Chichinautzin

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 19.08°N
  • 99.13°W

  • 3930 m
    12890 ft

  • 341080
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Chichinautzin.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Chichinautzin.

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The massive Chichinautzin volcanic field covers a 90-km-long, E-W-trending area immediately south of Mexico City. The Sierra Chichinautzin, formed primarily of overlapping small cinder cones and shield volcanoes, creates a broad topographic barrier at the southern end of the Basin of Mexico that extends from the eastern flank of Nevado de Toluca to the western flank of Iztaccíhuatl volcano. The volcanic field contains more than 220 Pleistocene-to-Holocene monogenetic vents. The best-known eruption occurred about 1670 radiocarbon years ago from the Xitle scoria cone, NE of the Volcán Ajusco lava-dome complex, which at 3930 m forms the highest peak of the Sierra Chichinautzin. The Xitle eruption produced a massive basaltic tube-fed lava flow that covered agricultural lands as well as pyramids and other structures of Cuicuilco and adjacent prehispanic urban centers. The southern part of Mexico City and the National University of México lie atop the distal end of the 13-km-long lava flow.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0400 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (corrected) Xitle
0200 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (corrected) Chichinautzin
2238 BCE ± 1413 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (corrected) Guespalapa
4250 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Tláloc
5840 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Cuauhtzin
7340 BCE ± 1050 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (corrected) Cerro Tetepetl, Tenango lava flow
7370 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tres Cruces
7930 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Volcán Pelado

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Topilejo-Xicomulco Volcanic Field


Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Agua, Cerro del Cinder cone 19° 5' 49" N 99° 0' 10" W
Aholo, Volcán Cone 2720 m
Ahuazatépetl, Volcán Cinder cone 2950 m
Amoloc, Volcán Cinder cone 2670 m
Atlacorra, Volcán Cinder cone 2720 m
Ayaqueme, Cerro Cone 2940 m 19° 10' 1" N 98° 57' 15" W
Boludo Cinder cone 3120 m 19° 5' 0" N 99° 23' 0" W
Caballito Cinder cone
Cadenita Cinder cone
Caldera, Cerro de la Cone 2484 m
Calvario, El Cone 2550 m 19° 17' 0" N 99° 30' 30" W
Capulín Cinder cone
Cardos, Los Cinder cone 19° 5' 35" N 99° 16' 0" W
Chalchihuites Cinder cone 19° 6' 0" N 99° 18' 0" W
Chapultepec Lava cone 2660 m 19° 12' 0" N 99° 33' 0" W
Chichinautzin, Cerro Shield volcano 3470 m 19° 5' 19" N 99° 8' 0" W
Chinconquiat, Cerro Cinder cone 2920 m 19° 10' 7" N 98° 49' 5" W
Coaxusco Cinder cone
Cohuazalo, Volcán Cone 2810 m
Coyoltepec Cinder cone
Cuatépetl, Volcán Cinder cone 2760 m
Cuauatl Cinder cone 3010 m 19° 10' 0" N 99° 25' 0" W
Cuautzin Shield volcano 3510 m 19° 9' 0" N 99° 7' 0" W
Delaire, Volcán Cone 2440 m
Dos Cerros Shield volcano 19° 9' 10" N 98° 56' 25" W
Escobeta, Cerro Cone 2760 m
Estrella, Cerro de la Cone 2460 m 19° 21' 0" N 99° 5' 0" W
Guarda, Cerro el Cone 2960 m
Herradura Cone
Hijo del Cuauhtzin Cinder cone
Holotepec, Volcán Cinder cone 3030 m 19° 5' 0" N 99° 29' 0" W
Huehuel, Volcán Cone 3110 m
Huehuelcón, Volcán Cone 2970 m
Huihuilanco, Lomas Cone 2870 m
Huilote Cinder cone
Huilotito Cinder cone
Huipilo, Volcán Cone 2800 m
Huiztomayo, Cerro Cone 2580 m
Joya, Cerro la Cinder cone 2680 m
Jumento Cinder cone 19° 12' 29" N 99° 18' 46" W
Loreto, Cerro Cone 2680 m
Manteca Cinder cone
Marqués, Cerro el Cone
Mazatepec Cone
Mesa, La Cone 2540 m
Metepec Cone
Molcajete, El Cone 3040 m 19° 18' 0" N 99° 25' 30" W
Negro, El Cinder cone 3220 m 19° 10' 0" N 99° 23' 0" W
Oclayuca Cinder cone 19° 2' 28" N 99° 3' 30" W
Ocoxusco, Volcán Cinder cone 2830 m 19° 4' 0" N 98° 54' 30" W
Ocusacayo Shield volcano 19° 8' 28" N 99° 4' 5" W
Ololica Cinder cone
Palamito Cinder cone
Pehualtepec Cinder cone 2940 m 19° 13' 0" N 99° 24' 0" W
Pelado, Volcán Shield volcano 3620 m 19° 9' 0" N 99° 13' 1" W
Pelagatos, Cerro Cone 3020 m
Peñon de los Banos Cone 2304 m 19° 26' 0" N 99° 4' 0" W
Peñon del Marqués Cone 2346 m
Ratas, Las Cinder cone 3230 m 19° 12' 0" N 99° 2' 30" W
San Nicolás Cone
Santiago, Cerro el Cone
Silva, La Cinder cone 3200 m 19° 11' 0" N 99° 22' 0" W
Sochól, Cerro Cone 3010 m 19° 7' 23" N 98° 57' 10" W
Suchioc Chico Cinder cone
Suchioc Grande Cinder cone
Tabaquillo Lava cone 19° 7' 5" N 99° 17' 22" W
Tapeixte, Cerro Cinder cone 2760 m 19° 10' 24" N 98° 48' 0" W
Teconto Cinder cone
Tenayo, Cerro Cinder cone 2760 m 19° 11' 9" N 98° 48' 54" W
Tepecingo Cone
Tepetl Cinder cone
Tepetlapan Cinder cone
Tepezingo Cinder cone 2930 m 19° 3' 0" N 99° 27' 0" W
Tetecon Cone
Tetépetl, Cerro
    Tenango
Lava cone 2910 m 19° 6' 0" N 99° 38' 0" W
Tetequillo Lava cone
Teuhtli, Volcán
    Teutli, Volcán
Shield volcano 2712 m 19° 13' 23" N 99° 1' 46" W
Texontepec Lava cone 2980 m 19° 14' 30" N 99° 24' 50" W
Teziolo, Cerro el Cone 2660 m
Tezontle Cinder cone 2940 m 19° 2' 0" N 99° 28' 0" W
Tezoyo, Cerro el Cone 2600 m
Tilapa Cone 2880 m 19° 11' 30" N 99° 25' 0" W
Tioca Cinder cone 19° 12' 0" N 99° 6' 0" W
Tioquitas Cinder cone
Tlacotepec Lava cone
Tlacuallcli Cinder cone
Tlacuayol, Cerro Cone 2700 m
Tlaloc, Volcán Shield volcano 3690 m 19° 6' 33" N 99° 2' 0" W
Tlamacasco Lava cone
Tlapexcua, Volcán Cone 2810 m
Tomasquillo Cone
Tres Cruces Cinder cone 2960 m 19° 6' 0" N 99° 29' 0" W
Tres Cruces, Cerro Cinder cone 19° 4' 0" N 99° 13' 0" W
Tres Cumbres, Cerro Cone 2440 m
Tuxtepec Cinder cone 2810 m 19° 6' 0" N 99° 27' 0" W
Tzempoli Cinder cone
Xaltepec Cone 2536 m 19° 19' 0" N 99° 2' 0" W
Xico Tuff ring 2340 m 19° 0' 30" N 98° 56' 30" W
Xicomulco Lava cone 19° 12' 20" N 99° 3' 55" W
Xicontle Cinder cone 19° 15' 0" N 99° 13' 0" W
Xitle
    Xitli
Cinder cone 3128 m 19° 14' 28" N 99° 13' 17" W
Xoxocol Cinder cone
Xoyacán, Cerro Cone 2730 m
Yoyolica, Volcán Cinder cone 3080 m 19° 13' 0" N 99° 11' 0" W
Zempoala Stratovolcano 19° 3' 0" N 99° 20' 0" W
Zoceyuca, Cerro Cinder cone 2800 m 19° 8' 10" N 98° 53' 58" W
Zoyazál, Volcán Cone 2680 m


