Colima

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  • Mexico
  • Mexico
  • Stratovolcano(es)
  • 2013 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 19.514°N
  • 103.62°W

  • 3850 m
    12628 ft

  • 341040
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

19 March-25 March 2014

Based on observations of satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 March small diffuse puffs rose from Colima to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted E, and dissipated almost 30 km away. A diffuse ash plume drifted N on 22 March.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



 Available Weekly Reports


2014: January | February | March
2013: January | November
2011: January
2010: October | November
2009: February | March | April | May | July | October | December
2008: February | March | April | May | June | August | October | December
2007: March | April | May | September | October | November | December
2006: January | February | March | July | October | November | December
2005: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2004: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2003: January | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2002: January | February | March | April | May | June | October
2001: February | May | October | November | December
2000: November


19 March-25 March 2014

Based on observations of satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 March small diffuse puffs rose from Colima to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted E, and dissipated almost 30 km away. A diffuse ash plume drifted N on 22 March.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 March-18 March 2014

Based on observations of satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 12 March an ash plume from Colima drifted 25 km NNE and dissipated.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 March-11 March 2014

Based on observations of satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 6 March a small ash cloud from Colima drifted NE and dissipated.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 February-4 March 2014

Based on observations of satellite images and information from the Mexico MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 28 February an ash plume from Colima drifted 15 km SE at altitudes up to 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. On 1 March two emissions formed an ash plume that drifted over 35 km NNW. Three other plumes drifted NNW later that day.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 February-11 February 2014

Based on observations of satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that a small ash cloud from Colima drifted slowly E and then SE on 7 February; the slow drift was indicative of a low altitude. Another small puff of gas with low amounts of ash drifted SE.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 January-21 January 2014

The Washington VAAC reported intermittent ash emissions from Colima on 21 January: an ash puff drifted S at an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l., a second ash puff drifted SSW, and a third ash puff drifted S.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 November-19 November 2013

The Washington VAAC reported that at 0730 on 17 November a possible ash emission from Colima produced a plume that drifted almost 20 km E.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 November-12 November 2013

The Washington VAAC reported that between 2315 and 2345 on 9 November a bright thermal anomaly over Colima was detected in satellite images. A diffuse puff of gas and steam observed at 0115 on 10 November possibly contained ash.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 January-5 February 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 29 January an ash plume from Colima drifted 55 km NE at an uncertain altitude. A thermal anomaly was also detected.

According to news articles, residents up to 20 km away reported a loud noise, shaking ground, and rattling windows at about 0400 on 29 January. Colima ejected incandescent material and an ash plume that rose 3 km. Ash fell in several communities.

Sources: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), El Economista, El Occidental, La Prensa (Mexico)


2 January-8 January 2013

According to news articles, a scientific advisory committee reported that a phreatic eruption from Colima on 6 January ejected tephra and an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater. Ashfall was reported in Atenquique (20 km E). Visitors were evacuated from the national park.

Source: Noticieros Televisa


12 January-18 January 2011

According to news articles from 11 and 12 January, although incandescent landslides from Colima's lava dome had increased during the last days of 2010 into early 2011, the activity was still considered to be within normal parameters. Landslides occurred on the W, S, and N flanks, producing "dust plumes" observed from multiple municipalities. The lava dome that began growing in February 2007 was about 60 m high and had a volume of 2.6 million cubic meters.

Sources: Noticieros Televisa, El Universal


3 November-9 November 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 7 November an ash plume from Colima rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 19 km SW.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 October-2 November 2010

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash cloud from Colima drifted W on 28 October.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 December-8 December 2009

The government of the state of Colima reported that on 1 December a white plume from the Colima volcano rose 100 m above the crater and drifted E. On 2 December, incandescent tephra was ejected 50 m above the crater towards the SE. Later that day, a white plume rose 50 m and drifted SW.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


21 October-27 October 2009

The government of the state of Colima reported that on 22 October a gray plume from Colima rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The next day, white plumes drifted NE and N, one at an altitude of 4.2 km (13,800 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


29 July-4 August 2009

The government of the state of Colima reported that during 29 July-4 August white and sometimes gray plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 4-4.3 km (13,100-14,100 ft) a.s.l. Some plumes drifted SW and W.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


20 May-26 May 2009

The government of the state of Colima reported that during 21-25 May white and gray plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 3.9-4.2 km (12,800-13,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and S.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


8 April-14 April 2009

During 8-10 and 12-13 April, white and gray plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 3.9-5.2 km (12,800-17,100 ft) a.s.l. and occasionally drifted E, S, SW, and W.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


25 March-31 March 2009

During 25-29 and 31 March, white and gray plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 3.9-4.6 km (12,800-15,100 ft) a.s.l. and occasionally drifted SW, SE, E, and NE.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


25 February-3 March 2009

During 25 February-3 March, white and gray plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 3.9-4.5 km (12,800-14,800 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


4 February-10 February 2009

During 3-10 February, white and gray plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 3.9-4.9 km (12,800-16,100 ft) a.s.l. On 4 and 6 February, incandescent material was ejected 50 m above the summit.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


31 December-6 January 2009

On 2 January, incandescent material from Colima was propelled 100 m above the summit and a gray plume rose to an altitude of 4.1 km (13,500 ft) a.s.l. During 3-5 January, gray and white plumes rose to altitudes of 4-4.2 km (13,100-13,800 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted N, NE, E, and SE.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


10 December-16 December 2008

During 9-16 December, gray and white plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 3.9-4.5 km (12,800-14,800 ft) a.s.l. Plumes occasionally drifted SE and N. On 11 December, a gray plume rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


3 December-9 December 2008

During 3-8 December, gray plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 4.2-4.6 km (13,800-15,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and W; a gray plume rose to an altitude of 6.4 km (21,000 ft) a.s.l. on 4 December. White plumes were also observed and, during 4-8 December, rose to a maximum altitude of 4.2 km (13,800 ft) a.s.l. The white plumes drifted SW and SE.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


29 October-4 November 2008

White plumes from Colima were observed rising to altitudes of 4.1-4.3 km (13,500-14,100 ft) a.s.l. during 30-31 October and 2 November. Gray plumes seen on 2 November rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,100 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted mainly SW and E.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


22 October-28 October 2008

Multiple white plumes from Colima were observed rising to altitudes of 3.9-4.1 km (12,800-13,500 ft) a.s.l. during 22-28 October. Gray plumes were observed during 25-28 October and rose to altitudes of 3.9-4.5 km (12,800-14,800 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted mainly SW, W, and NW.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


13 August-19 August 2008

Although visual observations were intermittent due to cloud cover during 13-18 August, gray and white plumes from Colima were observed and rose to altitudes of 4-4.7 km (13,100-15,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, and N.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


4 June-10 June 2008

Although visual observations were occasionally limited due to cloud cover during 3-9 June, ash and steam plumes from Colima were spotted and rose to altitudes of 4-4.8 km (13,100-15,700 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted SW, S, SE, and E.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


7 May-13 May 2008

Based on information from Mexico City MWO and observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that a puff of ash and gas drifted NW on 13 May.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 April-15 April 2008

Multiple steam plumes from Colima were observed rising to altitudes of 3.9-4.6 km (12,800-15,100 ft) a.s.l. during 8-15 April. Gray plumes rose to altitudes of 4.5-4.9 km (15,000-16,100 ft) a.s.l. during 10-12 April. Plumes drifted mainly SW, NW, and W. On 14 April incandescent material was propelled about 50 m above the summit.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


2 April-8 April 2008

During 1-2 April, ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 4.2-6.4 km (13,800-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW. Incandescent avalanches descended the SW flank. On 4 April, incandescent material was propelled 150 m above the summit. An ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that a brief puff of ash drifted SE on 7 April.

