Kilauea

Photo of this volcano
Google Earth icon
  Google Earth Placemark
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 19.421°N
  • 155.287°W

  • 1222 m
    4008 ft

  • 332010
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

16 July-22 July 2014

During 16-22 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. A 27 June breakout of lava flowed in an incipient lava tube from the vent to the gentle break in slope at the base of Pu`u `O`o, and continued slowly moving in two main lobes that extended about 2 km NE. Two small lava ponds within cones are present within the two southeastern pits in the crater floor, and glow above two other pits indicated lava is near the surface.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)

Index of Weekly Reports


2014: January | February | March | April | May | June | July
2013: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2012: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2011: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2010: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2009: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2008: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2007: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2006: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2005: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2004: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2003: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2002: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2001: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2000: November | December

Weekly Reports


16 July-22 July 2014

During 16-22 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. A 27 June breakout of lava flowed in an incipient lava tube from the vent to the gentle break in slope at the base of Pu`u `O`o, and continued slowly moving in two main lobes that extended about 2 km NE. Two small lava ponds within cones are present within the two southeastern pits in the crater floor, and glow above two other pits indicated lava is near the surface.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 July-15 July 2014

During 2-14 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater. The lava-lake level fluctuated between 30 and 45 m below the Overlook crater rim; on 13 July, the level dropped 45-50 m during periods of spattering. Weak inflation was measured at the summit during 2-8 July, deflation during 9-10 July, no significant deformation during 11-13 July, and slight inflation on 14 July. Gas emissions remained elevated; during the weeks ending on 1 and 8 July, the summit SO2 emission rates were 3,800-8,400 tonnes/day and 5,800-6,900 tonnes/day, respectively. Earthquakes during 2-7 July (11-21/day) and 8-14 July (5-27/day) were strong enough to be located beneath Kilauea. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

On 3 July, the total SO2 emission rate from all East Rift Zone sources was 500 tonnes per day. During 2-14 July, four lava ponds within cones occupied the crater floor of Pu`u`O`o. The vent which opened on the NE flank of Pu`u`O`o on 27 June remained active and supplied a flow extending NE, constructing a lava shield that continued to expand until 10 July. This new flow cut off lava supply to the Kahauale`a 2 flow, which by 3 July was no longer active. The new shield developed a perched lava pond which crusted over and became quiescent when the pond spilled over on 11 July. Lava continued to erupt from the base of the structure, supplying flows that accumulated around the flat-lying terrain at the base of Pu`u`O`o until 14 July. Continuous deflation was measured at Pu`u`O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 June-1 July 2014

During 25 June-1 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

During 25-26 June, lava flows from the N and NE spatter cones at Pu'u 'O'o Crater were active and persistent glow emanated from spatter cones on the N, SE, and S portions of the crater floor, and from a small lava lake in the NE spatter cone. On 27 June the crater floor slowly subsided and new lava erupted on the N flank. During 27-30 June lava flowed from four locations on the NE flank, advancing to about 1 km NE. Spatter cones collapsed varying amounts. A 28 June satellite image showed that the 27 June lava flows had expanded in area and extended no more than 1.6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o cone. During 25-27 June there were multiple active breakouts in the interior of the Kahauale`a 2 flow at the north base of Pu'u 'O'o and distant broad smoke plumes, with multiple glowing points visible at night from both near and distant breakouts. Only one stationary glowing spot was seen during 28-30 June on a nearby breakout from the Kahauale`a 2 flow, and little to no smoke from the distal end of that flow, suggesting that the flow was cutoff and dead.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 June-24 June 2014

During 18-23 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema‘uma‘u Crater. The lava-lake level dropped several meters on 21 June then returned to an estimated 34-35 m below the floor of Halema‘uma‘u Crater by 22 June. Gas emissions remained elevated. The ambient SO2 concentrations near the vent varied greatly but remained higher than 10 ppm, and frequently exceeded 50 ppm (upper limit of the detector) during times with moderate trade winds. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

At Pu‘u ‘O‘o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N, SE, and S portions of the crater floor, and from a small lava lake in the NE spatter cone. On 17 June geologists mapped five small breakouts as far as 7 km NE from Pu‘u ‘O‘o. The local webcam captured views of the active break-out flows at the N base of Pu‘u ‘O‘o cone as well as distant smoke plumes from the slow-moving lava flow burning vegetation along the NE margin of the Kahauale‘a 2 flow. Overall, however, this slow-moving flow has appeared to be weakening over the past few months.

The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 June-17 June 2014

During 11-17 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N, SE, and S portions of the crater floor, and from a small lava lake in the NE spatter cone. On 22 May geologists mapped the farthest point of activity from the Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, 8.4 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o, and on 6 June they mapped four small breakouts as far as 6.5 km from Pu’u 'O'o. Smoke plumes rising from forested areas suggested advancing lava from a new 12 June breakout at the N base of the Pu’u 'O'o cone. Overall, however, this slow-moving flow has appeared to be weakening over the past few months.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 June-10 June 2014

During 4-10 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N, SE, and S portions of the crater floor, and from a small lava lake in the NE spatter cone. On 22 May geologists mapped the farthest point of activity from the Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, 8.4 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o, and on 6 June they mapped four small breakouts as far as 6.5 km from Pu’u 'O'o. Smoke plumes rising from forested areas suggested advancing breakout flows.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 May-3 June 2014

During 28 May-3 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N, NE, SE, and S portions of the crater floor. During 30 May-1 June the small lava lake in the NE spatter cone briefly overflowed its rim each morning. On 22 May geologists mapped the farthest point of activity from the Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, 8.4 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o; on 30 May they mapped three small breakouts 1.8-6.2 km from Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 May-27 May 2014

During 21-27 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N, NE, SE, and S portions of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. On 22 May geologists mapped the farthest point of activity, 8.4 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 May-20 May 2014

During 14-20 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. Lava flows from the N spatter cone traveled short distances during 14-15 May. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. A satellite image acquired on 14 May showed that the farthest point of activity was 8.8 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 May-13 May 2014

During 7-13 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. The S spatter cone periodically erupted lava flows that overflowed on the N flanks and extended from the S base of the cone. The N cone ejected spatter. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. On 5 May geologists mapped the farthest point of activity, 8.6 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 April-6 May 2014

During 30 April-6 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. The S spatter cone periodically erupted lava flows that traveled N and SE beyond the crater rim. During 5-6 May the N cone ejected spatter and a small lava flow. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burned adjoining forest. On 5 May geologists mapped the farthest point of activity, 8.6 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 April-29 April 2014

During 23-29 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. During 28-29 April the lake level rose to an estimated 30 m below the crater floor, the highest level measured since February 2013.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. On 22 April, just before midnight, the N spatter cone produced a vigorous lava flow that traveled E across the crater floor in minutes, over the crater edge, and then down the NE flank of the cone along the Kahauale’a 2 lava flow tube. The flow continued to be sporadically active during the rest of this reporting period. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. On 28 April geologists mapped the farthest point of activity, 8.3 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 April-22 April 2014

During 16-22 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. On 18 April geologists noted that the farthest point of activity was 7.5 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 April-15 April 2014

During 9-15 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone (during most of the reporting period). The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. A satellite image acquired on 9 April showed the farthest point of activity was 8.3 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 April-8 April 2014

During 2-8 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. During an overflight on 7 April geologists observed that the farthest point of activity was 8.2 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 March-1 April 2014

During 26 March-1 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, continued to advance, with breakout lava flows from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. A satellite image acquired on 27 March showed active breakouts 5.5 and 8 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 March-25 March 2014

During 19-25 March HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. Lava from the pond periodically spilled over the rim during 18-19 March. Breakouts from the main stalled lobe of the Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, continued to advance and burn adjoining forest. Overflight mapping on 21 March showed that the edge of the most distant breakout flow was 8.2 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 March-18 March 2014

During 12-18 March HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. On 12 March lava flowed S from the S cone. Once on 14 March and twice on 17 March lava from the pond rose and spilled over the rim.

Breakouts from the stalled main lobe of the Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance and burned adjoining forest. A satellite image from 11 March showed that the edge of the most distant breakout flow was 8 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 March-11 March 2014

During 5-11 March HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, continued to advance, with breakout lava flows from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. A satellite image from 7 March showed that the edge of the most distant breakout flow was 7.9 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 February-4 March 2014

During 26 February-4 March HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor; the lava pond in the NE spatter cone was possibly crusted over. The 7.8-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, stalled in mid-January but remained active with scattered break-out flows behind the flow front that burned adjoining forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 February-25 February 2014

During 19-25 February HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and a lava pond was active in the NE spatter cone. The 7.8-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, stalled in mid-January but remained active with scattered break-out flows behind the flow front that burned adjoining forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 February-18 February 2014

During 12-18 February HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and a lava pond was active in the NE spatter cone. The 7.8-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows behind the flow front that burned the forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 February-11 February 2014

During 5-11 February HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and a lava pond was active in the NE spatter cone. The 7.8-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow (based on a satellite image from 2 February), fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows 4.8 and 6.9 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o that burned the forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 January-4 February 2014

During 29 January-4 February 2014 HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. A lava pond was active in the NE spatter cone. The 7.8-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow (based on a satellite image from 27 January), fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows 4.8 and 6.7 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o that burned the forest. On 31 January a few brief lava overflows occurred from two of the cones.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 January-28 January 2014

deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 7.8-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow (based on mapping from 24 January), fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. On 23 January a small lava flow also oozed out of the SE spatter cone. During 23-26 January lava rose in the westernmost spatter cone and flowed down the N flank.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 January-21 January 2014

During 15-21 January 2014 HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. A "deflation-inflation" event, or DI, began on 17 January and by 21 January the lava-lake level had dropped more than 20 m to about 70 m below the crater floor. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 7.5-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow (based on a satellite image from 17 January), fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. On 19 January the N side of the NE spatter cone collapsed, possibly due to lower lava levels as a result of the DI event, exposing a small lava pond.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 January-14 January 2014

During 8-14 January 2014 HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. Fed by the NE spatter cone, the Kahauale’a 2 lava flow had reached 7.5 km long by 9 January (based on a satellite image), and was active with scattered break-out flows that burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 January-7 January 2014

During 31 December 2013-7 January 2014 HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 6.3-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, remained active with scattered break-out flows that burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. During 1-2 January the SE spatter cone erupted a total of five short lava flows, and on the morning of 6 January it ejected a small amount of lava.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 December-31 December 2013

During 24-30 December HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 6.3-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 December-24 December 2013

During 18-23 December HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 7.3-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o; the flow however was most active about 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o based on satellite images from 20 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 December-17 December 2013

During 11-17 December HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 7.3-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. The flow was most active about 5 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o, based on satellite images from 10 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 December-10 December 2013

During 4-10 December HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 7.3-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o; the flow however was most active about 5 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o based on a satellite images from 30 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 November-3 December 2013

During 27 November-3 December HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 7.3-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o; the flow however was most active between 3.3 and 5.8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o based on a satellite images from 30 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 November-26 November 2013

During 20-26 November HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 7.3-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 November-19 November 2013

During 13-19 November HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. On 18 November the southernmost spatter cone produced a lava flow that after a few hours burst out in a dome fountain; lava spread over much of the S crater floor before stopping about 30 minutes later. The 7.1-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 November-12 November 2013

During 6-12 November HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. On 5 November a cone erupted a low fountain of lava which waned quickly; it was the first lava erupted in Pu'u 'O'o in several months.

The 6.4-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. On 7 November geologists confirmed that, after being active for more than two years and producing some memorable ocean entries, the Peace Day flow, to the SE of Pu'u 'O'o, was no longer active.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 October-5 November 2013

During 30 October-5 November, HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The depth to the lake surface ranged between 44 and 53 m, and levels frequently corresponded to fluctuations in tilt measured at the summit. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 5.8-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. The Peace Day flow, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, showed little activity and may have ceased; only one breakout flow was mapped during fieldwork on 21 October, and thermal anomalies since that date have been minor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 October-29 October 2013

During 23-29 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 5.8-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of a possible minor breakout above the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 October-22 October 2013

During 16-22 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 5.8-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of a few breakouts; on 21 October geologists mapped a small breakout lava flow, with two lobes, about 3 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 September-24 September 2013

During 18-24 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 3.6-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of a few breakouts; during an overflight on 19 September geologists observed two small breakouts 2.7 km and 6 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o above the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 September-17 September 2013

During 11-17 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 3.2-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakouts high on the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 September-10 September 2013

During 4-10 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater; the lake level was 47-56 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. Short lava flows issued from one or more of the NE spatter cones four times during 8-9 September.