Craters
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Tlacotenco Fissure vent


Domes
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Ajusco, Volcán Dome 3930 m 19° 12' 0" N 99° 15' 0" W
Quepil, Cerro Dome 3540 m 19° 10' 0" N 99° 17' 0" W
Santiago, El Cerro de Dome
Mexico City encroaches onto the Chichinautzin volcanic field, which covers a broad, 1000 sq km area immediately south of the city. Many of the more than 150 small cones in the volcanic field are of Holocene age. Among the larger features of the field seen in this aerial view from the NW are Volcán Ajusco (the brown-colored peak in the center below the skyline) and Cerro Pelado, Cerro Chichinautzin, and Cerro Tláloc to the left. In addition to the Xitle eruption less than 2000 years ago, an eruption of Cerro Chichinautzin was witnessed by local inhabitants.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1997 (Smithsonian Institution).
Ajusco volcano (left-center), the highest peak of the Chichinautzin volcanic field, rises above Mexico City to the south. The Chichinautzin volcanic field covers a broad, 1000 sq km area with more than 150 small cones of mostly Holocene age. One of the youngest eruptions occurred from the Xitle cone about 1670 years ago, producing a massive 3.2 cu km lava flow that covered prehistorical urban centers and agricultural land and is now overlain by the southern part of Mexico City.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1997 (Smithsonian Institution).
Young cinder cones of the Chichinautzin volcanic field appear on the skyline above Mexico City. Many of the more than 150 small cones of the volcanic field are of Holocene age. At least two of the cones erupted less than 2000 years ago, producing lava flows that impacted inhabited areas.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1997 (Smithsonian Institution).
The Xitle cinder cone, the large flat-topped cone on the center horizon, is one of the youngest features of the Chichinautzin volcanic field. Xitle erupted about 1670 years ago. Initial ash emission was followed by extrusion of a massive lava flow that traveled 13 km to the north and covered the prehistoric Cuicuilco urban centers and nearby agricultural lands. Portions of Mexico City, including the National University (UNAM), now overlie the lava flow. The Ajusco lava-dome complex appears at the upper right.

Photo by Gerardo Carrasco-Núñez, 1997 (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México).
The SE part of the Chichinautzin volcanic field, seen here from the east on the flanks of the Sierra Nevada, forms a major topographic barrier at the southern end of the Valley of Mexico. Several small shield volcanoes, including Volcán Tláloc, appear on the horizon. The basaltic-andesite shield volcanoes are dotted with pyroclastic cones, some of which were also constructed on the floor of the Valley of Mexico.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1997 (Smithsonian Institution).
The irregular reddish area in the center of this false-color LANDSAT image is the Tenango lava flow. It was erupted about 8500 years ago from an E-W-trending fracture that also passes through Nevado de Toluca volcano, whose flanks appear at the left. The basaltic-andesite Tenango flow forms a prominent isolated mesa on which the fortified city of Teotenango with its many pyramids and courts was built by the Matlatzinca people about 1000 BC. The Tenango flow lies at the far western end of the Chichinautzin volcanic field of central México.

LANDSAT image by Michael Abrams, 1996 (courtesy of José Macías, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México).
Cones of the Chichinautzin volcanic field in the foreground and middle distance are seen here in a telephoto view looking to the west from Popocatépetl volcano. The large flat-topped volcano on the left-center horizon is Nevado de Toluca. The broad Chichinautzin volcanic field covers a 90-km-wide area south of the Valley of Mexico between the base of the Sierra Nevada (containing the twin volcanoes of Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl) and the eastern flank of Nevado de Toluca volcano.