Sources: Gobierno del Estado de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 March-18 March 2008

Multiple steam plumes from Colima were observed rising to altitudes of 3.9-4.6 km (12,800-15,100 ft) a.s.l. during 12-18 March. Gray plumes rose to altitudes of 4-4.8 km (13,100-15,700 ft) a.s.l. on 14 and 18 March. Plumes drifted multiple directions.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


13 February-19 February 2008

Steam and steam-and-ash plumes from Colima were observed rising to altitudes of 4-4.4 km (13,100-14,400 ft) a.s.l. during 14-19 February. Plumes drifted N, NE, and E.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


26 December-1 January 2008

According to a news article, activity from Colima increased during 29-30 December. An ash plume was visible on 29 December. On 30 December, incandescent material was propelled from the summit and white and gray plumes rose to altitudes of 4-4.3 km (13,100-14,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, W, and NW. Authorities recommended that people avoid valleys surrounding the volcano.

Source: Notimex


19 December-25 December 2007

Steam and steam-and-ash plumes from Colima were observed rising to altitudes of 4.3-4.7 km (14,100-15,400 ft) a.s.l. during 20-23 and25 December. Plumes drifted N on 21 December.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


12 December-18 December 2007

Although visual observations were occasionally limited due to cloud cover, steam and steam-and-ash plumes from Colima were observed rising to altitudes of 4-4.4 km (13,100-14,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SW, N, NE, and E during 12-16 and 18 December.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


28 November-4 December 2007

Based on reports from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Colima rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W on 26 November. Observations of satellite imagery showed a plume to the NNE. Observers reported that steam and steam-and-ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3.9-4.6 km (12,800-15,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and SW on 26, 27, and 29 November and during 3-4 December.

Sources: Gobierno del Estado de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


31 October-6 November 2007

During 31 October-1 November, vapor-and-ash plumes from Colima rose to an altitude of 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. Based on reports from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Colima drifted N on 1 November.

Sources: Gobierno del Estado de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 September-25 September 2007

During 19-23 September, steam and steam-and-ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 4-4.9 km (13,100-16,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, and SE.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima


30 May-5 June 2007

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that diffuse ash plumes from Colima drifted SW and S on 31 May.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 April-1 May 2007

Based on satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that ash plumes from Colima drifted NW on 26 April. On 28 and 30 April, incandescent material was ejected 100 m above the summit.

Sources: Gobierno del Estado de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 April-17 April 2007

Multiple steam and gas-and-ash plumes were observed from Colima during 11-12 and 15-16 April. Based on satellite imagery and the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 12 April continuous ash-and-steam emissions from Colima produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Sources: Gobierno del Estado de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 March-27 March 2007

During 21-27 March, incandescent material from Colima was expelled as high as 50-150 m above the summit. Steam and steam-and-ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.9 km (14,100-16,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, NW, and N. Based on information from Mexico City MWO and satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported ash plumes to altitudes of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. that drifted NE during 23-24 March.

Sources: Gobierno del Estado de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 December-19 December 2006

Based on satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that continuous ash-and-steam emissions from Colima produced a plume that drifted SE and W on 15 December.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 November-5 December 2006

Based on reports from the Mexico City MWO and satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Colima on 30 November reached an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and NE.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 November-21 November 2006

The Washington VAAC reported that on 19 November a diffuse plume from Colima was visible on a web camera drifting W. Approximately 5 hours later, the Mexico City MWO reported an ash plume to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. drifting SW.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 November-7 November 2006

Based on reports from the Mexico City MWO and satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Colima on 6 November reached an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 October-31 October 2006

Based on reports from the Mexico City MWO and satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Colima on 29 October reached an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 July-11 July 2006

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported an ash emission from Colima on 8 July to an unknown height. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 March-4 April 2006

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Colima Observatory, and satellite data, the Washington VAAC reported that there were several eruptions at Colima during 1-3 April. The highest rising resultant ash plume reached ~7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. after an eruption on 2 April at 1052.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 March-28 March 2006

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that there were several emissions from Colima during 26-27 March. The highest rising plume reached 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. on the 26th.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 February-28 February 2006

Several small explosions occurred at Colima during 22-26 February. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that an explosion on 22 February produced an ash cloud to an estimated height of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. that drifted NE.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 February-7 February 2006

During 4-7 February, small explosions occurred at Colima. The highest resultant ash plume reached ~8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. on 4 February.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 January-17 January 2006

During 11-15 January, several small explosions at Colima produced ash plumes. The highest rising ash plume was produced by an explosion on 11 December and reached ~9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted ENE.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 January-10 January 2006

During 4-9 January, several small explosions at Colima produced ash plumes. The highest rising ash plume was produced by an explosion on 9 January and reached ~6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted NE and SW.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 December-3 January 2006

During 28 December to 2 January, several small explosions occurred at Colima, producing ash plumes that reached ~6.1-7.6 km (20,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. on 2 January.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 December-27 December 2005

During 21-27 December, several small explosions occurred at Colima, producing ash plumes that reached ~6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. on 26 December.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 December-20 December 2005

During 12-19 December, several small explosions occurred at Colima, producing ash plumes that reached ~5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. on 15 December. Explosions on 12 December resulted in small amounts of ash deposited in areas SW of the volcano.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 November-29 November 2005

Several small explosions occurred at Colima during 23-28 November, producing plumes that reached a maximum height of ~8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. on 24 November.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 November-22 November 2005

Several small explosions occurred at Colima during 16-21 November that produced steam-and-ash clouds to low levels above the volcano.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 November-15 November 2005

Several small explosions occurred at Colima during 9-10 November, producing plumes that rose to ~5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 November-8 November 2005

Several small explosions occurred at Colima during 2-8 November, producing ash plumes that rose to a maximum height of ~7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. on 4 November.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 October-1 November 2005

During 26-31 October, several small eruptions occurred at Colima, with ash plumes rising as high as ~6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. on 27 October.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 October-25 October 2005

During 19-20 and 25 October, several small explosions occurred at Colima, with ash plumes rising as high as ~7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. on the 19th.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 October-11 October 2005

During 5-11 October, several small explosions occurred at Colima. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to ~6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. on 11 October.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 September-4 October 2005

During 28 September to 3 October, several small explosions occurred at Colima. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that a plume was emitted on 28 September that rose to a height of ~6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNW.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 September-27 September 2005

During 22-27 September, several small explosions occurred at Colima. The largest explosion took place on 27 September at 0507 and produced a plume to a height of ~3.8 km above the volcano (or 25,100 ft a.s.l.). The plume drifted WSW, depositing small amounts of ash in the cities of Colima, Villa de Alvarez, and Comala more than 30 km from the volcano. Due to the threat of lahars forming on the volcano's flanks, Universidad de Colima advised avoiding the ravines of La Lumbre, San Antonio, Monte Grande (in Colima state), and La Arena (in Jalisco state).

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


14 September-20 September 2005

On 16 September at 1045 an explosion occurred at Colima. According to the Washington VAAC, the resultant ash plume rose to ~9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. The local civil defense agency stated in a news article that ash fell on towns NW of the volcano. Prior to the explosion, microseismicity was recorded for several days. Universidad de Colima reported that microseismicity often precedes considerable explosions. During 18-19 September, seven small explosions occurred.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press


7 September-13 September 2005

During 7-12 September, several small explosions occurred at Colima. Due to the threat of lahars forming on the volcano's flanks, Universidad de Colima advised avoiding the ravines of La Lumbre, San Antonio, Monte Grande (in Colima state), and La Arena (in Jalisco state).

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


31 August-6 September 2005

During 31 August to 6 September, several small explosions occurred at Colima. On 31 August during 1245-1330, a seismic signal associated with a lahar was recorded at the Monte Grande station. The lahar caused no damage. Due to the threat of lahars forming on the volcano's flanks, Universidad de Colima advised avoiding the ravines of La Lumbre, San Antonio, Monte Grande (in Colima state), and La Arena (in Jalisco state).

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


24 August-30 August 2005

During 24-29 August, several small explosions occurred at Colima. Due to the threat of lahars forming on the volcano's flanks, Universidad de Colima advised avoiding the ravines of La Lumbre, San Antonio, Monte Grande (in Colima state), and La Arena (in Jalisco state).