The 3.2-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakouts on the pali and coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 August-3 September 2013

During 28 August-2 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater; the lake level was 45-52 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor during 30-31 August and 2-3 September. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. A small and brief lava flow issued from the NE spatter cone on 30 August. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakouts on the pali and coastal plain. A brief plume near the ocean entry on 2 September possibly signified a small bench collapse.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 August-27 August 2013

During 21-27 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater; the lake level was 35-39 m below the crater floor on most days. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. During 22 and 26-27 August two lava flows from the NE spatter cone were visible, and HVO noted that lava from the NW spatter cone had built a second, taller cone immediately to the E. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakouts on the pali and coastal plain, and an ocean entry outside of the National Park boundary to the E which was last visible on 23 August.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 August-20 August 2013

During 14-20 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater; the lake level was as high as 36 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor on 16 and 18 August. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. On 18 August on 1330 the E flank of the N spatter cone apparently burst, causing lava flows to sporadically rush from the cone and cover a large part of the crater floor by the next morning. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakouts on the pali and coastal plain, and an ocean entry outside of the National Park boundary to the E.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 August-13 August 2013

During 7-13 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level rose during the week; the level was 49 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor on 7 August and 37-39 m below the floor during 10-12 August. The level rose to 48 m below the floor during 12-13 August.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and an ocean entry outside of the National Park boundary to the E.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 July-6 August 2013

During 31 July-6 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was 51 m below the Halema'uma'u Crater floor on 5 August.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow branches, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far NE as 3.2 km and as far NW as 2 km, and burned forest occasionally in two locations at the N edge of the 1983-1986 'a'a flows from Pu'u 'O'o. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and an ocean entry outside of the National Park boundary to the E.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 July-30 July 2013

During 24-30 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level receded during 25-26 July and was 75 km below the Halema'uma'u Crater floor on 26 July. The inner ledge, a long-time fixture within the vent, started collapsing at 2030 on 25 July; several pieces of the pit wall fell into the lake on both days. The lake level started to rise again and was 65 and 67 m below the crater floor on 28 and 29 July, respectively.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow branches, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far NE as 3.2 km and as far NW as 2 km, and burned forest in two locations at the N edge of the 1983-1986 'a'a flows from Pu'u 'O'o. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and an ocean entry outside of the National Park boundary to the E.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 July-23 July 2013

During 17-23 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. On 19 July several pieces of the pit wall fell into the lake.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow branches, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far N as 2.6 km and as far NNW as 1.9 km, and burned forest in both areas. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and an ocean entry at a location E and outside of the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 July-16 July 2013

During 10-16 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow branches, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far N as 2.6 km and as far NNW as 1.9 km, and burned forest in both areas. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and ocean entries at locations inside and outside the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 July-9 July 2013

During 3-9 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. Branches of the Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far N as 2.6 km and as far NNW as 1.9 km, and burned forest in both areas. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and ocean entries at locations inside and outside the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 June-2 July 2013

During 26 June-2 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater but remained about 40-45 m below the crater floor. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flows (formerly known as the Kahauale’a II lava flow), fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far N as 2.6 km and as far NNW as 1.9 km, and burned forest in both areas. At about 2230 on 18 June breakouts from the Kahauale’a 2 lava tube, near the NE spatter cone and high on the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone, produced lava flows that traveled N down the flank. On 27 June the Kahauale’a 2 flow field was mapped and found to be 40 percent larger than when it was last mapped on 11 June.

Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and ocean entries at locations inside and outside the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 June-25 June 2013

During 19-25 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater but remained about 40-45 m below the crater floor. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a II lava flows, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far N as 2.5 km and as far NNW as 1.9 km, and burned forest in both areas. At about 2230 on 18 June breakouts from the Kahauale’a II lava tube, near the NE spatter cone and high on the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone, produced lava that traveled N down the flank. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and ocean entries at locations inside and outside the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 June-18 June 2013

During 12-18 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was about 45 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor during 14-15 and 17-18 June.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a II lava flows, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far N as 2.5 km and as far NNW as 1.9 km, and burned forest in both areas. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and ocean entries at locations inside and outside the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 June-11 June 2013

During 5-11 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was 45-46 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor during 5-6 June.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor; the NE spatter cone produced a small lava flow on 5 June. The Kahauale’a II lava flows, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far N as 2 km and as far NNW as 1.6 km, and burned forest in both areas. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and ocean entries at locations inside and outside the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 May-4 June 2013

During 29 May-4 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a II lava flows traveled N from the base of Pu'u 'O'o cone. The most distal front of the flow was 1.8 km from its source at a spatter cone on the NE edge of Pu'u 'O'o's crater floor. At 0740 on 26 May lava began to spill from the N side of the NE spatter cone, feeding a new breakout on the N flank of Pu'u 'O'o. .

Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, but mainly flows entering the ocean at locations inside and outside the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 May-28 May 2013

During 22-28 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a II lava flows traveled N from the base of Pu'u 'O'o cone. The most distal front of the flow was 1.8 km from its source at a spatter cone on the NE edge of Pu'u 'O'o's crater floor. At 0740 on 26 May lava began to spill from the N side of the NE spatter cone, feeding a new breakout on the N flank of Pu'u 'O'o.

Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, but mainly flows entering the ocean at locations inside and outside the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 May-21 May 2013

During 15-21 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. Lava from base of Pu'u 'O'o cone traveled N and was named the Kahauale’a II flow. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of lava flows active on the coastal plain that were entering the ocean at a location outside the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 May-14 May 2013

During 8-14 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. Lava from the E lava pond traveled down the N, NE, E, and S flanks, extending beyond the base of Pu'u 'O'o cone. During 10-11 May the SW spatter cone erupted lava, and during 11-12 May the SE spatter cone also produced flows.

Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of lava flows active on the pali and on the coastal plain. Lava also entered the ocean in at least two locations spanning the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 May-7 May 2013

During 1-7 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. Small lava flows issued from the N spatter cone on 1 May and from the SW cone on 2 May. The lava pond overflowed during 3-4 and 6-7 May.

Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of lava flows active above the pali SE of Pu'u 'O'o, on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Lava also entered the ocean in at least two locations spanning the National Park boundary. On 3 May a breakout on the top of the pali produced a lava flow that traveled down to the coastal plain in about 1 hour. Branches from the flow advanced during 4-6 May.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 April-30 April 2013

During 24-30 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 April-23 April 2013

During 17-23 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the crater floor. Just before midnight on 19 April a vigorous lava flow gushed out of the N spatter cone and quickly covered the N portion of the crater floor, then went over the E rim. The lava pond on the NE crater's edge briefly overflowed. On 21 April the two spatter cones on the S portion of the crater floor produced lava flows.

Two lava flows (Peace Day and Kahauale'a) were fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively called the Kahauale'a flow, stopped advancing on 20 April, although a few breakout lava flows were observed during 20-22 April. Peace Day activity consisted of lava flows active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o), on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Lava also entered the ocean at two or three locations spanning the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 April-16 April 2013

During 10-16 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from four spatter cones on the crater floor. Two lava flows (Peace Day and Kahauale'a) were fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and advanced more than 4.9 km NE over older flows. Peace Day activity consisted of lava flows active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o), on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Lava also entered the ocean at two main locations spanning the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 April-9 April 2013

During 3-9 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from four spatter cones on the crater floor. Two lava flows (Peace Day and Kahauale'a) were fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and advanced more than 4.9 km NE over older flows. Peace Day activity consisted of lava flows active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o), on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Lava also entered the ocean at two main locations spanning the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 March-2 April 2013

During 27 March-2 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from four spatter cones on the crater floor. Two lava flows (Peace Day and Kahauale'a) were fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and advanced more than 4.4 km NE over older flows. A branch also traveled S, just S of Pu'u Kahauale'a. Peace Day activity consisted of lava flows active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o), on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Lava also entered the ocean at two main locations spanning the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 March-26 March 2013

During 20-26 March HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from four spatter cones on the crater floor. Lava flowed from the cone on the NE edge of the crater on 23 March, the first lava activity in the crater in a month. Two lava flows (Peace Day and Kahauale'a) were fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and advanced more than 4.4 km NE over older flows. A branch also traveled S, just S of Pu'u Kahauale'a. Peace Day activity consisted of lava flows active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o), on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Lava also entered the ocean at two main locations spanning the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 March-19 March 2013

During 13-19 March HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was 31 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor on 14 March.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from four spatter cones on the crater floor. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively and informally called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and advanced more than 4 km NE over older flows. A branch also traveled S, just S of Pu'u Kahauale'a. Lava flows were active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o), on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations. A second lava-flow branch was active near the coast and a third branch was active near the base of the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 March-12 March 2013

During 6-12 March HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from four spatter cones on the crater floor. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively and informally called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and advanced more than 3.5 km NE over older flows. A branch also traveled S, just S of Pu'u Kahauale'a, but possibly stalled at the end of the week. Lava flows were active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o), on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations. A second lava-flow branch was active near the coast and a third branch was active near the base of the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 February-5 March 2013

During 27 February-5 March HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a perched lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively and informally called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and advanced 2.5 km NE over older flows. A branch also traveled S, just S of Pu'u Kahauale'a, and started fires in the kipuka. Lava flows were active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o) and in a 1-km-wide area on the coastal plain. To the W, a 350-m-wide lava flow advanced towards the coast and produced scattered breakouts. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 February-26 February 2013

During 20-26 February HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was 35 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor on 20 February.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a perched lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively and informally called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and continued to advance NE and SW over older flows. Lava flows were active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o) and in a 1-km-wide area on the coastal plain. To the W, a 350-m-wide lava flow advanced towards the coast and produced scattered breakouts. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations. A few small bench collapses may have occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 February-19 February 2013

During 13-19 February HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was between 25-30 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor during 13 and 15-17 February.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a perched crusted lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Lava flowed from the SE and S spatter cones on 13 February and from the SW cone on 17 February. On 19 February lava flowed from the SW and NE spatter cones. New breakouts occurred on the Kahauale'a lava tube high on the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone.

Multiple lava flows, collectively called the Kahauale'a flow, from the lava lake (perched 5-6 m higher than the crater rim) traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and continued to advance N and E over older flows. Lava flows were active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o) and in a 1-km-wide area on the coastal plain. To the W, a 350-m-wide lava flow advanced towards the coast and produced scattered breakouts. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 February-12 February 2013

During 6-12 February HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was 27 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor on 6 February, 25-27 m below the floor on 7 February, and 31 m below the floor on 11 February.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a perched crusted lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Multiple lava flows from the lava lake (perched 5-6 m higher than the crater rim) traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and continued to advance over older flows. Lava flows were active on the pali and in a 1-km-wide area on the coastal plain. To the W, a 350-m-wide lava flow advanced more than 1.2 km from the base of the pali and remained active with scattered breakouts. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 January-5 February 2013

During 30 January-5 February HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was 32 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor on 31 January.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a perched circulating lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Lava flows were active in a 1-km-wide area on the coastal plain. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations. Lava from the lava lake (perched 5-6 m higher than the crater rim) flowed across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and continued to advance over older flows. On 31 January the N spatter cone gushed with lava; the flow quickly banked against the N crater wall, advanced E to the base of the perched pond at the NE edge, and W towards the W crater wall. On 4 February a minor amount of lava flowed out of the SW spatter cone, and a brief but voluminous lava flow gushed out of the NW spatter cone on 5 February.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 January-29 January 2013

During 23-29 January HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. on 23 January a portion of the W vent wall fell into the lake. The lake level was 35 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor on 23 January and 38 m below the floor on 28 January.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a perched circulating lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Lava flows were active in a 1-km-wide area on the coastal plain. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations. On most days lava flows from multiple vents were active on the crater floor. On 25 and 26 January pilots confirmed that a lava flow remained active on the E flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 January-22 January 2013

During 16-22 January HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. During 15-16 January rocks fell into and disrupted the lake surface. The lake level was 35 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor on 16 January and 27 m below the floor on 19 January.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a circulating lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Lava flows were active in a 1-km-wide area that stretched from near the base of the pali to the coast. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations. Lava levels remained mostly high in the crater; several lava flows from multiple vents were active on the crater floor. The lava lake was perched several meters above the crater rim and sporadically issued lava that flowed outside the crater and onto the E flank of the cone.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 January-15 January 2013

During 9-15 January HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was 40-45 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor during 9-10 January, 32 m below the floor on 14 January, and 25 m below the floor on 15 January (which was a little higher than the previous high point in late October 2012).