Photo by José Macías, 1998 (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México).
A wide-angle view of the Chichinautzin volcanic field from the flanks of Popocatépetl volcano shows some of the abundant pyroclastic cones and low shield volcanoes that form the mostly monogenetic field. The massive Chichinautzin volcanic field covers more than 1000 sq km and stretches 90 km in an E-W direction from the eastern base of Nevado de Toluca volcano (the light-colored peak on the left-center horizon) to the western flanks of Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl volcanoes.

Photo by José Macías, 1998 (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México).
Five small cinder cones are aligned along a NE-SW trend near the town of Amecameca at the far eastern end of the Chichinautzin volcanic field. The large cone at the lower left is Cerro Chinconquiat, the larger of two cones at middle right is Cerro Tapeixte, and the smaller one at the far right is Cerro La Joya. The ribbed cone at the left immediately above Cerro Chinconquiat is Cerro Tenayo.

Photo by José Macías, 1996 (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México).
The small Xitle cinder cone in the center of the photo, directly below Volcán Ajusco, the large lava-dome complex on the horizon, was the source of a voluminous lava about 1670 years ago. The 3.2 cu km flow traveled 13 km to north and underlies much of the the forested area in the middle of the photo as well as the southern part of Mexico City in the foreground. The flow covered the Preclassic city of Cuicuilco, one of the oldest archaeological sites in central México, and underlies the campus of the National University of México (UNAM).

Photo by José Macías, 1996 (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México).
A symmetrical pyroclastic cone caps Volcán Pelado, a small shield volcano south of Xitle volcano. Pyroclastic flows accompanied the formation of the cone. Volcán Pelado and the nearby Xitle cone, which erupted about 1670 years ago, are among the many Holocene vents of the Chichinautzin volcanic field. Both eruptions affected neighboring settlements.

