Hualalai

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 19.692°N
  • 155.87°W

  • 2523 m
    8275 ft

  • 332040
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Hualalai.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Hualalai.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Hualalai.

Hualalai volcano, at the western end of the island, is the third youngest shield volcano on Hawaii. At 2523 m, it is dwarfed by its massive neighbors, Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea. Three rift zones, dotted with cinder cones and spatter cones, trend north, NW, and SE, and converge about 5 km east of the summit. Detailed mapping has shown that 95% of the surface area of the basaltic shield volcano is of Holocene age, more than half is less than 3000 years old, and a quarter is less than 1000 years old. The only historical eruptions of Hualalai took place during the end of the 18th century and in 1801, when lava flows from vents on the NW rift zone reached the sea and buried Hawaiian villages; the 1801 Huehue lava flow underlies part of the international airport at Kona. The earlier of the two flows, the Kaupulehu lava flow, is notable for its large quantities of lava-encrusted mafic and ultramafic nodular xenoliths.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1800 1801 Confirmed 0 Historical Observations NW rift zone (520 m), Huehue flow
1784 ± 7 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations NW rift zone (1400-1900 m), Kaupulehu flow
1650 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 1 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) NW rift zone (Luamakami)
1240 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SSE rift zone (Waha Pele)
1150 (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology NW rift zone (Puu Alauawa, Nahaha)
1050 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 1 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SSE rift zone (3 km NE of Waha Pele)
0920 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) NW rift zone (2 km NW of Luamakami)
0770 ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 1 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SSE rift zone (4.5 km NW of Waha Pele
0080 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) North rift zone (1130-1830 m)
0350 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SE flank (1 km west of Waha Pehe)
0400 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) NW rift zone (Luamakami)
0440 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) North rift zone (3 km NE of Hainoa)
0720 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) North rift zone (700 m ENE of Hainoa)
1080 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1150 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) NW rift zone (0.7 km NW of Luamakami)
1650 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
2040 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) NW rift zone (0.3 km NW of Hainoa)
2440 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) NW rift zone (1 km W of Hainoa Crater)
2770 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
4410 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SE rift zone (1.6 km SE of Hainoa)
6820 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Cone 60 m north of Hainoa Crater
7540 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Hualalai, Puu | Mouna Huararai | Mowna Worrarar


Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Alauawa, Puu Cone
Kaupulehu Cone
Lehua, Puu Cone
Luamakami Cone
Nahaha, Puu Cone
Waawaa, Puu Cone 19° 46' 0" N 155° 50' 0" W
Waha Pele Cone


Craters
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Hainoa Crater Crater
Hualalai volcano (upper right), the smallest of the young shield volcanoes on the island of Hawaii, rises above Kawaihae Bay in this aerial view from the north. Hualalai shield volcano is perched on the western flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano (upper left). The latest eruption of Hualalai, during 1800-1801, produced lava flows from flank vents that reached the sea.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
Hualalai shield volcano, seen here from the SE at the summit of Mauna Loa, rises to 2523 m. Almost the entire surface of Hualalai is covered by lava flows of Holocene age. Unlike Mauna Loa, Hualalai has been relatively inactive during historical time. It's latest eruption took place in 1800-01, when lava flows from vents on the NW rift zone reached the sea. This eruption was of particular volcanological interest because of the large numbers of olivine-rich nodules that were brought to the surface by the lava flows.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Guest J E, Spudis P D, Greeley R, Taylor G J, Baloga S M, 1995. Emplacement of xenolith nodules in the Kaupulehu lava flow, Hualalai volcano, Hawaii. Bull Volc, 57: 179-184.

Hammer J E, Coombs M L, Shamberger P J, Kimura J-I, 2006. Submarine sliver in North Kona: a window into the early magmatic and growth history of Hualalai volcano, Hawaii. J Volc Geotherm Res, 151: 157-188.

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.

Kauahikaua J, Camara B, 2000. Most recent eruptions of Hualalai volcano, Hawai'i: geological evidence from the historical record. In: McCoy F W, Heiken G (eds), {Volcanic Hazards and Disasters in Human Antiquity}, Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap, 345: 25-32.

Kauahikaua J, Cashman K V, Clague D A, Champion D, Hagstrum J T, 2002. Emplacement of the most recent lava flows on Hualalai volcano, Hawai'i. Bull Volc, 64: 229-253.

Lipman P W, Coombs M L, 2006. North Kona slump: submarine flank failure during the early(?) tholeiitic shield stage of Hualalai volcano. J Volc Geotherm Res, 151: 189-216.

Macdonald G A, 1955. Hawaiian Islands. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 3: 1-37.

Moore R B, Clague D A, Rubin M, Bohrson W A, 1987. Hualalai volcano: a preliminary summary of geologic, petrologic, and geophysical data. U S Geol Surv Prof Pap, 1350: 571-585.

Robinson J E, Eakins B W, 2006. Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge. J Volc Geotherm Res, 151: 309-317.

Volcano Types

Shield
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Intraplate
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Minor
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Trachyte / Trachyandesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
35,906
35,906
46,959
166,240

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Hualalai Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.