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a circulating lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Lava flows were active in a 1-km-wide area that stretched from near the base of the pali to the coast. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations. During 9-13 January the lava lake overflowed and occasionally fed larger flows on the crater floor and two small flows on the E flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone. Lava flowed from the SE spatter cone on 11 January and from the SW spatter cone the next day. Lava levels remained high in the crater during 14-15 January; several lava flows from multiple vents were active on the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 January-8 January 2013

During 2-8 January HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. A few pieces of the inner ledge of the lake as well as several pieces of veneer on the walls of the conduit occasionally fell into the lake.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a circulating lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Lava flows were active in a 1-km-wide area that stretched from near the base of the pali to the coast. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations. On 4 January the N and W rims of the lava lake collapsed into the lake.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 December-1 January 2013

During 26 December-1 January HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a circulating lava lake on the NE part of the floor. The lava lake briefly overflowed on 27 December. During 29-30 December lava flowed from the easternmost spatter cone in the S part of the crater floor. Lava flows were active in a 1-km-wide area that stretched from near the base of the pali to the coast. During 28-30 December web cameras recorded infrequent and weak steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 December-25 December 2012

During 19-25 December HVO reported that on most days the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a circulating lava lake on the NE part of the floor. During 21-24 December a few brief and short lava flows issued from the spatter cones at the S edge of the crater floor. Lava flows were active in a 1-km-wide area that stretched from near the base of the pali to the coast. There were no webcam recordings of any ocean entry plumes or reports suggesting that lava had been entering the ocean since 17 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 December-18 December 2012

During 12-18 December HVO reported that on most days the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a lava lake on the NE part of the floor which was mostly covered by a spatter cone. The lava lake overflowed during 12-13 December, and on 13 December lava flowed from the SW spatter cone. On 14 December the N rim of the NE spatter cone/lava lake collapsed and was followed by a brief overflow of the lake. A larger lava flow issued from a spatter cone on the N edge of the crater floor, followed by another smaller flow; both flows traveled W, then split and flowed N and S. Another rim collapse from the NE spatter cone/lava lake and small overflow were observed the next day.

Lava flows remained active in two branches on the coastal plain: a small W branch, and a larger E branch with scattered activity extending from the pali to the coast E of the easternmost boundary of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. An ocean entry was marked by a weak and variable plume near Kupapa'u, with lava entering the water in at least two different areas. A new lava flow at the top of the pali was observed on 11 December. On 15 December observers noted that lava flows were active in a 1-km-wide area that stretched from near the base of the pali to the coast. On 16 December HVO noted that a lava delta at the ocean entry had slowly grown to be 50 m wide.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 December-11 December 2012

During 5-11 December HVO reported that on most days the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, lava circulated within the perched lava lake at the NE part of the crater, and glow emanated both from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor and from a spatter cone at the NW edge. The lava lake briefly overflowed on 5 December, and small, short-lived lava flows emanated from the spatter cones during 7-9 December. Through the week a spatter cone formed over the lava lake, covering the surface.

Lava flows remained active in two branches on the coastal plain: a small W branch, and a larger E branch with scattered activity extending from the pali to the coast E of the easternmost boundary of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. An ocean entry was marked by a weak and variable plume near Kupapa'u, with lava entering the water in at least two different areas.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 November-4 December 2012

During 28 November-4 December HVO reported that on most days the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, lava circulated within the perched lava lake at the NE part of the crater, and glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor and from a spatter cone at the NW edge. Lava overflowed the lava lake on 24 November and 2 December.

Lava flows remained active in two branches on the coastal plain: a small W branch, and a larger E branch with scattered activity extending from the pali to the coast E of the easternmost boundary of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. During 28-30 November steam plumes did not rise from the ocean entry point; on 30 November geologists confirmed that active lava flows were 100 m from the coast. Lava again entered the ocean during 1-2 and 4 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 November-27 November 2012

During 21-27 November HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, lava circulated within the perched lava lake at the NE part of the crater, and glow emanated from vents at the S edge of the crater floor and from a spatter cone at the N edge. A small lava flow issued from the E vent at the S edge of the crater floor on 24 November.

The easternmost of two lava flows on the coastal plain entered the ocean on 24 November in an area 500 m E of the easternmost border of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Steam plumes rose from the entry point during 25-26 November, suggesting lava continued to enter the ocean. A plume was absent on the morning of 27 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 November-20 November 2012

During 14-19 November HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. Lava flows were active on the coastal plain, but were about 290 m from the coast.

Activity at Pu'u 'O'o Crater remained elevated. Lava circulated within the perched lava lake at the NE pit at Pu'u 'O'o Crater, and glow emanated from vents at the S edge of the crater floor and from a spatter cone at the N edge. Small lava flows issued a few times from the westernmost vent at the S edge of the crater floor during 17-18 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 November-13 November 2012

During 7-13 November HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. Lava flows were active in the Royal Gardens subdivision and flowed across the coastal plain, but were about 500 m from the coast.

Activity at Pu'u 'O'o Crater remained elevated. Lava circulated within the perched lava lake at the NE pit at Pu'u 'O'o Crater, and glow emanated from vents at the S edge of the crater floor and from a spatter cone at the N edge. Small lava flows issued a few times from the westernmost vent at the S edge of the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 October-6 November 2012

During 31 October-6 November HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. Lava flows were active in the Royal Gardens subdivision and flowed across the coastal plain, but were 1-1.3 km from the coast. The perched lava lake within the NE pit at Pu'u 'O'o Crater remained active, and glow emanated from sources at the S and N edges of the crater floor. Spatter from the N edge was observed. On 1 November geologists observed the perched lava lake and noted that it was a few meters above the Pu'u 'O'o Crater rim. During 2-3 November lava flowed from the spatter cone on the N part of the crater floor, and was accompanied by spattering.

During 4-5 November activity increased within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. A small amount of lava spilled out of the perched lava lake and from the easternmost of the two sources at the S edge of the crater floor; larger, episodic flows from the easternmost source at the S floor edge continued later. Spattering continued from the cone at the N floor edge.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 October-30 October 2012

During 24-30 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter, Pele's hair, and rock from the vent wall onto nearby areas. Cracking noises, audible from the Jaggar overlook and caused by rocks of the vent wall fracturing from the heat, emanated sporadically from the vent. Occasional collapses of rock from the vent walls triggered bursts of spatter that deposited a small amount of ejecta on the floor of Halema'uma'u Crater. On 25 October the lake rose to a level 27 m below Halema'uma'u Crater floor.

Lava flows accumulated at the base of the pali in the Royal Gardens subdivision and flowed across the coastal plain, but were 1.3 km from the coast. Flows also remained active on the pali. Activity at Pu'u 'O'o Crater remained elevated: the lava lake in the NE pit overflowed its rim, the vent on the N part of the crater floor produced lava flows, and lava fountaining and lava flows from the S vent were observed. Spattering was recorded from sources at the S and N edges of the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 October-23 October 2012

During 17-23 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. Cracking noises, audible from the Jaggar overlook and caused by rocks of the vent wall fracturing from the heat, emanated sporadically from the vent. On 18 October the lake rose to a level 42 m below Halema'uma'u Crater floor, and the next day the lake rose to 38 m below the floor. During 21-23 October the lake rose to within 33 m of the crater floor. Small collapses of rock into the N portion of the lava lake triggered small spatter explosions on 21 and 23 October.

Lava flows accumulated at the base of the pali in the Royal Gardens subdivision and flowed across the coastal plain, but were 1.4 km from the coast. Flows also remained active on the pali. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, incandescence was visible from lava flows in the S pit, lava circulating in the NE pit, and from the W edge of the crusted N pit. Three small lava flows erupted from a spatter cone on the S side of the crater floor on 17 October. Two fuming hot vents in the same area were observed the next day. Activity at Pu'u 'O'o Crater was elevated during18-21 October; the lava lake in the NE pit overflowed its rim, the S pit produced three lava flows, and the spatter cone vigorously spattered.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 October-16 October 2012

During 10-16 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

Lava flows accumulated at the base of the pali in the Royal Gardens subdivision and flowed across the coastal plain, but were 1.7 km from the coast on 10 October. Flows also remained active high on the pali. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, incandescence was visible from lava flows in the S pit, lava circulating in the NE pit, and from the W edge of the crusted N pit. On 12 October lava erupted from an incandescence spatter cone at the W edge of the N pit, filling a low depression on the N side of the crater floor and extending almost to the NE pit and lava lake. Small flows erupted from a spatter cone in the S pit during 13-14 and 16 October.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 October-9 October 2012

During 3-9 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. On 5 October geologists using a laser range-finder measured the high lava level at 52 m below the floor of Halema'uma'u Crater, which was a new maximum level.

Lava flows reached the base of the pali in the Royal Gardens subdivision and flowed across the coastal plain, but were 1.6 km from the coast. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, incandescence was visible from lava flows in the S pit, lava circulating in the E pit, and from the W edge of the crusted N pit. An opening in the roof of the lava tube at the base of the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o also continued to glow until nearly the end of the reporting period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 September-2 October 2012

During 26 September-2 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Periodic measurments indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. Lava flows were active above the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision and flowed down the pali. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, incandescence was often visible from the S pit, from lava circulating in the E pit, and from the W edge of the crusted N pit. An opening in the roof of the lava tube at the base of the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o also continued to glow.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 September-25 September 2012

During 19-25 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. Lava flows were active above the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision and began to flow down the pali. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, incandescence from the S and E pits on the crater floor, and from the W edge of the crusted N pit, was often visible. An opening in the roof of the lava tube at the base of the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o also continued to glow.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 September-18 September 2012

During 12-18 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair, and possible crater wall veneer, onto nearby areas. Lava flows were active above the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, incandescence from the S and E pits on the crater floor, and from the W edge of the crusted N pit, was often visible. An opening in the roof of the lava tube at the base of the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o also continued to glow. On 14 September HVO geologists estimated that the lava lake in the E pit was about 10 m below the rim.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 September-11 September 2012

During 5-11 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

On 4 September HVO geologists observed the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor and noted lava ponds in the E and S pits, with the N pit being fully crusted over. During 5-11 September glow emanated from the E and S pit craters; lava in the N pit was crusted, but was periodically incandescent on the W edge. A collapse in the roof of the lava tube at the base of the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o also continued to glow. Lava flows were active above and at the top of the pali. On 11 September a geologist confirmed that lava flows above the pali had advanced to the top of the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 August-4 September 2012

During 28 August-4 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. On 28 August two major collapses of the inner wall significantly disrupted the lake's circulation.

Lava flows were periodically active on the pali and the coastal plain. At Pu'u 'O'o, a collapse of the crater floor just before 0400 on 30 August enlarged the newer pit crater at the S edge, making it appear slightly larger in the webcam views than the older, active, pit crater on the E edge. A new pit crater formed at the N edge of the floor after 1000, and by 1300 it was filled with lava. The N rim of the E pit crater fell into the lava lake there just before 1700. During 30-31 August incandescence emanated from the lava lake in the E pit crater but was absent from the S pit crater. A few scattered areas of flow activity on the coastal plain more than 2 km from the coast were visible on web cameras. On 1 September glow emanated from the E and S pit craters. Crusted lava filled the N pit crater and sagged, and a couple of small lava flows traveled from the edge onto the sagging crust. The N pit appeared to be a passive lava lake, without a direct source of magma underneath. A collapse in the roof of the lava tube at the base of the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o continued to glow but was less bright the next day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 August-28 August 2012

During 22-28 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent likely continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. There were no significant geologic changes in Pu'u 'O'o Crater; incandescence emanated from a lava lake in a pit on the NE part of the crater floor, from a pit crater on the S part of the crater floor, and from a vent at the base of the SE flank. The vent on the S part of the crater floor produced a small lava flow on 26 August. Lava flows were active on the pali and the coastal plain, and were as close as 2 km from the ocean on 28 August.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 August-21 August 2012

During 15-21 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. There were no significant geologic changes in Pu'u 'O'o Crater; the glowing vent at the base of the SE flank continued to glow brightly, and incandescence emanated from a lava lake in a pit on the NE part of the crater floor. A small, new pit crater opened on the S crater floor on 17 August. Lava flows were active on the pali and the coastal plain. The active lava-flow front was about 2 km from the ocean on 18 August.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 August-14 August 2012

During 8-14 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. There were no significant geologic changes in Pu'u 'O'o Crater; a few days before 11 August a new glowing vent SE of the crater appeared, probably from a newly-opened skylight in the lava-tube system feeding flows on the pali and coastal plain. Lava flows were active on the pali and the coastal plain. The active lava-flow front was about 2 km from the ocean on 14 August.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 August-7 August 2012

During 1-7 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. Glow from the lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and two vents along the S edge of the floor was visible with the web cameras. Lava flows were active on the pali and the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 July-31 July 2012

During 25-31 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and two vents along the S edge of the floor were visible with the web cameras. Lava flows were active on the pali and the coastal plain; the active lava-flow front was about 1.8 km from the ocean on 31 July.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 July-24 July 2012

During 18-24 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and two vents along the S edge of the floor were visible with the web cameras. Lava flows were active on the pali and the coastal plain; the active lava-flow front was about 1.9 km from the ocean on 24 July.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 July-17 July 2012

During 11-17 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor was 7-8 m below the rim on 12 July. The pond and two vents along the S edge of the floor were visible with the web cameras. A vent on the W part of the crater was also briefly incandescent. Lava flows were active on the pali and the coastal plain; the active lava-flow front was about 1.3 km from the ocean.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 July-10 July 2012