Photo by Paul Wallace, 1991 (University of California Berkeley).
The forest-covered lava flows in the middle of the photo traveled short distances to the south from vents on the flank of Xitle, the scoria cone in the background. Most lava flows were directed by the topographic gradient to the north. Scoria-fall deposits from the 150-m-high Xitle pyroclastic cone mantle the foreground and overlie parts of the lava flows.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1998 (Smithsonian Institution).
Xitle cinder cone, seen here from the SE, is a 150-m-high scoria cone that is one of the youngest of the Chichinautzin volcanic field. The west-flank lava cone of Xicontle, with a 150-m-wide crater, forms the flat ridge left of Xitle. The roughly 1600-year-old eruption began with ash emission that underlies early lava flows. Five flank vents at Xicontle and on other sides of the Xitle cone produced voluminous lava flows that surrounded the scoria cone and traveled up to 13 km to the north, covering 80 sq km.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1998 (Smithsonian Institution).
The campus of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), the National University of México, overlies an about 1600-year-old lava flow from Xitle cinder cone in the Chichinautzin volcanic field. Basaltic lava from Xitle is exposed in the foreground between buildings of the departments of geology and geophysics. Volcanologists and seismologists from the university conduct research on Mexican volcanoes and are involved in monitoring of ongoing eruptions.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1998 (Smithsonian Institution).
The Cuicuilco pyramid in the southern part of Mexico City was surrounded by lava flows from Xitle volcano about 1600 years ago. The basaltic flows underlie the area at the right and are exposed in the trench walls around the pyramid. The Preclassic Cuicuilco site is one of the oldest archaeological areas in central México. The earliest occupations date back to 2100-1800 BC, and the pyramid was constructed about 80-600 BC, when Cuicuilco had become an important prehispanic city.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1998 (Smithsonian Institution).
Vegetation has been cleared from the surface of a massive lava flow from Xitle volcano to form a park on the campus of the National University of México (UNAM). Fresh-looking pahoehoe textures of the roughly 1600-year-old basaltic lava flow are exposed in the park. The tube-fed flow traveled 13 km from Xitle, a small cinder cone whose summit forms the flat area on the horizon at the left side of Volcán Ajusco, the large lava-dome complex on the left-center horizon.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1998 (Smithsonian Institution).
Volcán Pelado is a small symmetrical shield volcano in the eastern part of the Chichinautzin volcanic field that is capped by a pyroclastic cone. Formation of the volcano between about 9260 and 10,500 years ago was accompanied by pyroclastic flows that entrained pottery fragments from nearby settlements. Volcán Pelado lies 10 km south of Xitle, another cinder cone of the Chichinautzin volcanic field that erupted less than 2000 years ago.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1998 (Smithsonian Institution).
Volcán Pelado is a pyroclastic cone topping a small symmetrical lava shield SE of Ajusco volcano. The construction of the cone, seen here from the SE, was accompanied by ashflows that traveled to the north, east, and south sides of the volcano. Lava flows erupted from E-W-trending fissures cover an area of about 63 sq km. Pottery shards have been found within the ashflow deposits, indicating that the eruption affected neighboring settlements.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1998 (Smithsonian Institution).
The Chichinautzin volcanic field covers an area of more than 1000 sq km in a 90-km-wide, E-W-trending area south of the Valley of Mexico. This view looks SE from the 1600-year-old Xitle cinder cone to Volcán Yololica (the forested scoria cone at the left-center), and on the horizon, Volcán Cuauhtzin (right-center) and Volcán Tlaloc to its left. The name Chichinautzin means Burning Lord in the Nahuatl language, and several eruptions have impacted prehispanic cultures in the Valley of Mexico.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1998 (Smithsonian Institution).
Volcán Popocatépetl rises to the SE beyond the Sierra Chichinautzin range, as seen from the summit of Xitle volcano, one of the youngest cones of the Sierra Chichinautzin. The forested flat-topped cinder cone at the right-center is Volcán Yololica. More than 150 small cones blanket the Sierra Chichinautzin; many of these are of Holocene age. The volcanic field includes cinder cones, lava cones, and thick, blocky lava flows that issued from a central vent, such as Xicomulco and Tabaquillo.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1998 (Smithsonian Institution).
Several volcanoes of the Chichinautzin volcanic field can be seen in this aerial photo from the NE. In the left foreground is Volcán Teuhtli, capped at the extreme left with a small pyroclastic cone. The steep-sided lava flow in the center of the photo descending diagonally to the right is the massive andesitic Xicomulco lava flow. Volcán Cuauhtzin, in the background to the right, erupted widespread basaltic and andesitic lava flows. Volcán Ocusacayo (extreme left horizon) is another small shield volcano capped by pyroclastic cones.

Photo by Gerardo Carrasco-Núñez, 1997 (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México).
The massive, steep-sided Xicomulco lava flow descends from the flanks of the Sierra Chichinautzin into the Valley of Mexico. The viscous andesitic lava flow averages 75 m in thickness, displays prominent flow levees, and traveled 4.5 km north. The flow was extruded with very little explosive activity, and lava extrusion covered the vent, which is now overlain by the town of San Bartolo Xicomulco (right-center). In the background is the town of San Pablo Oztotepec. Volcán Tlaloc is the broad shield volcano on the center horizon.

Photo by Gerardo Carrasco-Núñez, 1997 (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México).
Pillow lavas from Xitle are exposed near the Cuicuilco Ceremonial Center, Mexico City. It is thought that the basaltic lava flows from Xitle entered into a pond, causing the formation of pillow structures. The possibility that these flow textures indirectly represent "man-made" pillows (entering an artificial pond) is under debate.

Photo by Hugo Delgado, 1997 (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México).
Xitle cinder cone, seen here in an aerial view from the NE with Ajusco volcano in the background, is one of the youngest cones of the Chichinautzin volcanic field. The small cinder cone is 150 m high and has a funnel-shaped crater that is 350 m wide and 115 m deep. Xitle (also known as Xicti) means belly button in the Nahuatl language, a reference to the shape of the cone and its crater. Xitle erupted less than 2000 years ago. Volcán Ajusco is a Pliocene-Pleistocene lava-dome complex surrounded by block-and-ash flow deposits.