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


17 August-23 August 2005

During 17- 22 August, small explosions at Colima produced low-level ash plumes. The largest events occurred on 21 and 22 August, producing plumes that drifted W. Due to the threat of lahars forming on the volcano's flanks, Universidad de Colima advised avoiding the ravines of La Lumbre, San Antonio, Monte Grande (in Colima state), and La Arena (in Jalisco state).

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


10 August-16 August 2005

On 15 and 16 August, small explosions at Colima produced low-level ash plumes. Due to the threat of lahars forming on the volcano's flanks, Universidad de Colima advised avoiding the ravines of La Lumbre, San Antonio, Monte Grande (in Colima state), and La Arena (in Jalisco state).

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


3 August-9 August 2005

On 4 August the Washington VAAC reported that the Mexico City MWO observed a steam plume coming from Colima rising to 7.2 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. in imagery from the Colima video camera. Due to the threat of lahars forming on the volcano's flanks, Universidad de Colima advised avoiding the ravines of La Lumbre, San Antonio, Monte Grande (in Colima state), and La Arena (in Jalisco state).

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 July-2 August 2005

During 29 July to 1 August, steam-and-ash emissions occurred from Colima. According to the Washington VAAC, the highest-rising emission reached 6.1 km (~20,000 ft) a.s.l. on 30 July. Due to the threat of lahars forming on the volcano's flanks, Universidad de Colima advised avoiding the ravines of La Lumbre, San Antonio, Monte Grande (in Colima state), and La Arena (in Jalisco state).

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 July-26 July 2005

On 21 and 23 July, small ash emissions and lahars occurred at Colima. On the 21st during 1750-1830 a lahar traveled SSE down the Monte Grande ravine. Emissions rose to a maximum height of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. on 27 July. Due to the threat of lahars forming on the volcano's flanks, Universidad de Colima advised avoiding the ravines of La Lumbre, San Antonio, Monte Grande (in Colima state), and La Arena (in Jalisco state).

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


13 July-19 July 2005

Several explosions occurred at Colima during 13-18 July, and small landslides traveled down the volcano's flanks during 15-18 July. Due to the threat of lahars forming on the volcano's flanks, Universidad de Colima advised avoiding the ravines of La Lumbre, San Antonio, Monte Grande (in Colima state), and La Arena (in Jalisco state).

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


6 July-12 July 2005

Several explosions occurred at Colima during 6-9 July and small landslides traveled down the volcano's flanks during 8-9 July. Due to the threat of lahars forming on the volcano's flanks, Universidad de Colima advised avoiding the ravines of La Lumbre, San Antonio, Monte Grande (in Colima state), and La Arena (in Jalisco state).

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


29 June-5 July 2005

Ash emission continued at Colima during 29 June to 5 July. On 30 June, lahars traveled SW down La Lumbre Ravine and SSE down Montegrande Ravine to a maximum length of ~10 km. The lahars did not reach populated areas. Due to heavy rain, and ash on the flanks of the volcano, Universidad de Colima advised avoiding the ravines of La Lumbre, San Antonio, Monte Grande (in Colima state), and La Arena (in Jalisco state). The Washington VAAC reported that the Colima video camera and satellite imagery confirmed that an explosive eruption occurred at Colima on 5 July at 1821. The Mexico City MWO reported that the resultant ash plume reached a height of ~9.1 km (~29,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. According to the Colima Volcano Observatory, pyroclastic flows accompanying the eruption traveled down Colima's E flank.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 June-28 June 2005

Several explosions occurred at Colima 22-28 June, reached ~5.5 km (18,040 ft) a.s.l., and drifted W-NW.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


15 June-21 June 2005

Several explosions occurred at Colima during June 15-21, reaching a maximum height of ~6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 June-14 June 2005

On 6 June at 2305 an explosion from Colima produced an ash plume to a height of ~8.5 km (27,900 ft) a.s.l. The ash plume traveled SW at a speed of ~70 km/hour, and ash fell in and around the cities of Colima (~30 km away) and Villa de Alvarez. On 11 June Universidad de Colima reported that a small lava dome was visible in Colima's crater. According to news articles, nearly 50 people who were evacuated from near the volcano during the previous week returned to their homes on 13 June.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press, Associated Press


1 June-7 June 2005

Several explosions occurred at Colima during 1-7 June. On 1 June at 2350 and on 2 June at 0022 explosions produced plumes to heights of ~6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted SSW, depositing ash in the towns of Colima and Villa de Alvarez. A large explosion on 5 June at 1420 produced pyroclastic flows, and generated an ash cloud to a height of ~8.9 km (29,200 ft) a.s.l. According to news reports, on 7 June officials in nearby Jalisco state announced a voluntary evacuation of the three villages nearest to the crater, and people in nearby towns were warned to be prepared to evacuate.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press


25 May-31 May 2005

The largest eruption at Colima in the past 20 years occurred on 30 May at 0326. Pyroclastic flows that accompanied the eruption traveled W. Satellite imagery showed a portion of an ash cloud produced during the eruption at a height of ~8.5 km (~27,900 ft) a.s.l. extending SE, and a lower portion of the cloud at ~5.4 km (~17,700 ft) a.s.l. extending NE. One hour and 48 minutes after the eruption, the higher cloud extended ~100 km SE, and the lower portion of the cloud extended ~80 km NE. Due to the heightened volcanic activity, the exclusion zone was increased from a 6.5-km radius to a 7.5-km radius and restrictions to access remained within a radius of 11.5 km from the volcano's summit. No evacuations were ordered. According to a news article, ashfall caused the closure of an airport in the city of Colima, ~30 km away.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Los Angeles Times


18 May-24 May 2005

The largest eruption at Colima since 1999 occurred on 23 May at 1910. The eruption produced a plume that rose to ~5.8 km above the volcano (~31,700 ft a.s.l.) and drifted W. Pyroclastic flows traveled 4-5 km, mainly down San Antonio (SSW) and Monte Grande (SSE) ravines. Ash plumes rising above the pyroclastic flow drifted E.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Reuters, Associated Press


11 May-17 May 2005

Explosions during 11-17 May generated pyroclastic flows down all flanks of the volcano on at least three occasions. Incandescence was seen on a video camera late on 15 May, followed by an ash eruption that rose to 7.6 km altitude (25,000 feet) and moved E.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 May-10 May 2005

Several explosions occurred from Colima during 4-10 May, with local light ashfall. The Washington VAAC identified ash to a maximum altitude of 7.6 km a.s.l. (25,000 feet) on 10 May. Satellite imagery also indicated a thermal anomaly at the summit during this period.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 April-26 April 2005

Several explosions occurred at Colima during 20-25 April. According to the Washington VAAC, an explosion on 20 April produced an ash plume to a height of ~6.1 km (~20,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 April-19 April 2005

During 13-18 April there were several explosions at Colima. According to the Washington VAAC, resultant ash plumes rose to a maximum height of ~6.7 km (~22,000 ft) a.s.l. An explosion on 19 April at 2056 sent incandescent material down the volcano's flanks that did not exceed the established safety limits. On 20 April at 0705 a smaller explosion occurred. No evacuations were necessary.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 April-12 April 2005

During 6-11 April there were several explosions at Colima. According to the Washington VAAC, resultant ash plumes rose to a maximum height of ~9.1 km (~30,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 March-5 April 2005

During 30 March to 4 April there were several explosions at Colima. According to the Washington VAAC, resultant ash plumes rose to a maximum height of ~6.7 km (~22,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 March-29 March 2005

During 23-29 March there were several ash emissions from Colima. Resultant ash plumes rose to a maximum height of ~7.6 km (~24,900 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 March-15 March 2005

An eruption at Colima on 10 March at 0810 produced pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 3 km down the volcano's flanks in all directions. In addition, an E-drifting ash cloud was generated that rose to a height of ~2 km above the crater. Ash fell in and near the cities of Guzmán and Jalisco. On 13 March at 1528 a large explosion produced a pyroclastic flow down several ravines: El Muerto, Montegrande, San Antonio, and the eastern part of El Cordobán. According to the Mexico City MWO, an ash plume rose to ~5 km above the crater. Ash and rock fragments fell in the towns of Mazos and Jalisco, ~12.5 km NE of the volcano.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 February-1 March 2005

During 23-28 February, several small explosions at Colima produced ash plumes that rose to low levels; plumes drifted predominately W.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


16 February-22 February 2005

During 16-21 February, several small explosions at Colima produced ash plumes that rose to low levels; plumes drifted predominately SE and W.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


9 February-15 February 2005

During 9-15 February, several small explosions at Colima sent ash to low altitudes. An explosion on 12 February was accompanied by a pyroclastic flow that traveled ~2.5 km SE down the Montegrande and San Antonio ravines (See video of the event).

