Jocotitlán

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 19.73°N
  • 99.758°W

  • 3900 m
    12792 ft

  • 341062
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Jocotitlán.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Jocotitlán.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Jocotitlán.

Jocotitlán is an isolated composite volcano that rises 1300 m above the Toluca basin 60 km WNW of Mexico City. The 3900-m-high volcano was constructed during the Pleistocene of andesitic-to-dacitic lava flows. A major obsidian-bearing dacitic plinian eruption was followed by the emplacement of a dacitic lava-dome complex, accompanied by lava effusion, pumice-fall eruptions, and pyroclastic surges. The most prominent feature of the volcano is a horseshoe-shaped escarpment open to the NE that formed as a result of gravitational failure of the summit during the early Holocene. The resulting debris-avalanche deposit covers an 80 sq km area to the NE. Lava dome emplacement accompanied by pyroclastic flows and surges subsequently filled much of the avalanche scarp. The latest known eruption occurred about 700 years ago and produced block-and-ash flows and pyroclastic surges.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1270 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
7740 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

The Global Volcanism Program has no synonyms or subfeatures listed for Jocotitlán.

Jocotitlán is an isolated composite dacitic volcano that rises 1300 m above the Toluca basin. It is seen here from the NW, facing a horseshoe-shaped escarpment that formed as a result of gravitational failure of the summit during the early Holocene. The conical hills of Cerro San Miguel (left) and Cerro la Cruz (center) are part of the resulting debris-avalanche deposit that covers an 80 sq km area NE of the volcano. The latest known eruption of Jocotitlán occurred about 700 years ago.

Photo by José Macías, 1997 (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México).
The tree-covered hills in the foreground of this view of Jocotitlán from the NE are the steep, lobate front of a massive debris-avalanche deposit produced by collapse of the volcano. This catastrophic collapse was radiocarbon dated at about 9690 years ago. The avalanche traveled a maximum distance of 12 km and covered an area of 80 sq km. The 2.8 cu km avalanche deposit is overlain by pyroclastic-surge and airfall-pumice deposits that were erupted immediately following collapse of the edifice.

Photo by José Macías, 1997 (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México).
This conical hill is among many found at the NE base of Jocotitlán volcano and represents part of the edifice that collapsed in a massive volcanic landslide about 9700 years ago. The conical hills contain abundant large blocks (1-10 m in diameter) and are apparently cored by larger megablocks (10-20 m in diameter). The largest hummocks are up to 200 m high and occur within 3-5 km of the volcano along with large parallel transverse ridges up to 2.7 km long. Hummock size and height decrease towards the margins of the deposit.

Photo by José Macías, 1997 (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México).
The tree-covered hills in the foreground and center of this view from the summit of Jocotitlán volcano were formed during a massive debris avalanche produced by collapse of the volcano about 9700 years ago. The debris-avalanche deposit includes several steep-sided conical hummocks (such as those at the lower left) and large transverse ridges up to 2.7 km long. The avalanche traveled a maximum distance of 12 km to the NE and covered an area of 80 sq km.

Photo by Hugo Delgado-Granados, (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Capra L, Macias J L, Scott K M, Abrams M, Garduno-Monroy V H, 2002. Debris avalanches and debris flows transformed from collapses in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Mexico - behavior, and implications for hazard assessment. J Volc Geotherm Res, 113: 81-110.

Macias J L, Garcia A, Arce J L, Siebe C, Espindola J M, Komorowski J-C, Scott K, 1997b. Late Pleistocene-Holocene cataclysmic eruptions at Nevado de Toluca and Jocotitlan volcanoes, central Mexico. Brigham Young Univ Geol Studies, 42(1): 493-528.

Macias J L, Garcia A, Arce J L, Siebe C, Espindola J M, Komorowski J-C, Scott K, 1997a. Late Pleistocene-Holocene cataclysmic eruptions at Nevado de Toluca and Jocotitlan volcanoes, central Mexico. IAVCEI Puerto Vallarta, Mexico Plenary Assembly, Excursion no. 14 Field Guide, p. 1-63.

Siebe C, Komorowski J-C, Sheridan M F, 1992. Morphology and emplacement of an unusual debris-avalanche deposit at Jocotitlan volcano, central Mexico. Bull Volc, 54: 573-589.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Lava dome(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Dacite
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
7,220
84,108
630,469
24,986,674

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Jocotitlán Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.