Photo by Hugo Delgado, 1995 (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México).
Volcán Tláloc, the broad volcano on the horizon, is a low-angle shield volcano that is one of the larger volcanic centers of the eastern part of the Chichinautzin volcanic field. It is seen here from the east, with a massive steep-sided lava flow in the foreground. Tláloc erupted about 6200 years ago, and the youthful morphology of the flow reflects its age. Several viscous andesitic lava flows of the Chichinautzin volcanic field were extruded with very little explosive activity, and lack pyroclastic cones above their vents.

Photo by Hugo Delgado, 1994 (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México).
Xico is a low circular tuff ring within Mexico City that is part of the Chichinautzin volcanic field. It is seen here in an aerial view from the south. This volcano was formed by phreatomagmatic eruptions through the middle of Lake Chalco, whose remains can be seen surrounding the tuff ring. Chalco and Lakes Texcoco and Xochimilco were formed when lavas from the Chichinautzin volcanic field blocked river drainages to the south. The lakes were largely drained during the 16th and 17th centuries following the Spanish conquest.

Photo by Hugo Delgado, 1994 (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México).
Monogenetic volcanic cones of the Chichinautzin volcanic field lie below the western flanks of Iztaccíhuatl volcano. These cones, including Cerro Tenayo at the lower left, lie at the easternmost extension of the 90-km-wide Chichinautzin volcanic field south of the Valley of Mexico. The compound Iztaccíhuatl volcano is mostly Pleistocene in age.

Photo by Hugo Delgado, 1994 (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México).
Volcán Ajusco, the highest peak of the Chichinautzin volcanic field, is seen here from the summit of the Xitle scoria cone, NE of the volcano. The Pliocene-Pleistocene Ajusco consists of andesitic-to-dacitic lava domes surrounded by block-and-ash flows. During the Pleistocene the NE flank of Ajusco collapsed, producing a debris avalanche that traveled 16 km. Late-stage eruptions produced more mafic lava flows from flank vents, marking a transition to the monogenetic volcanism of the Chichinautzin volcanic field.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1998 (Smithsonian Institution).
The brownish, forested area extending from the middle right almost across the broad valley floor is the Texcal lava flow. This lava flow, which traveled 24 km to the south onto the Cuernavaca plain, was erupted about 4200 years ago from the Guespalapa cinder cone. Unlike the Pelado or Chichinautzin eruptions, the Guespalapa eruption did not produce a small shield volcano, but rather one of the longest lava flows of the Sierra Chichinautzin.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2004 (Smithsonian Institution).
The 3450-m-high Cuauhtzin lava dome (right horizon), capping a low lava shield north of the crest of the Sierra Chichinautzin, was formed between about 7360 and 8225 radiocarbon years ago. Dacitic lava flows and block-and-ash flow deposits surround the dome. Cuauhtzin means "seat of the eagle" in the Nahuatl language. Snow-capped Iztaccihuatl volcano lies on the left horizon.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2004 (Smithsonian Institution).
The broad forested ridge in the center of this photo is the Tenango lava flow, which was erupted about 8500 radiocarbon years ago from an E-W-trending fissure at the western margin of the Chichinautzin volcanic field. The basaltic-andesite Tenango flow forms a prominent isolated mesa on which the fortified city of Teotenango with its many pyramids and courts was built by the Matlatzinca people about 1000 BC.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2004 (Smithsonian Institution).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Arce J L, Macias R, Palomo A G, Capra L, Macias J L, Layer P, Rueda H, 2008. Late Pleistocene flank collapse of Zempoala volcano (Central Mexico) and the role of fault reactivation. J Volc Geotherm Res, 177: 944-958.

Bloomfield K, 1973. The age and significance of the Tenango basalt, central Mexico. Bull Volc, 37: 586-595.