During 4-10 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and two vents along the S edge of the floor were visible with the web cameras. On most days lava flows were active on the pali, at the base of the pali and onto the coastal plain, and farther out on the coastal plain near the Royal Gardens/Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 June-3 July 2012

During 27 June-3 July HVO reported that the lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and two vents along the S edge of the floor were visible with the web cameras. Lava flows were active on the pali and coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 June-26 June 2012

During 20-26 June HVO reported that the lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and two vents along the S edge of the floor were visible with the web cameras. Lava flows were active on the coastal plain and traveled as far as 1 km from the ocean. Lava flows were also active on the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 June-19 June 2012

During 13-19 June HVO reported that the lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor was visible with the web cameras, and on 15 June was 7-8 m below the rim. Incandescence emanated from two vents along the S edge of the crater floor, and a lava flow issued from a south-central vent on 14 June. Lava flows were active on the coastal plain and traveled as far as 1.1 km from the ocean. Lava flows were also sometimes active on the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 June-12 June 2012

During 6-12 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, rising as high as the inner ledge about 60 m below the crater floor. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor was visible with the web cameras. Lava flows periodically issued from vents on the S and south-central parts of Pu'u 'O'o's crater floor. Lava flows were active on the coastal plain and traveled as far as 1.6 km from the ocean. Lava flows were also sometimes active on the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 May-5 June 2012

During 30 May-5 June HVO reported that the circulating and spattering lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, rising as high as the inner ledge about 60 m below the crater floor. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The level of the lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor rose back into view. Field geologists observed many lava flows coming down the pali and extending onto the coastal plain. A small new collapse pit in Pu'u 'O'o about 50 m west of the southern spatter cone was observed on 1 June; weak incandescence from this pit was visible in the thermal camera. On 5 June geologists observed a second small collapse pit near the south-central edge that had been covered by a small shield of lava while the lava pond in the E collapse pit had risen to within about 5 m of the rim.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 May-29 May 2012

During 23-29 May HVO reported that the circulating and spattering lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Parts of the inner ledge and crater wall surrounding the lake occasionally collapsed into the lake. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, Pele's hair, and occasionally fresh spatter from the margins of the lava lake, onto nearby areas. The level of the lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor dropped out of view. A small lava flow erupted from a vent on the S part of the floor on 23 May. On 28 May HVO noted that lava-flow activity on the coastal plain SE of Pu'u 'O'o appeared to have stopped.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 May-22 May 2012

During 16-22 May HVO reported that the circulating and spattering lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, and spilled over the deep inner ledge on multiple occasions. On 15 May laser measurements indicated that the lava-lake surface was about 65 m below the Halema'uma'u Crater floor, among the highest levels measured; the lake rose five more meters during 18-19 May. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter from the margins of the lava lake, onto nearby areas. A lava pond in a small pit on the E edge of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor remained active with spattering. On 19 May a small collapse of the N rim of the pit slightly enlarged the pit and lava pond within. A small lava flow erupted from a vent on the S part of the floor. Lava flows were active on the pali and the coastal plain, and were about 750 m from the sea.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 May-15 May 2012

During 9-15 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. On 14 May laser measurements indicated that the lava-lake surface was about 67 m below the Halema'uma'u Crater floor. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter from an active source at the SE edge of the lava lake, onto nearby areas. Incandescence was visible from both a lava pond in a small pit on the E edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and from two skylights on the uppermost part of the lava-tube system. Geologists observed slowly advancing lava flows on 13 May that were about 1.4 km from the coast. A short lava flow issued from an incandescent vent on the S part of Pu'u 'O'o's crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 May-8 May 2012

During 2-8 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Frequent measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter from an active source at the SE edge of the lava lake, onto nearby areas. Incandescence was visible from both a lava pond in a small pit on the E edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. Geologists observed slowly advancing lava flows on 4 May that were about 1.1 km from the coast, not reaching as far as previous flows on the coastal plain over the past month. On 5 May further collapse of the pit on the E edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor led to much brighter incandescence from that area. Lava flows on the coastal plain stalled while new lava flows high on the pali formed on 5 May, vigorously advancing from the base of the pali to more than halfway across the flow field during 5-8 May.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 April-1 May 2012

During 25 April-1 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Frequent measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, nearby. Incandescence was visible from both a lava pond in a small pit on the E edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. Lava flows continued to advance down the pali and across the coastal plain, reaching about 900 m from the coast. New lava flows on the pali were observed on 30 April, while web cameras recorded decreasing incandescence on the coastal plain during 30 April-1 May.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 April-24 April 2012

During 18-24 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, nearby. Incandescence was visible from both a lava pond in a small pit on the E edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. Lava flows continued to advance down the pali and across the coastal plain, reaching about 1.1 km from the coast. During 19-20 April small lava flows issued from a vent on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 April-17 April 2012

During 11-17 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, nearby. Incandescence was visible from both a lava pond in a small pit on the E edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. Lava flows continued to advance down the pali and across the coastal plain, reaching about 1.4 km from the coast. On 11 and 13 April small lava flows issued from a vent on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 April-10 April 2012

During 4-10 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, nearby. Incandescence was visible from both a lava pond in a small pit on the E edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. Lava flows continued to advance down the pali and across the coastal plain, reaching about 1.6 km from the coast. During 6-9 April a small lava flow issued three times from a vent on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. The first two flows advanced N almost the entire width of the floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 March-3 April 2012

During 28 March-3 April HVO reported that the lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash nearby. Incandescence was visible from both a small pit on the NE edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. Lava flows continued to advance down the pali and across the coastal plain, reaching about 1.6 km from the coast. On 2 April a small lava flow issued from a vent on the S edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 March-27 March 2012

During 21-27 March HVO reported that the lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. Incandescence was visible from both a small pit on the NE edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. Lava flows continued to advance down the pali and across the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 March-20 March 2012

During 14-20 March, HVO reported that the lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. Incandescence was visible from both a small pit on the NE edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. Lava flows continued to advance down the pali and across the coastal plain, and were about 2 km from the coast.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 March-13 March 2012

During 7-13 March, HVO reported that the lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. Incandescence was visible from both a small pit on the NE edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. Lava flows continued to advance down the pali and across the coastal plain. On 12 March the leading edge of the flows were 9 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o and about 2 km from the coast.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 February-6 March 2012

During 29 February-6 March, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Web camera views and satellite images indicated that lava flows continued to advance, reaching more than 7.5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o. Active flows were also visible at the top of the pali SE of Pu'u 'O'o. Incandescence was visible on the NE and SE edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. According to a news article, the last house in the Royal Gardens subdivision was destroyed by a lava flow on 2 March.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Hawaii Tribune Herald


22 February-28 February 2012

During 22-28 February, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Web camera views and satellite images indicated that lava flows remained active within the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision more than 7.5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o. Lava flows also remained active high on the pali and across the December 2011 flows. Incandescence was visible on the NE and SE edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on Pu'u 'O'o's E flank during 23 and 26-28 February. On 22 February a small lava flow from the SE source was observed by the web camera. Two minor lava flows issued from the NE source on 26 February, and one lava flow issued from NE source on 27 February.

On 25 February HVO geologists aboard an overflight reported that the small cone on the NE source periodically ejected spatter, and the SE source fumed and produced a lava flow. They also noted that the flow advanced as two lobes; one lobe traveled along the E margin of the December 2011 flows and another advanced along the W margin of the December 2011 flows. During 27-28 February the web camera and satellite images indicated that both the E and W lobes continued moving down the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 February-21 February 2012

During 15-21 February, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Strong incandescence was visible from the collapsed cone on the NE edge and weaker from a cone on the SE edge during 15-18 and 20 February. A web camera recorded strong incandescence above the pali during 15-16 February. Incandescence also emanated from two sources on the E flank on 19 and 21 February.

Web camera views and satellite images indicated that lava flows remained active within the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision more than 6.5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o during 15-21 February. The flows advanced down the pali along the E side of the December 2011 flows during the week and on 21 February advanced to the kipuka on the E. On 17 February a second smaller branch appeared on the W side of the December 2011 flows. Ground-based observers reported active lava flows at the top of the pali during 15-21 February.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 February-14 February 2012

During 8-14 February, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Incandescence was visible on the NE and SE edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and strongest from a small cone on the NE edge during 8-13 February. A web camera recorded incandescence above the pali on 8 and during 12-14 February. The SE vent issued short lava flows on 14 February.

In comparison to last week, thermal anomalies increased on the flow field during 8-9 February. HVO geologists aboard an overflight on 9 February reported that the small cone on the NE edge had collapsed and was venting hot gas, and the pit was filled with a stream of lava heading NE. Geologists mapped active flows on the flow field about 6 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o and above the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision. Web camera and satellite images indicated that the flows remained active 6 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o and above the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision during 10-14 February, and from the Kalapana (E side of the coastal plain) on 13 February. Ground based observers reported active lava at the top of the pali on 11 and 13-14 February.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 February-7 February 2012

During 1-7 February, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). On 1 February lava ejections on the S edge rebuilt a low spatter cone. On 3 February two large rockfalls into the lake originated from the Halema'uma'u Crater floor. The first collapse from the N rim induced secondary collapses of the inner ledge and ejected spatter onto nearby portions of the Halema'uma'u Crater floor. The second collapse deposited large amounts of debris into the NE side of the lava lake.

At Pu'u 'O'o short lava flows issued from the SE vent during 1-2 February. Incandescence was visible on the NE and SE edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor during 3-7 February and from a small cone on the NE edge during 5-7 February. The web camera showed incandescence reflected in the clouds above the pali on 2 and 4 February. During 1-7 February, thermal anomalies were seen in satellite imagery 4-5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o cone.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 January-31 January 2012

During 25-31 January, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. During 25-27 January lava ejections on the SE edge built a small spatter rampart and produced small lava flows on the inner ledge.

Incandescence was visible on the NE, SE, and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor during 25-31 January. On 25 January lava started to fill a Pu'u 'O'o crater floor depression and continued episodically all week. Geologists on a 26 January overflight reported lava flows 4 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o. On 27 January the SE and NE vents started to effuse lava. During 24-31 January, thermal anomalies were seen in satellite imagery 3-4 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o cone.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 January-24 January 2012

During 18-24 January, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby.

Incandescence was visible on the NE, SE, and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor during 18-24 January. Incandescence emanated both from small lava flows which had issued from the NE and SE sources on 18 January, and from a long narrow lava flow that traveled W across the crater floor on 20 January. Minor surface flows were observed in satellite imagery on the upper flow field on 18 January, and during 19-23 January, small thermal anomalies were seen in satellite imagery on the upper E rift zone. Scientists on an overflight reported small active pahoehoe lobes about 4 km SE of the Pu'u 'O'o cone on 21 January.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 January-17 January 2012

During 11-17 January, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby.

Incandescence was visible from small spatter cones on the E, S, and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor during 11-17 January. Incandescence was also exhibited by short lava flows from the E pit on 13 January, small lava flows issuing from the SE spatter cone, and a small flow from the NE pit on 16 January. During 11-16 January a thermal anomaly about 2-4 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o cone was seen in satellite imagery. On 12 January, geologists on an overflight confirmed surface activity at this location. By 15 January the source of the thermal anomaly had extended to the coast.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 January-10 January 2012

During 4-10 January, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby.

Incandescence was visible along the 21 September 2011 fissure on the SE flank of the Pu'u 'O'o cone during 4-5 January and from small spatter cones on the E, S, and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor during 4-10 January. A web camera showed no activity on the flow field during 4-10 January; however clouds may have prevented views. On 6 January activity increased within a small pit that formed on the E edge of the crater during the previous week. The pit filled with lava and overflowed generating a small lava flow to the N within the crater. Activity continued within the pit during 7-8 January with short lava flows N and W. On 8 January thermal anomalies seen in satellite imagery were about 2-4 km SW of Pu'u 'O'o cone and observers on an overflight reported surface flows in the same area. On 9 January satellite imagery showed a weaker thermal anomaly.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 December-3 January 2012

During 28 December-3 January, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby.

Incandescence was visible from small spatter cones on the E and S edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and along the 21 September 2011 fissure on the SE flank of the Pu'u 'O'o cone. Geologists on an overflight reported that pahoehoe lava flows were significantly broader (700-1,000 m) across the coastal plain and were entering the ocean along a 900 m wide area of the coast on 27 December. Lava flows continued to be active about 6.8 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o and entered the ocean W of Ka'ili'ili on 28 December. During 29 December-2 January a web camera showed no surface activity on the pali, weak sporadic flows near the coast, and weak plumes from the ocean entry. At night during 31 December-2 January incandescence was seen above the pali; on the night of 1 January ground based observers reported lava on the pali. Clouds prevented observations from a web camera on 3 January.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 December-27 December 2011

During 21-27 December, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. On 22 December the SW vent wall collapsed into the lake, ejected lava onto the inner ledge, and caused an increased amount of ash in the plume.