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


26 January-1 February 2005

During 26-31 January, several small ash explosions at Colima produced plumes that traveled NE. According to the Washington VAAC, the highest rising ash plume reached ~6.4 km a.s.l.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 January-25 January 2005

During 19-24 January, several explosions occurred daily at Colima. Ash plumes produced from these eruptions drifted predominately SE.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


12 January-18 January 2005

According to the Washington VAAC, during 12-18 January small eruptions from Colima generated steam-and-ash plumes. These plumes rose as high as ~6.7 km a.s.l. and extended as far as ~50 km from the volcano.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 January-11 January 2005

According to the Washington VAAC, 6 January a steam-and-ash plume was visible at Colima on satellite imagery. The plume rose to ~7 km a.s.l. and extended as far as ~38 km NW. On 9 January, two steam-and-ash plumes rose simultaneously from the volcano. One plume rose to ~7 km a.s.l. and extended ~30 km NE, while the other plume reached ~4.5 km a.s.l. and extended ~26 km W.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 December-4 January 2005

According to the Washington VAAC, on 30 December an ash plume was visible at Colima on satellite imagery. The plume rose to ~7 km a.s.l. and extended as far as ~37 km E. Late on 30 December a second steam-and-ash plume rose to ~7 km a.s.l. and extended E. On 1 January an eruption produced a steam-and-ash plume that reached ~5.5 km a.s.l. and extended ~33 km N.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 December-21 December 2004

During 15-18 December, explosions at Colima produced ash plumes that drifted predominately NE of the volcano.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


8 December-14 December 2004

During 8-14 December, explosions continued at Colima. On 13 December plumes drifted NE.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


1 December-7 December 2004

Small explosions continued to occur at Colima during 2-6 December. Ash plumes produced from explosions on 6 December drifted primarily NE.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


24 November-30 November 2004

During 26-30 November, several small explosions occurred at Colima. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that a steam-and-ash emission occurred on 25 November. Satellite imagery showed the plume at a height of ~6 km a.s.l.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 November-23 November 2004

During 16-22 November, block-lava flows continued to travel down Colima's N, W, NW, and S flanks as they have since 30 September. The lava flow on the N flank is 2200 m long and approximately 330 m wide. The lava flow advancing on the NW flank is at least 600 m long by 200 m at its widest part. Several small explosions occurred daily.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


10 November-16 November 2004

During 10-15 November, block-lava flows continued to travel down Colima's N, W, NW, and S flanks as they have since 30 September. Several explosions occurred daily during the report period. Block-and-ash flows spilling from the fronts of the advancing lava flows on the W flank remained within ~2 km of the summit.

According to the Washington VAAC, satellite imagery from 1615 on 10 November indicated a plume moving N from Colima to a height of ~5 km a.s.l. The plume, consisting mostly of steam and a little ash, was emitted around 1610; by 1745 it had drifted ~45 km N.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 November-9 November 2004

During 5-7 November, block-lava flows continued to travel down Colima's N, W, NW, and S flanks as they have since 30 September. Several explosions occurred daily. By 8 November, the block-lava flows on the N flank was about 2,200 m long and about 330 m wide reaching to the N wall of the caldera. On the WNW flank, block-lava reached about 600 m long and 200 m wide at its widest point. During the report period, block-and-ash flows spilling from the fronts of the advancing block-lava flows on the W flank reached ~2 km from the summit.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


27 October-2 November 2004

During 27 October to 1 November, block-lava flows continued to travel down Colima's N, W, NW, and S flanks as they have since 30 September. Several explosions occurred daily. By 1 November, the block-lava flows on the N flank reached about 1,800 m long and about 200 m wide, and on the WNW flank block-lava reached about 600 m long and 200 m wide at its widest point. During the report period, block-and-ash flows spilling from the fronts of the advancing block-lava flows on the W flank reached ~2 km from the summit.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


20 October-26 October 2004

During 22-26 October, block-lava flows continued to travel down Colima's N, NW, W, and S flanks as they have since 30 September. On the 26th, the block-lava flows on the N flank reached a length of ~1,800 m and a width of 200 m, and on the WNW flank the block-lava reached a length of ~600 m and a width of 200 m. On the 22nd, the volcano's gas output included 840 metric tons of sulfur dioxide. During the report period, block-and-ash flows spilling from the fronts of the advancing block-lava flows reached ~ 2 km from the summit.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


13 October-19 October 2004

During 13-19 October, block-lava flows continued to travel down Colima's N, W, NW, and S flanks as they have since 30 September. Several explosions occurred daily. By 16 October, the block-lava flows on the N flank reached at least 1,500 m long and about 150 m wide, and on the WNW flank block-lava reached at least 600 m long and 200 m wide at its widest point. During the report period, block-and-ash flows spilling from the fronts of the advancing block-lava flows on the W flank reached ~2 km from the summit. Sulfur-dioxide flux reached a maximum value of about 880 tons on 15 October.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


6 October-12 October 2004

During 6-11 October, block-lava flows continued to travel down Colima's N, NW, W, and S flanks as they have since 30 September. On 6 October, the block-lava flows on the N flank reached a length of ~600 m and a width of 150 m, and on the WNW flank the block-lava reached a length of ~250 m. About 32 explosions occurred that day, producing plumes to ~400 m above the volcano. On 11 October, a block-lava flow on the N flank reached a length of ~900 m and a width of ~150 m, and on the WNW flank the block-lava flow reached a length of ~300 m and a width of ~200 m. About 27 small explosions again produced plumes to a height of ~400 m above the volcano. During the report period, block-and-ash flows spilling from the fronts of the advancing block-lava flows reached ~ 2 km from the summit.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


29 September-5 October 2004

A new growing lava dome was sighted in Colima's summit crater on 28 September, following three days of vigorous fumarolic emissions. Starting on 30 September, block-and-ash flows moved down the volcano's W, WNW, and N flanks. Blocks of lava began to travel down the volcano's N and WNW flanks around 1 October, reaching lengths of ~300 m on the N flanks and ~100 m on the WNW. On 5 October, block-and-ash flows continued to travel as far as 2 km, and about 30 small explosions produced plumes to a maximum height of 400 m above the volcano.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


22 September-28 September 2004

Low-intensity volcanic activity continued at Colima through 27 September, with about two ash explosions occurring per day. The plumes produced from these explosions did not rise more than 2 km above the volcano and predominately drifted W.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


25 August-31 August 2004

On 30 August, low-level activity continued at Colima with an average of less than three ash-containing explosions per day. The resultant plumes did not rise higher than 2 km above the crater and predominately drifted W.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


4 August-10 August 2004

According to Universidad de Colima, low-level volcanic activity continued around 7-9 August at Colima with an average of less than three ash-containing explosions per day. Ash plumes produced from these explosions did not exceed heights of 3 km above the crater and mainly drifted W.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 July-3 August 2004

According to Universidad de Colima, during 27 July to 2 August an average of three ash-containing emissions occurred at Colima daily. The emissions did not rise higher than 3 km above the crater and mainly drifted W. The Washington VAAC reported that ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery during several days.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 July-13 July 2004

Low-level activity continued at Colima, with an average of three ash explosions occurring daily. The most significant events occurred on 7 and 11 July. The ash columns were all less than 2 km above the volcano (under ~6 km a.s.l.).