Canon-Tapia E, Walker G P L, Herrero-Bervera E, 1995. Magnetic fabric and flow direction in basaltic pahoehoe lava of Xitle Volcano, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 65: 249-263.

Delgado H, Arana-Salinas L, Nieto-Obregon J, Mendoza-Rosales C, Silva-Romo G, 1997. Pelado volcano in southern Mexico City, a young monogenetic volcano (<1000 years old) and its possible impact on human settlements. IAVCEI General Assembly, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, January 19-24, 1997, Abs, p 123.

Delgado H, Romero-Taran E, Cervantes P, Molinero R, Nieto-Obregon J, Mendoza-Rosales C, Silva-Romo G, 1997. Volcan Ajusco (Mexico): evolution, collapse and volcano-tectonic relations, regional transition from polygenetic to monogenetic volcanism. IAVCEI General Assembly, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, January 19-24, 1997, Abs, p 124.

Gonzalez S, Pastrana A, Siebe C, Duller G, 2000. Timing of the prehistoric eruption of Xitle Volcano and the abandonment of Cuicuilco Pyramid, southern basin of Mexico. In: McGuire W J, Griffiths D, Stewarts I (eds) {Geol Soc Spec Pub}, 171: 205-224.

Guilbaud M-N, Siebe C, Agustin-Flores J, 2009. Eruptive style of the young high-Mg basaltic-andesite Pelagatos scoria cone, southeast of Mexico City. Bull Volc, 71: 859-880.

Kirianov V Y, Koloskov A V, De la Cruz-Reyna S, Martin del Pozzo A L, 1990. Main stages of the most recent volcanism in the Chichinautzin zone, Mexico volcanic belt. Trans (Doklady) USSR Acad Sci Earth Sci, 311: 81-83.

Lugo-Hupb J, Ortiz-Perez M A, Palacio-Prieto J L, Bocco-Verdinelli G, 1985. Las zonas mas activas en el Cinturon Volcanico Mexicano (entre Michoacan y Tlaxcala). Geof Internac, 24: 83-96.

Marquez A, Verma S P, Anguita F, Oyarzun R, Brandle J L, 1999. Tectonics and volcanism of Sierra Chichinautzin: extension at the front of the Central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. J Volc Geotherm Res, 93: 125-140.

Martin del Pozzo A L, 1993. Potential hazards from Popocatepetl and Chichinautzin monogenetic volcanoes near Mexico City. IAVCEI 1993 Canberra Mtg Abs, p 68.

Martin del Pozzo A L, 1982. Monogenetic volcanism in Sierra Chichinautzin, Mexico. Bull Volc, 45: 9-24.

Martin del Pozzo A L, Espinasa R, Lugo J, Barba L, Lopez J, Plunkett P, Urunuela G, Manzanilla L, 1997. Volcanic impact in central Mexico. IAVCEI General Assembly, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, January 19-24, 1997, Fieldtrip Guidebook, 31 p.

Martinez-Serrano R G, Schaaf P, Solis-Pichardo G, del Sol Hernandez-Bernal M, Hernandez-Trevino T, Morales-Contreras J J, Macias J L, 2004. Sr, Nd and Pb isotope and geochemical data from the Quaternary Nevado de Toluca volcano, a source of recent adakitic magmatism, and the Tenango volcanic field, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 138: 77-110.

Mooser F, Meyer-Abich H, McBirney A R, 1958. Central America. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 6: 1-146.

Nelson S A, Sanchez-Rubio G, 1986. Trans Mexican volcanic belt field guide. Geol Assoc Can, 108 p.

Siebe C, Arana-Salinas L, Abrams M, 2005. Geology and radiocarbon ages of Tlaloc, Tlacotenco, Cuauhtzin, Hijo del Cuauhtzin, and Ocusacayo monogenetic volcanoes in the central part of the Sierra Chichinautzin, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 141: 225-243.

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Volcano Types

Volcanic field

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Dacite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Minor
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
584,725
584,725
4,061,942
28,030,794

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Chichinautzin Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.