Incandescence was visible from small spatter cones on the E and S edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. Pahoehoe lava flows, that were 300-400 m wide and fed by lava tubes from the fissure, continued to be active about 6.8 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o and entered the ocean W of Ka'ili'ili. During 25-26 December the tube appeared to be more robust and less surface flow activity was reported. Small plumes were observed from the ocean entry during 22-24 December and infrequent weak plumes were observed during 25-26 December. On 27 December a breakout of lava flows were visible on the pali (a fault scarp).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 December-20 December 2011

During 14-20 December, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby.

Incandescence was visible along the 21 September fissure on the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone, from a skylight on the lava tube, and from small spatter cones on the E and S edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. Pahoehoe flows that were 300-400 m wide, fed by lava tubes from the fissure, continued to be active about 6.8 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o and entered the ocean W of Ka'ili'ili. The lava delta now extends 15-20 m into the ocean at a point 6.4 km W of the Chain of Craters Road. During 17-20 December the lava flow branched, with lobes advancing NE and W into the ocean. Infrequent plumes were observed from the ocean entry during 18-20 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 December-13 December 2011

During 7-13 December, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby.

Incandescence was visible along the E and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, along the 21 September fissure on the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone, and from a skylight on the lava tube. Lava continues to erupt into the perched pond formed on 6 December. Pahoehoe flows, fed through lava tubes from the fissure, continued to be active about 6.8 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o based on intermittent views from satellite. Analysis of 10-12 December satellite images suggested that lava had reached the coast and was flowing into the ocean. During 11-12 December incandescence was observed from small spatter cones on the E and S edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor; short lava flows issued from the E edge of the crater floor on 12 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 November-6 December 2011

During 30 November-6 December, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. Incandescence was visible from the E and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and from the 21 September fissure on the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone.

On 2 December incandescence was seen from a new area low on the N flank of Pu'u'O'o. Pahoehoe flows, fed through lava tubes from the fissure, continued to be active about 6.8 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o based on intermittent views from satellite, ground observers and an overflight on 3 December. During 4-5 December the vent on the E edge of the crater produced lava flows that partially filled the depression left by the flank fissure eruption in September and a perched lava lake was built on 6 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 November-29 November 2011

During 23-29 November, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. Incandescence was visible from the E and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and from the 21 September fissure on the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone. Pahoehoe flows, fed through lava tubes from the fissure, continued to be active about 5.7 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o based on intermittent views from satellite. Incandescence from a skylight on the lava tube was also observed. Short lava flows issued from the E edge of the crater floor on 23 November and from both the E and W edges of the crater floor on 27 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 November-22 November 2011

During 16-22 November, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. Incandescence was visible from the E and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and from the 21 September fissure on the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone. Pahoehoe flows, fed through lava tubes from the fissure, continued to be active about 5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o based on intermittent views from satellite. Incandescence from a skylight on the lava tube was also observed. During 18-19 November the vent on the E edge of the crater produced lava flows that partially filled the depression left by the flank fissure eruption in September. There were also two brief and small lava-flow effusions from the W edge vent. Intermittent lava flows continued from the E vent during 20-22 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 November-15 November 2011

During 9-15 November, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. Incandescence emanated from the E and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and from the 21 September fissure on the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone. Pahoehoe flows, fed through lava tubes from the fissure, continued to be active about 4.7 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o based on an overflight on 12 November and satellite images. Incandescence from a skylight on the lava tube was also observed.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 November-8 November 2011

During 2-8 November, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. Incandescence emanated from the E and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and from the 21 September fissure on the upper E flank of the Pu'u 'O'o cone during most of the reporting period. Pahoehoe flows, fed through lava tubes from the fissure, continued to be active about 4.5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o based on an overflight on 3 November and satellite images acquired during 4-7 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 October-1 November 2011

During 26 October-1 November, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. Incandescence emanated from the E and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and from the 21 September fissure on the upper E flank of the Pu'u 'O'o cone. On 30 October incandescence was seen from a new area high on the W edge of a depression in the crater floor. Lava flows remained active to the SE of Pu'u 'O'o during 26-30 October, but were more sluggish during 31 October-1 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 October-25 October 2011

During 19-25 October, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. At the E rift zone, incandescence emanated from the 21 September fissure on the upper E flank of the Pu'u 'O'o cone and lava flows remained active on the flow field to the SE of Pu'u 'O'o. Vents on the E and W edges of crater floor were incandescent.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 October-18 October 2011

During 12-18 October, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby. At the E rift zone, the fissure that formed on 21 September on the upper E flank of Pu'u 'O'o continued to periodically feed lava flows to the NE and SE of the fissure that did not significantly advance. Vents on the E and W edges of Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor were incandescent.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 October-11 October 2011

During 5-11 October, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby.

At the E rift zone, the fissure that formed on 21 September on the upper E flank of Pu'u 'O'o continued to feed slowly-advancing lava flows to the NE and SE of the fissure. During the beginning of the week, overall activity within and SE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater had slowed; only a few lava patches were visible in webcams. During 7-8 October lava began to flow from a vent at the E end of the crater floor and from an area at the W end the next day. Lava flows from the E-end source stalled on 10 October.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 September-4 October 2011

During 28 September-4 October, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby.

At the E rift zone, the fissure that formed on 21 September on the upper E flank of Pu'u 'O'o continued to feed lava flows on 28 September that traveled along the edges of a low lava ridge. Most of the active lava spread out at higher elevations S and W of Pu'u Halulu (1.3 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o). Lava activity resumed from two sources on the E edge of the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor and continued to spread W within the crater. During an overflight on 29 September, geologists observed that the fissure fed scattered active lava flows within 1.8 km on the SE flank of the cone. During 2-3 October lava from the E-crater floor source covered the crater floor. On 4 October active lava was confined to a small lake on the E side of the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 September-27 September 2011

During 21-27 September, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby.

At the E rift zone, lava in the W lava lake in Pu'u 'O'o Crater fed a series of lava flows that traveled down the W flank of Pu'u 'O'o during 20-21 September. At about 0225 on 21 September activity in the crater and overflows to the W suddenly decreased, as lava broke through the upper E flank of Pu'u 'O'o, bypassing the crater. The new fissure fed a channelized 'a'a lava flow that advanced rapidly downslope 2.5 km SE. A second flow to the W of the first began the next day. In addition, a small pad of lava actively refilled the bottom of the drained E lava lake and small flows were barely active at the W edge of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The channelized 'a'a lava flow reached 3.7 km long on 23 September and then stalled within the Kahauale'a Natural Area Reserve. Most of the active lava spread S and W of Pu'u Halulu (1.3 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o) during 23-27 September. Minor lava activity resumed within Pu'u 'O'o Crater with short lava flows issuing from the base of the E wall on 25 September and from the W wall base during 25-26 September. The crater floor of Pu'u 'O'o slowly subsided. Lava activity resumed within the E lake on 26 September. The floor of the crater continued to subside during 26-27 September, opening up cracks in the N crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 September-20 September 2011

During 14-20 September, HVO reported that the level of the lava-lake surface in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater periodically fluctuated and circulated. Daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby.

At the E rift zone, lava in the E lava lake overflowed the E rim of Pu'u 'O'o crater on 13 September and advanced a few hundred meters. Lava erupted within the W lava lake and the next day overflowed the W edge of the crater through two broad gaps in Pu'u 'O'o cone, spreading up to several hundred meters downslope and mantling the W flank of Pu'u 'O'o. The flows had stopped by the evening of 15 September. During 15-16 September the level of the lava lakes had dropped 10-15 m. During 17-18 September the W lake was inactive and the E lake weakly bubbled and slowly circulated. Activity within the W lake increased abruptly on 19 September and, during 19-20 September, lava flowed across the W part of the crater floor. On 20 September lava refilled two perched lava ponds on the W edge of the crater, overflowed the southern-most pond, and produced a channelized lava flow that advanced 800 m down Pu'u 'O'o's W flank.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 September-13 September 2011

During 31 August-6 September, HVO reported that the level of the lava-lake surface in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater periodically fluctuated and circulated. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o' crater, lava from E, W, and S-central sources on the crater floor fed an eastern and a western perched lava lake during 7-8 September. Lava also covered much of the crater floor, rising to within 5 m of a low point on the E crater rim. During 9-10 September a large amount of lava from a new source of effusion at the NE edge of the crater covered most of the crater floor. On 10 September a pilot confirmed that lava overtopped the E rim and fed a short lava flow. Not long after that the effusion rate decreased and lava fed only the two perched lava lakes. During 11-13 September the lava lakes mostly circulated and, by 12 September, had overflowed onto the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 August-6 September 2011

During 31 August-6 September, HVO reported that the level of the lava-lake surface in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater periodically fluctuated but remained mostly stable below the inner ledge 75 m below the crater floor. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o' crater, lava from sources on the E portion of the crater floor fed a perched lava lake. Lava from a source at the W edge of the crater floor spread N and S along the base of the W crater wall and up to the base of the W, inactive wall of the perched pond. During 2-3 September a new perched pond fed from the W-edge source had formed.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 August-30 August 2011

During 24-30 August, HVO reported that the level of the lava-lake surface in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater periodically fluctuated but remained below the inner ledge 75 m below the crater floor. At Pu'u 'O'o' crater, lava from sources on the E and S portions of the crater floor fed a lava lake that was formed during 25-26 August. A new source opened at the W edge of the crater floor during 29-30 August, and lava quickly spread N and S along the base of the W crater wall.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 August-23 August 2011

During 17-23 August, HVO reported that lava continued to trickle onto the collapsed floor of Kilauea's Pu'u 'O'o' crater and some spattering occurred from various areas on the floor. The only activity on the W flank was observed during 17-20 August; a small lava flow from the base of the N pond rim near the Kamoamoa fissures and a larger flow from the N flow branch were both active. During 20-21 August a small amount of lava emitted from a vent on the S crater floor flowed a short distance. Later, lava started issued in larger quantities from another source on the S part of the floor that quickly filled in a low trench. Lava continued to flow onto the crater floor during the next two days.

During 17-18 August lava flowed onto the floor of the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. By the next day a persistent spattering source at the W edge of the cavity pushed the lava surface sluggishly from W to E. During 19-21 August drain-and-fill cycles were observed; the highest level of the lava surface was below the inner ledge 75 m below Halema'uma'u Crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 August-16 August 2011

During 10-16 August HVO reported that Kilauea's summit lava lake was mostly crusted, but lava, possibly from a source higher on the SE wall, occasionally flowed over the surface. Small rockfalls from the vent walls were frequent, and the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby. During an overflight on 11 August, scientists observed an E-W trench in the deepest part of the cavity. Lava was upwelling from the E end and flowing W. During 14-15 August hot and possibly spattering vents were visible on the W part of the cavity floor.

At the E-rift zone, lava continued to trickle onto Pu'u 'O'o's collapsed crater floor and some spattering occurred from various sources the floor. The W-flank vents remained active and fed an elongated perched lava pond that extended to the SW, and also a small flow which advanced a short distance N. Small overflows or breaches from the elongated lake were occasionally active on the N side. During the 11 August overflight, scientists noted that the activity was less vigorous; the two channels that continued to feed the perched lake were crusted over and the W-flank vents were no longer spattering. The pond rims were higher and the pond was narrower, lava flows from the base of the pond were active on the N and W sides of the pond, and the S rim of the pond appeared to be slowly migrating S. The crater floor subsided a small amount on 15 August.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 August-9 August 2011

HVO reported that on 3 August at 1402 the floor of Kilauea's Pu'u 'O'o crater, which had risen significantly over the past month, began to subside. At 1420 lava erupted from a vent low on the W flank of the Pu'u 'O'o cone, about halfway between Pu'u 'O'o Crater and the E end of the Kamoamoa fissure, and formed two branches. The weaker flow traveled N into a forested kipuka. The higher-volume S branch quickly advanced down Kilauea's S flank along the edge of flows erupted during 2002-2004. By 1515, the crater floor and perched lava lake began to collapse; the circulation in the lava lake was maintained as the crater floor dropped. Within a few hours the lava lake was no longer visible and the crater floor, which had dropped 75-85 m, was covered with rubble. Between 1530 and 1615, the preliminary sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was as high as 7,000 tonnes/day. The rate decreased to 4,000 tonnes/day at about 1700. Also by that time the lava flow had advanced 3.6 km.

During 4-9 August lava continued to flow from multiple W-flank vents topped with spatter cones, ponding in a low area due to a decreasing effusion rate. The Pu'u 'O'o crater rim was extremely unstable; continued collapses along the crater walls sent blocks of rock onto the crater floor. Lava also slowly flowed back onto the collapsed crater floor.