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


30 June-6 July 2004

On 29 June and 4 July low-level volcanic activity continued at Colima, with an average of three ash explosions occurring daily. The resultant ash plumes did not exceed heights of 2 km above the crater.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


23 June-29 June 2004

On 21 June low-level activity continued at Colima, with an average of three ash explosions occurring daily. The resultant ash plumes did not exceed heights of 2 km above the crater.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


26 May-1 June 2004

During late May low-level activity continued at Colima, with an average of two ash-containing explosions per day. The eruption clouds did not exceed 2 km above the volcano's crater and predominately drifted W.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


12 May-18 May 2004

Universidad de Colima reported on 15 May that low-intensity activity continued at Colima, with an average of three ash-containing explosions daily during the previous few days. The plumes rose to less than 2 km above the volcano and drifted W, N, and E. Some explosions produced pyroclastic flows to distances less than 2 km. On 14 May at 1028 an explosion produced a plume to ~2 km above the volcano that drifted E. In addition, three small pyroclastic flows traveled down the volcano's W, N, and E flanks.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 April-20 April 2004

Based on information from ground observers and the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash emission from Colima on 14 April rose to ~5.5 km a.s.l. and extended less than 18.5 km E.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 April-13 April 2004

Based on information from ground observers and the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash emission from Colima on 12 April rose to ~4.9 a.s.l.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 March-23 March 2004

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that there was an emission from Colima on 21 March. An ash plume was visible on satellite imagery at a height around 6 km a.s.l. extending S.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 March-16 March 2004

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that an emission from Colima on 15 March at 2014 reached ~4.3 km a.s.l. No ash was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 February-2 March 2004

According to the Universidad de Colima, during 17-20 February volcanic activity slightly decreased at Colima in comparison to the previous week. About three explosions occurred daily, producing ash columns to 2-3 km above the crater. Most of the columns drifted ENE and NE, depositing ash on the volcano's flanks. According to the Washington VAAC, during 24 February to 1 March several explosions produced plumes to ~3 km above the volcano.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 February-24 February 2004

According to the Washington VAAC, during 17-22 February there were several steam-and-ash emissions from Colima, with the highest rising plumes reaching ~6 km a.s.l.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 February-17 February 2004

The Universidad de Colima reported that as of 10 February about five explosions occurred at Colima daily, which was slightly more than during the previous few months. Ash columns rose 2-3 km above the crater and predominately drifted NE and ENE. A significant explosion on 9 February at 0958 produced a plume to ~3.6 km above the volcano that drifted NE. According to the Washington VAAC, during 12-17 February ash plumes were sometimes visible on satellite imagery at a maximum height of ~3 km above the crater.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 February-10 February 2004

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that a 4-minute-long emission from Colima on 6 February produced a plume to ~6 km a.s.l. that drifted NE. There were also several minor emissions during 5-6 February. An ash emission on 9 February reached ~7.6 km a.s.l. and drifted E (according to MWO) or NE (according to Washington VAAC satellite imagery).

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 January-3 February 2004

During January, an average of three explosions per day occurred at Colima. The resultant ash plumes rose 2-3 km above the crater and mostly drifted NE and ENE.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


31 December-6 January 2004

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that an eruption at Colima on 30 December produced an ash plume to a height of ~10.4 km a.s.l. The plume drifted NE and a small area of ash was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 December-23 December 2003

Ash clouds from eruptions at Colima on 19 December were visible on satellite imagery at a maximum height of ~8.5 km a.s.l., extending up to ~15 km E.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 December-16 December 2003

As of 12 December there was an average of three explosions per day at Colima that rose 2-3 km above the crater. Most of the ash from these explosions drifted ENE. A significant explosion on 11 December at 0258 sent volcanic bombs down the NE and N flanks and deposited ash in the city of Ciudad Guzmán, 25 km to the NE. According to the Washington VAAC, ash from an explosion on 14 December was visible on satellite imagery at a height of ~6 km a.s.l.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 December-9 December 2003

On 1 and 2 December, ash clouds from Colima were visible on satellite imagery at a maximum height of ~7 km a.s.l.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 November-2 December 2003

On 1 and 2 December, ash clouds from Colima were visible on satellite imagery at a maximum height of ~7 km a.s.l.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 November-25 November 2003

A subtle ash plume, visible in satellite imagery, was emitted from Colima on 18 November at 1900 and rose to ~5.5 km a.s.l.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 October-4 November 2003

On 30 October two small eruptions occurred at Colima that consisted of mostly steam and some ash. The plumes rose to about 7.3 km a.s.l. and mainly drifted W.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


15 October-21 October 2003

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 16 October at 1202 ash was emitted from Colima and rose to a height of ~6 km a.s.l. On 18 October an ash plume rose to ~7.3 km a.s.l. Neither plume was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 October-14 October 2003

As of 10 October, volcanic activity at Colima consisted of an average of two explosions per day producing ash clouds that rose to ~2 km above the crater and drifted predominately W. On 7 October rain from Tropical Storm Olaf inundated the Colima area with 150 mm of rain in less than 2 hours. The heavy rain mixed with material on the volcano's S flank, producing a lahar down the Montegrande ravine. According to the Washington VAAC, on 9 and 10 October ash clouds were visible on satellite imagery rising to a maximum height of ~5 km above the volcano.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 September-9 September 2003

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 6 September at 1026 a strong ash emission occurred at Colima. The resultant ash cloud rose to ~6.7 km a.s.l. and drifted N. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery. Another ash emission occurred on 8 September that was visible on the Colima video camera.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 August-2 September 2003

According to the Universidad de Colima, an explosion at Colima on 28 August at 2352 produced an ash plume that rose to a height of ~3 km above the volcano's crater. The explosion was accompanied by pyroclastic flows that traveled 2 km down the S flank and volcanic blocks. Residents of the city of Colima, ~32 km from the volcano, heard the explosion and ash fell in the town of Grullo, ~60 km NW of the volcano. Seismic data revealed that this explosion was similar in size to one on 2 August.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press


30 July-5 August 2003

Based on information from the Control Tower at Colima airport, the Washington VAAC reported that an emission from Colima on 3 August at 0739 produced a plume to ~7.6 km a.s.l. On 4 August at 0845 a small ash emission occurred that was visible on satellite imagery. The Mexico City MWO reported that the cloud rose to ~ 6 km a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 July-22 July 2003

On 17 July an explosion at Colima sent incandescent volcanic material to ~500 m above the volcano and produced a SW-drifting ash cloud to a height of ~ 3 km above the volcano. At least five pyroclastic flows traveled down the volcano's flanks to a maximum distance of ~2 km.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


9 July-15 July 2003

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that an emission occurred at Colima on 11 July at 2045. Extensive meteorological cloud cover made detecting ash on satellite images difficult. An eruption began on 15 July at about 0914 that produced an ash cloud to a height of ~9.1 km a.s.l. A narrow ash plume was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 June-24 June 2003

During June at Colima, incandescence was visible during some evenings. Tremor associated with emissions was relatively low and no significant deformation was detected. The 6.5-km-radius exclusion zone around Colima remained in effect, with other restrictions to access extending 11.5 km from the volcano's summit.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


28 May-3 June 2003

Based on information from the México City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported an emission from Colima on 27 May at 2014. The resultant plume rose to ~6 km a.s.l. No ash was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 May-20 May 2003

According to the Universidad de Colima, lava flows have not been seen at Colima since early March, contrary to reports of lava flows visible on 6 May. As of about 18 May activity at Colima consisted of about 25 small explosions per day, with some containing ash. Ash dispersal was limited to ~7 km from the summit.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


7 May-13 May 2003

During 6-11 May, several ash emissions occurred at Colima. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that the largest eruption during the report period occurred on 6 May and produced an ash cloud to ~6 km a.s.l. In addition, lava flows traveled down the volcano's S flank.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 April-6 May 2003

In the midst of an interval of ongoing tranquility, small explosive eruptions came from Colima on 2 May generating minor ash clouds visible on satellite imagery and local video monitoring. The ash clouds apparently rose no more than about 500 m above the crater.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


