Nevado de Toluca

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  • Mexico
  • Mexico
  • Stratovolcano
  • 1350 BCE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 19.108°N
  • 99.758°W

  • 4680 m
    15350 ft

  • 341070
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

There are no activity reports for Nevado de Toluca.



 Available Weekly Reports

There are no Weekly Reports available for Nevado de Toluca.

Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1350 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Arce J L, Cervantes K E, Macias J L, Mora J C, 2005. The 12.1 ka Middle Toluca Pumice: a dacitic plinian-subplinian eruption of Nevado de Toluca in Central Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 147: 125-143.

Arce J L, Macias J L, Vazquez-Selem L, 2003. The 10.5 ka plinian eruption of Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico: stratigraphy and hazard implications. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 115: 230-248.

Armienta M A, De la Cruz-Reyna S, Macias J L, 2000. Chemical characteristics of the crater lakes of Popocatepetl, El Chichon, and Nevado de Toluca volcanoes, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 97: 105-125.

Bellotti F, Capra L, Groppelli G, Norini G, 2006. Tectonic evolution of the central-eastern sector of Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt and its influence on the eruptive history of the Nevado de Toluca volcano (Mexico). J Volc Geotherm Res, 158: 21-36.

Bellotti F, Capra L, Sarocchi D, D'Antonio M, 2010. Geostatistics and multivariate analysis as a tool to characterize volcaniclastic deposits: application to Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 191: 117-128.

Bloomfield K, Valastro S, 1977. Late Quaternary tephrochronology of Nevado de Toluca volcano, central Mexico. Overseas Geol Min Res, 46: 1-15.

Cantagrel J-M, Robin C, Vincent P, 1981. Les grandes etapes d'evolution d'un volcan andesitique composite: exemple du Nevado de Toluca (Mexique). Bull Volc, 44: 177-188.

Capra L Carreras L M, Arce J L, Macias J L, 2006. The Lower Toluca Pumice: a ca. 21,700 yr B.P. plinian eruption of Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico. In: Siebe S, Macias J-L, Aguirre-Diaz G J (eds) Neogone-Quaternary continental margin volcanism: a perspective from Mexico, {Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap}, 402: 155-173.

Capra L, Macias J L, 2000. Pleistocene cohesive debris flows at Nevado de Toluca volcano, central Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 102: 149-168.

Capra L, Macias J L, Scott K M, Abrams M, Garduno-Monroy V H, 2002. Debris avalanches and debris flows transformed from collapses in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Mexico - behavior, and implications for hazard assessment. J Volc Geotherm Res, 113: 81-110.

Capra L, Norini G, Groppelli G, Macias J L, Arce J L, 2008. Volcanic hazard zonation of the Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 176: 469-484.

Garcia-Palomo A, Macias J L, Arce J L, Capra L, Garduno V H, Espindola J M, 2002. Geology of Nevado de Toluca volcano and surrounding areas, central Mexico. Geol Soc Amer Map & Chart Ser, MCH080.

Garcia-Palomo A, Macias J L, Garduno V H, 2000. Miocene to Recent structural evolution of the Nevado de Toluca volcano region, central Mexico. Tectonophysics, 318: 281-302.

Macias J L, Garcia A, Arce J L, Siebe C, Espindola J M, Komorowski J-C, Scott K, 1997b. Late Pleistocene-Holocene cataclysmic eruptions at Nevado de Toluca and Jocotitlan volcanoes, central Mexico. Brigham Young Univ Geol Studies, 42(1): 493-528.

Macias J L, Garcia A, Arce J L, Siebe C, Espindola J M, Komorowski J-C, Scott K, 1997a. Late Pleistocene-Holocene cataclysmic eruptions at Nevado de Toluca and Jocotitlan volcanoes, central Mexico. IAVCEI Puerto Vallarta, Mexico Plenary Assembly, Excursion no. 14 Field Guide, p. 1-63.

Martinez-Serrano R G, Schaaf P, Solis-Pichardo G, del Sol Hernandez-Bernal M, Hernandez-Trevino T, Morales-Contreras J J, Macias J L, 2004. Sr, Nd and Pb isotope and geochemical data from the Quaternary Nevado de Toluca volcano, a source of recent adakitic magmatism, and the Tenango volcanic field, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 138: 77-110.

Nevado de Toluca, México's fourth highest peak, rises above the Toluca basin about 80 km west of Mexico City. The broad, complex andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano, also known by the Nahuatl Indian name Xinantécatl, has a 1.5-km-wide summit crater that is open to the east. A large dacitic lava dome in this crater separates two lakes, known as the lakes of the Sun and Moon. At least three major edifice collapses during the Pleistocene produced large debris-avalanche and lahar deposits that affected broad areas below the volcano. Four major explosive eruptions during the late Pleistocene produced widespread ashfall and pyroclastic-flow deposits at about 36,000, 21,700, 12,100, and 10,500 years ago, producing the Ochre and the Lower, Middle, and Upper Toluca Pumice deposits, respectively. Recent work has revealed evidence for at least one Holocene eruption, about 3300 years ago, that produced pyroclastic flows and surges.