During 3-9 August the level of the summit lava lake fluctuated deep in the 150-m-diameter vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater and circulated with various patterns. Overall, the lake level receded and on 6 August was about 75 m below the crater floor. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 July-2 August 2011

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 27 July-2 August. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated deep in the 150-m-diameter vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater and circulated with various patterns. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby.

Lava from the Puka Nui and MLK pits, smaller craters to the W of the main Pu'u 'O'o crater, continued to overflow to the SW, producing a tube-fed pahoehoe flow that had advanced about 700 m from the Puka Nui rim during 25-30 July. Lava from the base of the NE crater filled a trough between the crater wall and the perched lava lake. Uplift of the crater floor and lava lake continued until 30 July, when a breakout lava flow started along the base of the crater's S wall and the lake slowly subsided. Subsidence continued the next day but switched to inflation on 1 August. The preliminary sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was calculated at 1,700, 1,000, and 800 tonnes/day on 29 and 30 July, and 1 August, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 July-26 July 2011

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 20-26 July. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated deep in the 150-m-diameter vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater and circulated with various patterns. Spattering occurred at locations along the edge of the lake. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o, lava from vents near the NE edge of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the circulating lake. The perched lake and crater floor continued to be uplifted and cracks on the doming crater floor were observed. Minor lava activity was noted in the Puka Nui and MLK pits, smaller craters to the W of the main Pu'u 'O'o crater. Based on several measurements throughout July, the crater floor was uplifted about 0.5-1 m per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 July-19 July 2011

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 13-19 July. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated deep in the 150-m-diameter vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater and circulated with various patterns. Spattering occurred at locations along the edge of the lake. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby.

The preliminary sulfur dioxide emission rate from all of the east rift zone sources was 1,500 tonnes/day on 12 July, the highest emission rate since the end of the Kamoamoa eruption in early March. At Pu'u 'O'o, lava from vents near the NE edge and, to a lesser degree, along the W edge of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. The near-vertical rim of the perched pond continued to be uplifted until through 17 July; the crater floor and perched lake rims formed a nearly-continuous ramp sloping away from the lake. The lava lake surface of the perched lava lake was elevated about 6 m higher than the surrounding crater floor and the rim was a few meters higher than the surface; the crater floor was 19 m below the E crater rim. Since the last measurements on 29 June, the crater floor had been uplifted about 1 m per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 July-12 July 2011

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 6-12 July. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater and circulated with various patterns. Spattering occurred at locations along the W edge of the lake. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o, lava from vents near the NE edge and, to a lesser degree, along the W edge of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. The near-vertical rim of the perched pond, which was elevated about 5 m higher than the surrounding sub-horizontal crater floor on the E side, continued to be uplifted; the crater floor and perched lake rims formed a nearly-continuous ramp sloping away from the lake.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 June-5 July 2011

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 29 June-5 July. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o, lava from vents near the NE edge of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and overflowed the edges or flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. On 3 July inflation caused the crater floor and perched lake rim in the southern half of Pu`u `O`o Crater to rise; those areas continued to rise on 4 July until a large breach on the S rim of the lava lake occurred at midnight. Lava spilled onto the crater floor between the perched rim and the crater wall. The N rim rose briefly but rapidly between 5 and 10 minutes after midnight. The preliminary sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was calculated at 700 tonnes/day on 30 June.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 June-28 June 2011

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 22-28 June. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW, depositing variable amounts of ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o, lava from vents near the NE edge of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and overflowed the edges or flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. A small shield had built up against the SW crater wall on the W side of the lake. On 23 June the rim of the perched lava lake was elevated 6-8 m higher than the surrounding crater floor; the crater floor was 35 m below the E crater rim. The preliminary sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was calculated at 700 tonnes/day that same day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 June-21 June 2011

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 15-21 June. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated but remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW, depositing variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. On 17 June a heated brown plume rose from a spattering source on the SE edge of the lake; the ejecta were primarily fresh spatter bits suggesting that the plume derived from a partial collapse of the spattering source or a small rockfall.

At Pu'u 'O'o, lava from vents near the W and NE edges of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and overflowed the edges or flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. A small shield had built up against the SW crater wall on the W side of the lake. There was also minor lava activity from at least one source at the base of the SW crater wall.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 June-14 June 2011

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 8-14 June. The level of the summit lava lake remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional increases in the lake level covered a vent on the south side wall; on other days lava from the vent cascaded down into the lake. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW. At Pu'u 'O'o, lava from vents near the W and NE edges of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and infrequently overflowed the edges or flowed through a rim breach, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. There was also minor lava activity from at least one source at the base of the SW crater wall.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 June-7 June 2011

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 1-7 June. The level of the summit lava lake remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional increases in the lake level covered a vent on the south side wall; on other days lava from the vent cascaded down into the lake. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW. The (preliminary) sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was 1,100 tonnes/day on 3 June.

Lava from a vent near the W edge of the perched lava lake in the center of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and occasionally overflowed the edges or flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. The rim of the perched lava lake was elevated 2-3 m higher than the surrounding crater floor, which was 39 m below the E crater rim on 1 June.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 May-31 May 2011

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 25-31 May. The level of the summit lava lake remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. An increase in the lake level covered the vent on the south side wall during 25-28 May. On other days lava from the vent cascaded down into the lake. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW. The (preliminary) sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was 700 tonnes/day on 26 May; the emission rates were slowly increasing.

Lava from a vent near the W edge of the perched lava lake in the center of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and occasionally overflowed the edges or flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. The rim of the perched lava lake was elevated 10 m higher than the surrounding crater floor, which was 52 m below the E crater rim on 11 May. During 27-29 May lava from a vent at the base of the SW wall produced lava flows that slowly began filling the gap between the crater wall and the perched lake wall.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 May-24 May 2011

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 18-24 May. The level of the summit lava lake remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. Lava from a vent above the south side cascaded down into the lake. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW and likely deposited very small amounts of ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, lava mostly from a vent near the W edge of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and occasionally overflowed the edges or flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. The rim of the perched lava lake was elevated several meters higher than the surrounding crater floor, which was 52 m below the E crater rim on 11 May. On 20 May a small lobe of lava visible in the web camera appeared on the W edge of the crater floor. The (preliminary) sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was 800 tonnes/day on 20 May; the emission rates were slowly increasing.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 May-17 May 2011

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 11-17 May. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated but remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. Lava from a vent above the south side cascaded down into the lake. A gas plume from the vent generally drifted SW or W and deposited very small amounts of ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, lava mostly from vents near the W edge of the lake continued to fill in a perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor. The lake level fluctuated and occasionally overflowed the edges, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 May-10 May 2011

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 4-10 May. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated but remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. On 5 May the lava lake level dropped 10-20 m and lava from a vent well above the south side cascaded down into the lake. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited very small amounts of ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, lava from vents near the W edge of the lake and near the base of the E crater wall continued to fill in a perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor. The lake level fluctuated and occasionally overflowed the edges and filled the entire bottom of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. The crater had infilled about 70 m since the crater floor collapsed in March.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 April-3 May 2011

During 27 April-3 May, HVO reported that the level of Kilauea's summit lava lake fluctuated but remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited very small amounts of ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, lava from one or two vent sources continued to fill in a new lava lake in the center of the crater floor. Lava overflowed the edges of the lake, constructing a perched lava lake. During 30 April-1 May the overflows filled the entire crater floor before receding back within the boundaries of the perched lava lake.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 April-26 April 2011

During 20-26 April, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and from Pu'u 'O'o crater. The level of the circulating lava-pool surface in a deep pit below the Halema'uma'u crater floor periodically fluctuated. A gas plume from the vent drifted mostly SW, and deposited very small amounts of ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, central sources continuously erupted lava within a perched lava lake that was approximately half the diameter of the crater floor. The lava level fluctuated within the lake walls and episodically overflowed the rim. During 23-24 April lava from several central sources buried most of the perched lake and covered the crater floor. During 24-25 April several large draining events were characterized by a drop in the new lava-lake surface by several meters and minor collapses of the lake's rim.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 April-19 April 2011

During 13-19 April, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. The level of the circulating lava-pool surface in a deep pit was approximately 100 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor, and periodically rose and drained. A gas plume from the vent drifted NE and SW, and deposited very small amounts of ash nearby. On 16 April two collapses of interior vent walls covered most of the molten surface with rock debris and generated brown plumes. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, central sources continuously erupted lava within a perched lake that was approximately half the diameter of the crater floor. The lava level fluctuated within the lake walls and episodically overflowed the rim.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 April-12 April 2011

HVO reported that lava in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater was visible on 5 April and rose, fell, and circulated within the pit during 6-12 April. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, the level of the lava lake rose and fell, and was fed from a source in the central portion of the lake. During 5-8 April a gas plume from the vent deposited very small amounts of ash nearby, derived from rockfalls and occasional spatter from the lake.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 March-5 April 2011

HVO reported that lava in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater was visible on 5 April and rose, fell, and circulated within the pit during 6-12 April. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, the level of the lava lake fluctuated, and was fed from a source in the central portion of the lake. During 5-8 April a gas plume from the vent deposited very small amounts of ash nearby, derived from rockfalls and occasional lake spatter.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 March-29 March 2011

HVO reported that at Kilauea's east rift zone small areas of incandescence in Pu'u 'O'o crater were visible through the web camera during 23-24 March. The lava lake in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater was crusted over; frequent rockfalls produced a few brown-tinged plumes. On 25 March the lava lake reappeared as lava streamed across and eventually covered the floor of the pit. The next day lava returned to Pu'u 'O'o crater about 20 days after the crater floor collapsed on 5 March. Lava slowly filled the deepest parts of the crater forming a lava lake. The lava lake within Halema'uma'u crater again crusted over. During 27-29 March the lava lake in Pu'u 'O'o crater circulated and was fed from two closely-spaced sources in the W center of the lake.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 March-22 March 2011

HVO reported that at Kilauea's summit caldera a gas plume from the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater drifted mainly SW during 16-22 March and deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby. The lava lake within the pit was mostly crusted over during 16-19 March but occasionally produced incandescence. The lake was visible during 20-22 March and periodically changed depth. At the east rift zone, small incandescent areas were visible in Pu'u 'O'o crater. The Kamoamoa fissure remained inactive. During 16-18 March the sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was below the detection threshold of 20-30 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 March-15 March 2011

HVO reported that on 9 March vigorous spattering as high as 50 m was noted from the W end of the Kamoamoa fissure, which had opened on 5 March, along Kilauea's east rift zone between Napau Crater and Pu'u 'O'o. Low lava fountains fed a channelized 'a'a lava flow, 80-290 m wide, that advanced at least 2.9 km to the SE. The lava flow waned starting at 1700 and spattering from the fissure stopped around 2230. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

During 9-10 March gas measurements showed a sulfur dioxide emission rate of about 4,400 tonnes/day from all east rift zone sources. The rate dropped to 350 tonnes/day on 10 March, and to 100 tonnes/day on 13 March, a value lower than those measured for the months before the Kamoamoa fissure eruption. Seismic tremor declined, but remained elevated above pre-Kamoamoa eruption levels at the summit and the eruption site. During 13-15 March incandescent areas were visible within Pu'u 'O'o crater.

At the summit caldera, a gas plume from the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater drifted mainly SW during 9-15 March. The level of the lava in the pit was about 220 m below the crater floor, confirmed during an overflight on 9 March. It could not be observed during an overflight the next day because the bottom of the vent was obscured by rubble. Incandescence was occasionally seen in the web camera. An overflight on 14 March revealed that lava was present in the vent; the level slowly rose during the night. On 15 March tephra and fresh spatter was collected from an area beneath the plume.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 March-8 March 2011

During 1-4 March, activity from Kilauea's summit caldera and east rift zone was similar to activity during the previous several weeks. The level of the circulating lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater fluctuated and rose to at most 70 below the crater floor. Scattered surface flows were active on the pali and coastal plain, and lava covered large portions of Pu'u 'O'o's crater floor. An unusually high number of earthquakes were located at Kilauea; during 1-4 March a majority of the earthquakes were located at the upper east rift zone.

On 5 March at 1342 there was the onset of rapid deflation at Pu'u 'O'o and increased tremor along Kilauea's middle east rift zone, and at 1400 the summit began to deflate. Between 1416 and 1421 the floor of the Pu'u 'O'o crater began to collapse and within 10 minutes incandescent ring fractures opened on the crater floor. As the floor continued to drop, lava appeared in the center and the NE spatter cone collapsed. The collapse of a large block along the E crater wall produced an ash plume. The floor continued to drop as fume obscured the camera view at 1626. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red and the Volcano Alert Level was raised to Warning. A later report indicated that the crater floor dropped a minimum of 115 m.