2 April-8 April 2003

Universidad de Colima reported that lava effusion ceased at Colima by the end of February. In April incandescence was visible at the volcano's summit when sudden gas emissions occurred. Tremor remained at low levels and was usually associated with emissions. No significant deformation was recorded. The 6.5-km-radius exclusion zone around Colima remained in effect, with other restrictions to access extending 11.5 km from the volcano's summit.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


8 January-14 January 2003

Universidad de Colima reported that on 13 January volcanism was at relatively low levels at Colima. Lava slowly flowed to the W and SW. Landslides from lava-flow fronts traveled 800-1,200 m W and SW. Incandescence was visible at the volcano's summit during the evenings. Seismicity associated with the landslides was recorded, although the number and size of the landslides diminished in comparison to the previous month. Deflation was recorded at the volcano. The 6.5-km-radius exclusion zone around Colima remained in effect, with other restrictions to access extending 11.5 km from the volcano's summit.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


23 October-29 October 2002

Colima's web video camera showed an ash-and-steam plume rising to a height of ~5.5 km a.s.l. on 24 October at 0430. The plume drifted toward the N. Neither ash nor steam was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: US Air Force Weather Agency


5 June-11 June 2002

Volcanic and seismic activity at Colima were at relatively low levels during 5-7 June. For about a week volcanic tremor was at low levels, no explosive events were detected, and incandescent lava avalanches traveled down the volcano's S, SW, and W flanks. No significant deformation was detected at the volcano, and SO2 emission rates and the number of avalanches decreased in comparison to the previous week. Lava was slowly emitted towards the W and SW. On 7 June, authorities lifted the preventative evacuation of communities on the volcano's SW and SE flanks. The 6.5-km-radius exclusion zone around Colima remained in effect, with other restrictions to access out to 11.5 km from the volcano's summit.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


29 May-4 June 2002

During 28-31 May, volcanic tremor, small explosions, and lava avalanches continued to occur at Colima. On 29 May infrared images revealed that 70 landslides occurred in 11 hours and there were six emissions that included incandescent material. According to the Universidad de Colima, by 3 June activity was relatively low at Colima, similar to levels observed before 10 May. By this time activity consisted mainly of slow lava emission towards the W and SW and an average of 136 landslides per day was reported. By 3 June the level of tremor had remained the same for ~48 hours and no explosive events had occurred. During the report period, incandescent lava avalanches traveled down the volcano's S, SW, and W flanks and no significant deformation was detected at the volcano. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that a pilot observed ash between 2.7 and 4 km a.s.l. near Colima's summit on 2 June at 1318. No ash was visible on satellite imagery in clear conditions. Due to the decreased level of activity, authorities considered ending the preventative evacuation of residents in towns on the volcano's SW and SE flanks, but had not done so as of 3 June.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 May-28 May 2002

According to the Universidad de Colima, as of 27 May strong volcanic tremor continued at Colima, and small explosions and lava avalanches occurred. Also, seismicity was recorded that was associated with landslides and degassing. Incandescent lava avalanches travelled down the SSE flank of the volcano, with sudden increases in incandescence visible for several hours. As of 24 May inflation was recorded at the volcano, but by 27 May no significant deformation was detected. The preventative evacuation of residents in towns on the volcano's SW and SE flanks remained in affect. Colima was at Alert Level 4 (5 is the highest).

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Reuters


15 May-21 May 2002

A strong increase in volcanic tremor at Colima caused the Scientific Committee on 18 May to evacuate hundreds of residents from several towns on the SW and SE flanks. Scientists also recorded changes in deformation, the chemistry of spring water near the volcano, and the composition of ejected rocks. In addition, heightened temperatures were recorded on infrared imagery. On 21 May there was an increase in the number of explosive-type earthquakes and a slight decrease in tremor earthquakes in comparison to the previous day. The 6.5-km-radius exclusion zone around Colima remained in effect, with other restrictions to access out to 11.5 km from the volcano's summit.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Associated Press


1 May-7 May 2002

As of 7 May volcanism continued at Colima with incandescent lava avalanches travelling down the volcano's flanks and seismicity occurring that was indicative of small explosive events and landslides. Incandescent lava avalanches, generated from the fronts of block-lava flows, continued to travel 2-3 km down Colima's S, E, and W flanks and 730 m down the SW flank.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


24 April-30 April 2002

As of 29 April volcanism continued at Colima with incandescent lava avalanches travelling down the volcano's flanks and seismicity occurring that was indicative of small explosive events and landslides. Incandescent lava avalanches, generated from the fronts of block-lava flows, continued to travel 2-3 km down Colima's S, E, and W flanks and 700 m down the SW flank.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


3 April-9 April 2002

As of 6 April volcanism continued at Colima and more small explosion earthquakes were recorded than during the previous week. Incandescent lava avalanches, generated from the fronts of block-lava flows, continued to travel 2-3 km down Colima's S, SW, and W flanks, and sporadically down the E flank. In addition, block-lava flows extended 550 m down the SW flank and 2 km down the W flank.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


20 March-26 March 2002

Universidad de Colima reported that as of 23 March volcanism continued at Colima and more small explosion earthquakes were recorded than during the previous week. Incandescent lava avalanches, generated from the fronts of block-lava flows, continued to travel 2-3 km down Colima's S, SW, and W flanks, and also sporadically travelled down the volcano's E flank. Block-lava flows extended 550 m down the SW flank and 2 km down the W flank. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 25 March at 1040 a steam-and-ash emission rose ~5-6 km a.s.l. and drifted to the E. The 6.5-km-radius exclusion zone around Colima remained in effect, with other restrictions to access out to 11.5 km from the volcano's summit.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 March-19 March 2002

During 6-13 March, avalanches of incandescent volcanic material continued to flow 2-3 km down Colima's S, SW, and W flanks. Most activity occurred on the S and W flanks, while activity slightly diminished on the SW flank. Block-lava flows extended 320 m down the SW flank and had an estimated volume of 720,000 m3. Block-lava flows reached a distance of 2 km down the W flank, and sporadic avalanches occurred on the E flank.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


6 March-12 March 2002

As of 6 March activity at Colima was similar to the previous weeks. Avalanches of incandescent material continued to travel 2-3 km down the volcano's S, SW, and W flanks. Block lava continued to flow down the SW flank of the volcano, extending as far as 240 m from the summit. Lava was also visible travelling as far as 2 km down the volcano's W flank, and down the E flank. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that ash and steam emitted from Colima were seen on 8 March at 4.3-5.2 km a.s.l. The emission was too small to be visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 February-5 March 2002

During 27 February- 2 March volcanism at Colima was similar to the previous week. Avalanches of incandescent material continued to travel down the volcano's S, SW, and W flanks. They extended 2-3 km from the volcano's summit and were recorded seismically. Block lava continued to flow down the SW flank of the volcano, extending as far as 240 m from the summit. By 28 February the flow was 15 m high, 55 m wide, and had a volume of about 200,000 m3. Lava was also visible flowing as far as 2 km down the volcano's W flank, and down the E flank. The Washington VAAC received reports that an emission of steam-and-ash on 4 March at 1045 produced a volcanic cloud to a height of ~4.3 km a.s.l.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 February-26 February 2002

During 19-24 February, avalanches of incandescent material continued to travel down the S, SW, and W flanks of Colima. They extended 2-3 km from the volcano's summit and were recorded in seismic data. Lava continued to flow down the SW flank of the volcano, extending as far as 200 m from the summit. Lava was also visible flowing down the volcano's W flank as far as 2 km from the summit. Avalanches are expected to occur from the lava-flow front travelling down the volcano's E flank. About 300 metric tons of SO2 were measured per day, which was lower than values measured in 1998 when the current eruptive episode began.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


