocatepetl Estudios Realizados durante la Crisis de 1994-1995}, Mexico City: SINAPROC-CENEPRED-UNAM, p 195-220.

Siebe C, Abrams M, Macias J L, Obenholzner J, 1996. Repetitive volcanic disasters in Prehispanic time at Popocatepetl, central Mexico: past key to the future?. Geology, 24: 399-402.

Siebe C, Macias J L, Abrams M, Obenholzner J, 1996. La destruccion de Cacaxtla y Cholula: un suceso en la historia eruptiva del Popocatepetl. Rev Cienc, Fac Cienc, UNAM, 41: 36-45.

Siebe C, Macias J L, Abrams M, Rodriguez S, Castro R, 1997. Catastrophic prehistoric eruptions at Popocatepetl and Quaternary explosive volcanism in the Serdan-Oriental Basin, east-central Mexico. IAVCEI General Assembly, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, January 19-24, 1997, Fieldtrip Guidebook, Excursion no 4, 88 p.

Siebe C, Macias J-L, 2006. Volcanic hazards in the Mexico City metropolitan area from eruptions at Popocatepetl, Nevado de Toluca, and Jocotitlan stratovolcanoes and monogenetic scoria cones in the Sierra Chichinautzin volcanic field. In: Siebe S, Macias J-L, Aguirre-Diaz G J (eds) Neogone-Quaternary continental margin volcanism: a perspective from Mexico, {Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap}, 402: 253-329.

Siebe C, Schaaf P, Urrutia-Fucugauchi J, 1999. Mammoth bones embedded in a late Pleistocene lahar from Popocatepetl Volcano, near Tocuila, central Mexico. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 111: 1550-1562.

Zobin V M, Martinez A, 2010. Quantification of the 1998-1999 explosion sequence at Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 194: 165-173.

Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since precolumbian time.