Coincident with the Pu'u 'O'o collapse, an earthquake swarm began along the east rift zone in the area of Maka'opuhi and Napau craters, WSW of Pu'u 'O'o. A fissure, ultimately 2.3 km long, opened along the east rift zone between Napau Crater and Pu'u 'O'o, erupting spatter up to 25 m high and lava that burned nearby vegetation. Lava on one side of the fissure flowed into a nearby deep parallel fissure and disappeared. Fissure activity had paused by 2155.

Kilauea's summit continued to deflate and the lava lake level within the Halema'uma'u crater vent dropped, facilitating rockfalls from the vent wall. On 6 March at 0703 the lake level to receded almost beyond the webcam view following a large collapse. Spattering from the fissure resumed and two more fissures opened that produced more gas than lava. Spatter was reaching heights of 40 m. The tiltmeter on the N flank of Pu'u 'O'o recorded over 150 microradians of deflation beginning at 1400 on 5 March that markedly slowed by the morning of 6 March. Rockfalls exposed incandescent areas within Pu'u 'O'o. Lava flows on the coastal plain and pali were less active. The average sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was 10,000 tonnes/day on 6 March, 2011, the highest rate there since an eruptive surge in July 2008 produced an emission rate of 7,000 tonnes/day.

On 7 March the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. Vigorous spattering from the W end of the fissure continued; spatter rose as high as 30 m. No active lava flows were observed on the pali or coastal plain. The lava lake surface in Halema'uma'u crater was 200 m below the crater floor, based on visual estimates. Rockfalls in the crater produced dusty-brown plumes during 7-8 March. Low fountains and spattering from the fissure fed several lava flows that advanced S.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 February-1 March 2011

During 23 February-2 March, activity continued from the summit caldera and east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the circulating lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater fluctuated between 80 and 120 m below the crater floor. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent drifted in multiple directions and deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby. At the east rift zone, two branches of the 29 November lava flow (from a lava tube breach at 366 m elevation) produced scattered surface flows on the pali and coastal plain. In Pu'u 'O'o crater, lava periodically effused or spattered from a cone on the NE portion of the crater floor and from a vent in the E crater wall.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 February-22 February 2011

During 16-22 February, activity continued from the summit caldera and east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the circulating lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater fluctuated between 70 and 125 m below the crater floor. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent drifted in multiple directions and deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, two branches of the 29 November lava flow (a lava tube breach at 366 m elevation) produced scattered surface flows on the pali and coastal plain. In Pu'u 'O'o crater, lava effused from a cone on the NE portion of the crater floor and from a vent in the E crater wall during most of 16-18 February, covering a large portion of the crater floor. After the lava effusion ceased, incandescence emanated from the cone and vent.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 February-15 February 2011

During 9-15 February, activity continued from the summit caldera and east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater circulated and periodically changed depth. The highest level the lava rose to 72 m below the crater floor. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent drifted mostly W and deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava flows continued from one of the upper rootless shields, near the TEB vent. Two branches of the 29 November lava flow (a lava tube breach at 366 m elevation) produced scattered surface flows on the pali and coastal plain. In Pu'u 'O'o crater, incandescence emanated from a cone on the N portion of the crater floor, lava effused from a cone on the W edge of the floor, and spatter and lava flows were produced from a vent in the E crater wall. On 12 February increased activity from a cone on the N floor was characterized by lava flows and incandescent tephra ejected 40-50 m above the cone. During 14-15 February lava from a NE cone covered the E half of the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 February-8 February 2011

During 2-8 February, activity continued from the summit caldera and east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater circulated and remained mostly stable at approximately 100 m below the crater floor, periodically rising or falling. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent that drifted mostly SW, W, and N deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava that broke out of the Quarry tube in a saddle between two rootless shields around 610 m elevation continued to advance both E and W, producing scattered surface flows. At the lowest elevation of the E branch, lava advanced along Highway 130 near Kalapana, periodically burning vegetation, and to the S towards the coast. On 4 February incandescence from the TEB vent and upper rootless shields visible on the web camera was later confirmed to be from spatter and lava flows. Lava continued to issue from each location during 5-8 February. Multiple small ocean entries were active on the W part of the Puhi-o-Kalaikini lava delta until 7 or 8 February.

In Pu'u 'O'o crater, incandescence emanated from the fuming vent in the E wall of the crater, and spatter and lava flows were produced from a cone on the N portion of the crater floor. On 7 February activity significantly increased; lava flowed from several vents including the vent on the E wall and multiple spatter cones on the N and NW areas of the floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 January-1 February 2011

During 26 January-1 February, activity continued from the summit caldera and east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater circulated and remained mostly stable at approximately 125 m below the crater floor, periodically rising or falling. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent that drifted mostly SW deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava that broke out of the Quarry tube in a saddle between two rootless shields around 610 m elevation, continued to advance both E and W, producing scattered break-out flows. At the lowest elevation of the E branch, lava advanced along Highway 130 near Kalapana, periodically burning vegetation, and to the S towards the coast. Multiple small ocean entries were active on the W part of the Puhi-o-Kalaikini lava delta. Incandescence emanated from a spatter cone on the N portion of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and from the fuming vent in the E wall of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 January-25 January 2011

HVO reported that the largest of about 36 rockfalls that occurred in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater on 17 January was followed by an explosive event, of a magnitude not seen since 2008, and felt locally. Ballistics up to 10 cm in diameter and hot tephra ejected from the pit were deposited on the rim of Halema'uma'u crater. Spatter up to 8 cm long was ejected onto the crater rim after collapses on 21 January.

During 19-25 January, activity continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater circulated and remained mostly stable at approximately 120 m below the crater floor, periodically rising or falling. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent that drifted mostly SW and W deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava that broke out of the Quarry tube, at a saddle between two rootless shields around 610 m elevation, continued to advance both E and W. At the lowest elevation of the E branch, lava advanced along Highway 130 near Kalapana, periodically burning vegetation. Steam sporadically rising near the ocean suggested that the lava entered the ocean, although not continuously. One part of the W branch stopped entering the ocean on 18 January, but remained active. Incandescence emanated from a spatter cone on the N portion of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and from the fuming vent in the E wall of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 January-18 January 2011

During 12-18 January, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater circulated and remained mostly stable at approximately 120 m below the crater floor, periodically rising several meters higher. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent that drifted S, NE, and N deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava that broke out of the Quarry tube at a saddle between two rootless shields around 610 m elevation, continued to advance in two branches, E and W. At the lowest elevation of the E branch lava advanced along Highway 130 near Kalapana, set a kipuka on fire, and destroyed a structure. One part of the W branch entered the ocean at Ki, about 2 km SW of the end of Highway 130. A spatter cone on the N portion of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor fed lava flows and incandescence emanated from the fuming vent in the E wall of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 January-11 January 2011

During 5-11 January, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater circulated and remained mostly stable at approximately 120 m below the crater floor, periodically rising several meters higher. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent that drifted SW, NE, and N deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava that broke out of the Quarry tube at a saddle between two rootless shields around 610 m elevation, continued to advance in two branches, E and W. At the lowest elevation of the E branch lava advanced along Highway 130 near Kalapana. One part of the W branch entered the ocean on 6 January at a location about 2 km SW of the end of Highway 130. Lava flows fed by an 8-m-high cone on the N portion of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor covered and recovered the E crater floor. The web camera also recorded incandescence from a small fume-producing vent in the E wall of the crater. On 10 January the sides of the cone seemingly gave way and lava poured into two active flows that traveled toward the W portion of the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 December-4 January 2011

During 29 December-4 January, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater circulated and remained mostly stable at approximately 120 m below the crater floor, periodically rising several meters higher. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent that drifted mainly SW deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava that broke out of the Quarry tube onto the surface, at a saddle between two rootless shields at around the 610 m elevation, continued to advance in two branches. The lava flow at the lowest elevation advanced E beyond Kalapana by 3 January. Incandescence from a small spatter cone on the north-central part of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor continued. Lava from that cone flowed SE, NE, and W. Lava from a second spatter cone, located on the NW edge of the crater, was active on the crater floor. Weak incandescence was also visible from a small, fume-producing vent in the E wall of the crater, and from other various areas on the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 December-28 December 2010

During 22-28 December, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable at approximately 125-130 m below the crater floor, periodically rising 20-30 m higher. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent that drifted NW, N, and NE deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava that broke out of the Quarry tube onto the surface, at a saddle between two rootless shields at around the 610 m elevation, continued to advance in two branches. The E branch advanced along the E edge of the Quarry flow to about 60 m elevation and burned small remnants of a forest. On 22 December a breakout lava flow from the 365-m elevation advanced 820 m. Multiple scattered breakout lava flows were observed during the reporting period. Incandescence from a small spatter cone on the north-central part of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor continued. Lava from a second spatter cone, located on the NW edge of the crater, advanced E on the crater floor and then stalled on 27 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 December-21 December 2010

During 15-21 December, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable at approximately 130 m below the crater floor, periodically rising 20-30 m higher. Nighttime incandescence has been visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim since early 2010. A plume from the vent drifted SW and SE, when visible through fog, and deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava that broke out of the Quarry tube onto the surface at a saddle between two rootless shields at around the 610 m elevation, continued to advance in two branches. The E branch advanced along the E edge of the Quarry flow to about the 60-m elevation and burned small remnants of a forest. Incandescence from a prominent but small spatter cone on the north-central part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor continued. Lava from a second spatter cone, located on the NW edge of the crater, flowed across the W side of the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 December-14 December 2010

During 8-14 December, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable at approximately 130 m below the crater floor, periodically rising 15-20 m higher. Nighttime incandescence has been visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim since early 2010. A plume from the vent drifted in multiple directions and deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava flowed a short distance through the TEB lava-tube system before breaking out onto the surface at a saddle between two rootless shields at around the 610 m elevation, forming a lava pond atop a new shield. Two breakout lava flows traveled about 120 m down the pali. Lava flows from a small spatter cone on the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor continued. A small lava flow traveled W on 10 December. On 13 December lava flowed from a second spatter cone, located on the NW edge of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 December-7 December 2010

During 1-7 December, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable at approximately 135 m below the crater floor, periodically rising about 15 m above that level. Nighttime incandescence has been visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim since early 2010. A plume from the vent mostly drifted SW and deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava flowed a short distance through the TEB lava-tube system before breaking out onto the surface at a saddle between two rootless shields at around the 610 m elevation on 1 December. Lava started to build a shield and also extended several hundred meters from both sides of the lava tube. A small breakout lava flow on top of the pali traveled 100 m downslope to within about 6 km of Kalapana Gardens. During 2-7 December, lava flows at the saddle area advanced W, N, and E. Lava was last observed entering the ocean at Puhi-o-Kalaikini during 29-30 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 November-30 November 2010

During 24-30 November, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable between approximately 140 and 145 m below the crater floor, periodically rising about 20 m above that level. Nighttime incandescence has been visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim since early 2010. A plume from the vent mostly drifted SW and deposited ash nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava continued to flow through the TEB lava-tube system and fed surface flows on the coastal plain, breakout flows W and N of a county viewing area (located along Highway 130), and one or more ocean entries on the Puhi-o-Kalaikini delta W of Kalapana Gardens subdivision. A lava flow that broke out of the tube on 24 November advanced towards an abandoned house in Kalapana Gardens, and on 27 November, set fire to and destroyed the structure. Incandescence was visible from vents on the N part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor on 23 November before it started to spatter and feed a small lava flow. The lava flow continued to advance E during 24 November-1 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 November-23 November 2010

During 17-23 November, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable approximately 150 m below the crater floor, periodically rising about 20 m above that level. Nighttime incandescence has been visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim since early 2010. A plume from the vent deposited ash nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava continued to flow through the TEB lava-tube system and fed small weakly active surface flows on the coastal plain, breakout flows W of a county viewing area (located along Highway 130), and a single ocean entry on the Puhi-o-Kalaikini delta W of Kalapana Gardens subdivision. Incandescence was visible from vents on the N part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor during 17-18 November. Spattering from the vent was seen during 18-19 November, and a slow-moving lava flow began at about noon on 19 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 November-16 November 2010

During 10-16 November, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable at 155 m below the crater floor. Periodically the lava rose about 20 m above that level. Nighttime incandescence was seen from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited ash nearby. At the east rift zone, lava continued to flow through the TEB lava-tube system and fed some small lava flows on the coastal plain and the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry. Incandescence was frequently visible from areaS on the N part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 November-9 November 2010

During 3-9 November, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable between 150 and 160 m below the crater floor. Periodically the lava rose about 20 m above that level, producing nighttime incandescence seen from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited ash nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava continued to flow through the TEB lava-tube system and fed some small lava flows on the coastal plain and the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry. Some short-lived breakouts of lava occurred from the portion of the lava tube that crosses Highway 130, about 300 m SW of the current County Viewing Area. Incandescence was frequently visible from vents on the N part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 October-2 November 2010

During 27 October-2 November, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable between 160 and 170 m below the crater floor. Periodically the lava rose a few meters above that level, producing nighttime incandescence seen from the Jaggar Museum, on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited ash nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava continued to flow through the TEB lava-tube system and fed two ocean entries at the Puhi-o-Kalaikini delta. On 27 October a small lava flow broke out of the lava tube and was active W of the end of Highway 130. A channelized 'a'a lava flow at the base of the pali began the next day. Lava flows were active on the coastal plain during 29-30 October and 1-2 November. Incandescence was frequently visible from vents on the N part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 October-26 October 2010

During 20-26 October, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; periodically the lava rose above that level, producing nighttime incandescence seen from the Jaggar Museum, on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW.