13 February-19 February 2002

During 13-18 February, seismicity was relatively low at Colima and was dominated by landslide signals. In addition, landslides continued to travel down the volcano's S, SW, and W flanks, extending up to 2-3 km from the volcano's summit. During reconnaissance flights over the volcano, lava flows were observed extending ~70 m down the SW flank. On 16 February lava was seen on the E flank; CENAPRED reported that landslides are expected to travel down this flank in the following days. The 6.5-km-radius exclusion zone remained in effect and there were restrictions to access within a radius of 11.5 km from the volcano's summit.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


6 February-12 February 2002

During 6-11 February incandescent rockfalls continued to travel down Colima's S flank extending up to 2 km from the summit. In addition, very low magnitude earthquakes continued. Scientific Advisory Committee of Colima University personnel and the authorities of Colima State determined that the continuous inflation and numerous small earthquakes that have been recorded during the past 2 weeks could lead to the formation of lava flows and pyroclastic flows. On 5 February La Yerbabuena, the nearest village to the volcano (8 km away), was evacuated. According to news reports, on 6 February University of Colima staff flew over Colima and observed lava flows travelling down the volcano's S flank. On 9 February two pyroclastic flows occurred.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Associated Press, Reuters


30 January-5 February 2002

The Universidad de Colima reported on 30 January that the growing lava dome at Colima could result in either a dome collapse in days or weeks that would send pyroclastic flows down the volcano's S flank, or explosions could destroy the lava dome and hurl volcanic fragments several kilometers. On 4 February at 1721 a landslide occurred off of the dome, sending material to less than 600 m from the volcano's summit to the S towards Cordobán ravine. Several incandescent landslides were seen traveling less than 1 km down the S and SSW flanks of the volcano. During a flight over the volcano, members of the Advisory Scientific Committee noticed that dome growth occurred towards the W. Seismicity was relatively low; numerous earthquakes with very low magnitudes occurred. The 6.5-km-radius exclusion zone remained in effect, in addition there were restrictions to access within a radius of 11.5-km from the volcano's summit. Residents were advised to be ready in case an increase in activity leads to the evacuation of towns around the volcano.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Associated Press, BBC News


23 January-29 January 2002

Photographs of Colima taken on 13 January revealed that a new lava dome grew in the volcano's crater. The dome was approximately 170 m in diameter at the base and 46 m high.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


26 December-1 January 2002

On 27 December at 1715 the Mexico City MWO issued a SIGMET for volcanic ash at Colima 4.3-5.2 km a.s.l. They reported that another ash emission on 29 December at 0810 produced an ash cloud to a height of ~5.5 km. No ash was visible in satellite imagery from either eruption.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 December-11 December 2001

A flight over Colima on 5 December revealed that the spine on the lava dome, first observed on 31 October, was no longer visible. The 31 October dome in the inner crater had grown to an estimated volume of ~285,000 m3.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


7 November-13 November 2001

Photographs of Colima taken on 3 November revealed that a spine had grown on the May 2001 lava dome. The light-colored spine was about 40 m tall, 40 meters wide at its base, and smooth with vertical walls. During early November seismicity was low, with about 10 earthquakes occurring per day. As of 7 November, significant changes in deformation were recorded.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


31 October-6 November 2001

The Universidad de Colima reported on 4 November that significant deformation had been registered at Colima. Seismicity remained low and there was little visibility at the volcano.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


30 May-5 June 2001

During an excursion to Colima on 17 March by personnel from the Universidad de Colima a new crater was observed that was assumed to have been formed during the 22 February 2001 eruption. The crater was ~190,000 m3 in volume, making it the largest crater to form at Colima since the 1960s. On 26 May scientists discovered that a new lava dome that was ~150,000 m3 in volume had formed in the crater. They also noted that fumarolic activity was stronger in May than in March and fumaroles were active around the new dome mainly to the N, NE, and E. The new lava dome was the first evidence of effusive volcanic activity since the November 1998-February 1999 effusive episode.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


21 February-27 February 2001

The Volcanological Observatory of Colima University reported that a moderate explosion occurred at 0532 on 22 February. After reviewing video footage of the eruption, the observatory concluded that the ash cloud produced from the eruption rose ~2 km above the volcano at an average velocity of 200 meters/second (m/s). Incandescent ballistics were hurled up to 3 km away from the volcano at a rate of ~100 m/s and landed on the NE and SW flanks of the volcano, and to a lesser extent on the N flank. Large blocks, up to several meters in diameter, rolled ~400 m from the volcano's summit. The collapse of the eruptive column generated small pyroclastic flows that traveled towards the SW. Small amounts of ash fell in the towns of San Marco ~14 km SE of the volcano and Tonila ~13 km to the SSE. According to the observatory, the events were not sufficient to trigger an expansion of the zone of exclusion around the volcano, which remained at 6.5 km.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


15 November-21 November 2000

The Volcanological Observatory of Colima University reported that during the week seismicity was at an average level and deformation was low. A small seismic swarm occurred during 0237-0640 on 16 November.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima


8 November-14 November 2000

The Volcanological Observatory of Colima University reported that small exhalations occurred at Colima at 1250 on 8 November, 1327 on 9 November, and at 1728 on 10 November. The Mexico City MWO reported that the 10 November exhalation produced an ash cloud that rose to 6 km a.s.l. and was blown to the ENE. The Washington VAAC reported that the ash cloud was not visible in GOES-8 imagery. According to the observatory, the events did not exceed the established safety limits so the zone of exclusion remained at 6.5 km around the volcano.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 Jan 6 2013 Nov 17 (continuing) Confirmed   Historical Observations Summit crater
1997 Nov 22 2011 Jun 21 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations 1994 crater
1994 Jul 21 1994 Jul 21 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations West of 1987 explosion crater
1991 Mar 1 1991 Oct Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1988 Jun 15 ± 180 days ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1987 Jul 2 1987 Jul 2 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations East side of summit lava dome
1985 1986 Jan 5 ± 4 days Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 1983 Feb 11 ] [ 1983 Feb 15 ] Uncertain 1  
1977 Dec 1982 Jun Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1975 Dec 11 (?) 1976 Jun 20 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1973 Jan 30 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1  
1963 1970 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1961 1962 Dec 1 ± 30 days Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1957 May 14 1960 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 1941 Apr 15 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 3  
1926 ± 4 years 1931 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1913 Jan 17 1913 Jan 24 Confirmed 5 Historical Observations
1908 Dec 18 1909 Jul 1 ± 30 days Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1904 1906 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1903 Feb 15 1903 Aug Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1893 Dec 4 1902 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1891 Jul 1892 Jun Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1890 Nov 18 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1889 Aug 9 1890 Feb 16 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1887 Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations
1885 Dec 26 1886 Oct Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1882 1884 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1880 Dec 1 ± 30 days 1881 Apr 12 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1879 Dec 23 1880 Apr 30 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Summit vent and SW flank
1875 1878 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations NE flank (El Volcancito)
1874 Jun 12 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations NE flank (El Volcancito)
1872 Feb 26 1873 Mar 27 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations El Volcancito and main crater
1870 1871 Confirmed 0 Historical Observations NE flank (El Volcancito)
1869 Jun 12 1869 Aug 24 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations NE flank (El Volcancito)
[ 1866 Mar 4 ] [ 1868 ] Discredited    
1819 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1818 Feb 15 1818 Feb 16 (?) Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1806 1809 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1804 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1795 Mar 1795 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1794 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1780 Nov 26 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1771 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1770 Mar 10 1770 Mar 12 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1769 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1749 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1744 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1743 Oct 22 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1711 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1690 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1622 Jun 8 1622 Jun 9 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1611 Apr 15 1613 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1606 Nov 25 1606 Dec 13 (in or after) Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
[ 1602 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1590 Jan 14 1590 Jan 15 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1585 Jan 10 Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1576 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1560 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1519 1523 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1110 ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
0730 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0540 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
0650 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
1140 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1170 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
1320 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1450 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1890 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1940 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
2370 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
2800 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
3030 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
3180 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra units X, Y
3270 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tephra unit W
3350 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra unit V
3510 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
3600 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra unit U
4110 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra unit T
4430 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra units S, R
4500 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
4960 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
5880 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra unit P
6320 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
7420 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
7690 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Arreola J M, 1903. The recent eruptions of Colima. J Geol, 11: 749-761.

Breton-Gonzalez M, Ramirez J J, Navarro C, 2002. Summary of the historical eruptive activity of Volcan de Colima, Mexico 1519-2000. J Volc Geotherm Res, 117: 21-46.

Calanchi N, Lucchini F, Navarro O C, Rossi P L, Sanchez P J, 1995. The magmatic evolution of the "modern" activity of the Nevado de Colima Volcano in relation to the Colima volcanic complex activity (Mexico). Acta Vulc, 7: 75-84.

Capra L, Macias J L, 2002. The cohesive Naranjo debris-flow deposit (10 km3): a dam breakout flow derived from the Pleistocene debris-avalanche deposit of Nevado de Colima volcano (Mexico). J Volc Geotherm Res, 117: 215-235.

Capra L, Macias J L, Scott K M, Abrams M, Garduno-Monroy V H, 2002. Debris avalanches and debris flows transformed from collapses in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Mexico - behavior, and implications for hazard assessment. J Volc Geotherm Res, 113: 81-110.

Carmichael I S E, Frey H M, Lange R A, Hall C M, 2006. The Pleistocene cinder cones surrounding Volcan Colima, Mexico revisited: eruption ages and volumes, oxidation states, and sulfur content. Bull Volc, 68: 407-419.

Cortes A, Macías J L, Capra L, Garduno-Monroy V H, 2010. Sector collapse of the SW flank of Volcan de Colima, Mexico: The 3600 yr BP La Lumbre-Los Ganchos debris avalanche and associated debris flows. J Volc Geotherm Res, 197: 52-66.

De la Cruz-Reyna S, 1993. Random patterns of occurrence of explosive eruptions at Colima volcano, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 55: 51-68.

Hooper D M, 1995. Computer-simulation models of scoria cone degradation in the Colima and Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field, Mexico. Geof Internac, 34: 321-340.

Komorowski J C, Navarro C, Cortes A, Saucedo R, Gavilanes J C, Siebe C, Espindola J M, Rodriguez S, 1997. The Colima volcanic complex: Part I: Quaternary multiple debris-avalanche deposits, Part II: Historical pyroclastic sequences (1913, 1991, 1994). IAVCEI General Assembly, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, January 19-24, 1997, Fieldtrip Guidebook, Excursion no 3.

Luhr J F, Carmichael I S E, 1980. The Colima volcanic complex, Mexico I. Post caldera andesites from Volcan Colima (and unpub list : History of eruptions of Volcan Colima). Contr Mineral Petr, 71: 343-372.

Luhr J F, Carmichael I S E, 1981. The Colima volcanic complex, Mexico: II. Late Quaternary cinder cones. Contr Mineral Petr, 76: 127-147.

Luhr J F, Carmichael I S E, 1990. Geology of Volcan de Colima. Univ Nac Auton Mexico, Inst Geol Bol, 107: 1-101.

Luhr J F, Carmichael I S E, 1990. Petrological monitoring of cyclical eruptive activity at Volcan Colima, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 42: 235-260.

Luhr J F, Kimberly P G, Siebert L, Aranda-Gomez J J, Housh T B, Kysar Mattietti G, 2006. Quaternary volcanic rocks: insights from the MEXPET petrological and geochemical database. In: Siebe S, Macias J-L, Aguirre-Diaz G J (eds) Neogone-Quaternary continental margin volcanism: a perspective from Mexico, {Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap}, 402: 1-44.

Luhr J F, Navarro-Ochoa C, Savov I P, 2010. Tephrochronology, petrology and geochemistry of Late-Holocene pyroclastic deposits from Volcan de Colima, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 197: 1-32.

Martin del Pozzo A L, Sheridan M, 1995. Potential hazards from Colima volcano, Mexico. Geof Internac, 34: 363-376.

Martin del Pozzo A L, Sheridan M F, Barrera D, Hubp J L, Selem L V, 1995. Mapa de Peligros Volcan de Colima. Inst Geofis, Univ Nac Autonoma Mexico, geologic map.

Mooser F, Meyer-Abich H, McBirney A R, 1958. Central America. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 6: 1-146.

Murray J B, Ramirez-Ruiz J J, 2002. Long-term predictions of the time of eruptions using remote distance measurement at Volcan de Colima, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 117: 79-89.

Navarro-Ochoa C, Gavilanes-Ruiz J C, Cortes-Cortes A, 2002. Movement and emplacement of lava flows at Volcan de Colima, Mexico: Nov. 1998 - Feb. 1999. J Volc Geotherm Res, 117: 155-167.

Nunez-Cornu F J, Sanchez-Mora C, 1999. Stress field estimations for Colima Volcano, Mexico, based on seismic data. Bull Volc, 60: 568-580.

Robin C, Boudal C, 1987. A gigantic Bezymianny-type event at the beginning of modern Volcan Popocatepetl. J Volc Geotherm Res, 31: 115-130.

Robin C, Camus G, Gourgaud A, 1991. Eruptive and magmatic cycles at Fuego de Colima Volcano (Mexico). J Volc Geotherm Res, 45: 209-225.

Robin C, Komorowski J C, Boudal C, Mossand P, 1990. Mixed-magma pyroclastic surge deposits associated with debris avalanche deposits at Colima volcanoes, Mexico. Bull Volc, 52: 391-403.

Robin C, Mossand P, Camus G, Cantagrel J-M, Gourgaud A, Vincent P M, 1987. Eruptive history of the Colima Volcanic Complex (Mexico). J Volc Geotherm Res, 31: 99-113.

Saucedo R, Macias J L, Bursik M, 2004. Pyroclastic flow deposits of the 1991 eruption of Volcan de Colima, Mexico. Bull Volc, 66: 291-306.

Saucedo R, Macias J L, Bursik M, Mora J C, Gavilanes J C, Cortes A, 2002. Emplacement of pyroclastic flows during the 1998-1999 eruption of Volcan de Colima, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 117: 129-153.

Saucedo R, Macias J L, Gavilanes J C, Arce J L, Komorowski J C, Gardner J, Valdez-Moreno G, 2010. Eyewitness, stratigraphy, chemistry, and eruptive dynamics of the 1913 Plinian eruption of Volcan de Colima, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 191: 149-166.

Saucedo R, Macias J L, Sheridan M F, Bursik M I, Komorowski J C, 2005. Modeling of pyroclastic flows of Colima volcano, Mexico: implications for hazard assessments. J Volc Geotherm Res, 139: 103-115.

Savov I P, Luhr J F, Navarro-Ochoa C, 2008. Petrology and geochemistry of lava and ash erupted from Volcán Colima, Mexico, during 1998-2005. J Volc Geotherm Res, 174: 241-256.

Sheridan M F, Macias J L, 1995. Estimation of risk probability for gravity-driven pyroclastic flows at Volcan Colima, Mexico. In: Ida Y, Voight B (eds) {J Volc Geotherm Res}, 66: 251-256.

Stoopes G R, Sheridan M F, 1992. Giant debris avalanches from the Colima volcanic complex, Mexico; implications for long-runout landslides >100 km and hazard assessment. Geology, 20(4): 299-302.

Thorpe R S, Gibson I L, Vizcaino J S, 1977. Andesitic pyroclastic flows from Colima volcano. Nature, 265: 724-725.

Zobin V M, Luhr J F, Taran Y A, Breton M, Cortes A, De la Cruz-Reyna S, Dominguez D, Galindo I, Gavilanes J C, Muniz J J, Navarro C, Ramirez J J, Reyes G A, Ursua M, Velasco J, Alatorre E, Santiago H, 2002. Overview of the 1997-2000 activity of Volcan de Colima, Mexico. J Volc Geotherm Res, 117: 1-19.

Zobin V M, Orozco-Rojas J, Reyes-Davila G A, Navarro C, 2005. Seismicity of an andesitic volcano during block-lava effusion: Volcan de Colima, Mexico, November 1998-January 1999. Bull Volc, 67: 679-688.

The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.