At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system fed at least one ocean entry at the Puhi-o-Kalaikini delta. Small surface flows on the coastal plain and pali were visible during 20-22 October. A vent on the N part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor ejected spatter on 20 October. Incandescence was visible from the vent the next day and from multiple vents during 22-23 October.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 October-19 October 2010

During 13-19 October, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable between 155 and 160 m below the crater floor; periodically the lava rose 15-20 m above that level. Glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW.

At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system fed small lava flows and at least one ocean entry at the Puhi-o-Kalaikini delta. A break-out lava flow began just west of the end of Highway 130 on 15 October. During 15-19 October the lava filled in low areas between the highway and the inactive flows that had stopped near Kalapana Gardens earlier in the year. A vent on the N part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor effused lava during 12-14 October and was incandescent during 15-19 October.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 October-12 October 2010

During 6-12 October, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable between 150 and 160 m below the crater floor; periodically the lava rose 10-30 m above that level. Glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW.

At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system mainly fed the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry. Break-outs of lava from a tube near the end of Highway 130 and NW of Kalapana on 4 October and other small break-outs during 6-12 October were noted. On 7 October another ocean entry point developed on the Puhi-o-Kalaikini delta, just W of the first entry.

Lava from a vent on the NW edge of Pu'u 'O'o crater flowed E across the crater floor during most of the reporting period. On 6 October a vent on the N floor of the crater opened and effused lava that buried the E portion of the crater with lava about 10 m thick. On 8 October, lava drained back into the vent on the N floor. Lava-flow activity on the crater floor was intermittent during 8-10 October. The next day the flows had stalled.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 September-5 October 2010

During 29 September-5 October, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable at about 150 m below the crater floor; periodically the lava rose 15-35 m above that level. Glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW and deposited ash nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system mainly fed the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry. A lava flow that broke out of the lava-tube system W of the end of Highway 130 on 26 September produced a flow E toward Kalapana Gardens that stalled on 28 September. Two days later a new breakout lava flow began near the end of Highway 130, just west of Kalapana Gardens subdivision. The flow sparked fires in a small, sparsely forested kipuka, and remained active through 4 October.

During 29 September-4 October, incandescence was visible from a skylight on the lava tube downslope from the rootless shield complex. A large skylight on top of a rootless shield, built over the TEB lava tube mid-way between the top of the pali and the TEB vent, also showed incandescence. On 29 September, lava began to erupt from a vent on the NW edge of Pu'u 'O'o crater and flowed E across the floor. The lava flow in Pu'u 'O'o crater continued to be active through the reporting period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 September-28 September 2010

During 22-28 September HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable around 160 m below the crater floor; periodically the lava rose 15-35 m above that level. Glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited ash nearby. At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system mainly fed the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry. Weak thermal anomalies detected in satellite imagery suggested little to no lava flow activity on the pali or the coastal plain. On 26 September lava broke out of the lava-tube system W of the end of Highway 130 and produced a flow E toward Kalapana Gardens. The next day lava, flowing at a slower rate, filled in low areas S of the Hawaii County lava viewing area.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 September-21 September 2010

During 15-21 September HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable at about 160 m below the crater floor; periodically the lava rose 20-40 m above the stable surface level. Glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, incandescence emanated from a lava flow on the SW floor during 16-19 September. At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system mainly fed the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry. Weak thermal anomalies detected in satellite imagery during 17-19 September suggested little to no lava flow activity on the pali or the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 September-14 September 2010

During 8-14 September HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited ash, and occasionally Pele's hair and spatter, nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, incandescence emanated from a lava flow on the SW floor on most nights. During an overflight on 9 September, geologists saw that the lava flow had ponded on the W side of the crater floor. At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system mainly fed the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 September-7 September 2010

During 1-7 September HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, incandescence emanated from an active hornito on the N floor. On 4 September lava started to flow along the S margin of the crater floor and was active the next day. At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system fed minor surface flows on the coastal plain, as well as the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 August-31 August 2010

During 25-31 August HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent drifted SW. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, incandescence emanated from an active hornito on the N floor. At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system fed minor surface flows on the coastal plain, as well as two ocean entries at Puhi-o-Kalaikini, SW of Kalapana.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 August-24 August 2010

During 18-24 August HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, incandescence emanated from multiple areas on the N floor. At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system fed occasional surface flows on the pali and on the coastal plain NW and W of Kalapana Gardens, as well as the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 August-17 August 2010

During 11-17 August HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, a small incandescent vent on the N floor that occasionally extruded lava flows was observed to be a hornito. At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system fed occasional surface flows at the base of the pali and on the coastal plain WNW and W of Kalapana Gardens, as well as the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 August-10 August 2010

During 4-10 August HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of a lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system fed surface flows on the coastal plain, an inflating surface flow in Kalapana, and two ocean entries. The delta built by the W ocean entry named Puhi-o-Kalaikini was 900 m wide by 8 August. The less vigorous E entry, 'Ili'ili, remained active until 9 August. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, incandescence from small areas on the N crater floor was visible. During 9-10 August minor spattering from the area built a very small cone.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 July-3 August 2010

During 28 July-3 August HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of a lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system advanced NE over coastal highway 137 towards Kalapana Gardens subdivision. Two lava lobes that had overtopped the Hakuma horst, SW of Kalapana Gardens, flowed into the ocean. The first flow initially entered the ocean on 25 July and continued to build a small delta that was about 500 m wide by 3 August. On 28 July, the second flow entered the ocean, about 545 m E of the first ocean-entry point. In addition to the activity near the ocean, scattered small active lobes of lava were seen about 1 km W of the highway 130/137 intersection.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 July-27 July 2010

During 21-27 July HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of a lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system advanced E and NE along coastal highway 137 beginning on 17 July and expanded S, filling in the area between the highway and the N-facing scarp of the Hakuma horst. On 24 July, lava flowed N and by the next morning had destroyed a home in Kalapana Gardens. Advancing lava flowed over an area of the horst and on 25 July reached the ocean. On 26 July, lava caused small brush fires and methane explosions in a kipuka on the W edge of the Kalapana subdivision. By 1200 on 27 July, a second lava flow 500 m E of the ocean entry had advanced over the horst and was about 20 m from the ocean. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, intermittent incandescence from lava flows on the N crater floor was visible starting on 24 July.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 July-20 July 2010

During 14-20 July HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of a lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW. At the east rift zone, two lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system advanced E through the coastal highway 130/137 intersection beginning on 17 July, and by 19 July were within 70 m of the nearest structure. A second set of active lava lobes were approximately 1 km to the NW and also advanced toward that general area. According to a news article, two people evacuated their home in Kalapana due to advancing lava flows.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Associated Press


7 July-13 July 2010

During 7-13 July HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of a lava-pool surface in the deep pit within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW, dropping small amounts of tephra downwind. At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system built up a number of rootless shields between 580 and 395 m elevation. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations showed that minor lava flows originating from the shields traveled as far down as 60 m elevation near the base of the pali on 11 July.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 June-6 July 2010

During 30 June-6 July HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of a lava-pool surface in the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW, dropping small amounts of tephra, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system built up a number of rootless shields between 580 and 395 m elevation. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations showed that minor lava flows originating from the shields traveled as far down as 365 m elevation on 1 July. A gas vent on the E wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater was incandescent during most of the reporting period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 June-29 June 2010

During 23-29 June HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of a lava-pool surface in the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW, dropping small amounts of tephra, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system built up a number of rootless shields between 580 and 520 m elevation. Satellite images showed thermal anomalies from minor lava flows originating from the shields. The Pu'u 'O'o web camera showed incandescence from a vent on the E wall of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 June-22 June 2010

During 16-22 June HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of a lava-pool surface in the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable; glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW, dropping small amounts of tephra, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system built up a number of rootless shields between 580 and 520 m elevation. Satellite images showed thermal anomalies from minor lava flows originating from the shields. The Pu'u 'O'o web camera views of a lava pond on the crater floor, that was an estimated 300 x 150 m in dimension, were often obscured by fumes. One small lava flow was seen on the crater floor on 18 June. Scientists saw a new gas vent on the E wall of the crater during an overflight on 21 June that had generated incandescence during the previous few days.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 June-15 June 2010

During 9-15 June HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of a lava-pool surface remained mostly stable in the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater; glow from the vent was visible. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW, dropping small amounts of tephra downwind. Vigorous bubbling of the lava surface was seen during 14-15 June.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system at 580 m elevation built up rootless shields. Minor surface lava flows from the shields were often active on the pali and the coastal plain, and advanced along the W side of the TEB flow field towards the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision. The Pu'u 'O'o web camera recorded a growing and sometimes circulating lava pond on the crater floor that was an estimated 300 x 125 m in dimension. The pond was fed predominantly from a source near the N rim of the Pu'u 'O'o, with some contributions from a source near the S shore.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 June-8 June 2010

During 2-8 June HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of the circulating, crusting, and bubbling lava-pool surface remained mostly stable in the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater; glow from the vent was visible. A plume from the vent drifted SW, dropping small amounts of ash and spatter downwind.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system at 580 m elevation built up rootless shields. Minor surface lava flows from the shields were active on the pali and the coastal plain. Lava stopped flowing into the ocean at the Ki entry sometime during 2-3 June. The Pu'u 'O'o' web camera recorded a growing and circulating lava pond on the crater floor that on 5 June was an estimated 300 x 125 m in dimension. A small spattering cone was seen on the floor to the N of the pond.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 May-1 June 2010

During 26 May-1 June HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of the circulating, crusting, and bubbling lava-pool surface remained mostly stable in the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater; glow from the vent was visible. On 31 May the surface rose to the highest level yet recorded, but was still more than 100 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system had advanced down the Pulama pali onto the coastal plain and headed S, entering the ocean at Ki. Other lava flows were active above the pali. On 27 May geologists noted a small rootless shield building up at a break-out point at 580 m elevation. Small lava flows issued from vents on Pu'u 'O'o's S crater wall during 26-27 May, and pooled on the crater floor at least through 31 May.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 May-25 May 2010

During 19-25 May HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, occasional rising and falling of the circulating, crusting, and bubbling lava-pool surface continued at the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater; glow from the vent was visible. The plume of gas from the summit vent drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emission rates measured at the summit during 19-21 and 24 May were in the 800-1,200 tonnes/day range.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system had advanced down the Pulama pali onto the coastal plain and headed S, entering the ocean at Ki. Other lava flows were active on the flow field. A small lava flow issued from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o's S crater wall on 21 May.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 May-18 May 2010

During 12-18 May HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, occasional rising and falling of the circulating lava-pool surface continued at the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater; glow from the vent was visible. The plume of gas and ash from the summit vent drifted SW. On 14 May the sulfur dioxide emission rate measured at the summit was1,000 tonnes/day. The surface dimensions of the lava pool were an estimated 60 m by 90 m on 17 and 18 May.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system had advanced down the Pulama pali onto the coastal plain and headed S into the ocean. Geologists confirmed a collapse of a 17 m by 75 m sliver of Pu'u 'O'o crater's N rim that occurred on 11 May.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 May-11 May 2010

During 5-11 May HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued at the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, episodic rising and falling of the lava-pool surface continued at the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater; glow from the vent was visible. The plume of gas and ash from the summit vent drifted SW and W, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally Pele's hair and Pele's tears, downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate measured at the summit on 5 May was 880 tonnes/day.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system had advanced down the Pulama pali onto the coastal plain and headed S into the ocean. Lava also flowed along the highway, after covering the county viewing area on 5 May. Incandescence was sometimes seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater. On 9 May lava flows near the county viewing area stalled.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 April-4 May 2010

During 28 April-4 May HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued at the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, episodic rising and falling of the lava-pool surface continued at the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u crater; glow from the vent was visible. On most mornings the plume of gas and ash from the summit vent drifted NW, W, and SW. On 29 April small rockfalls disrupted the surface of the pond, producing "dusty" plumes. Sulfur dioxide emission rates measured at the summit during 28-29 April were in the 800-1,000 tonnes/day range.

At the east rift zone, lava flowed through tubes to supply a surface flow that had advanced down the Pulama pali, onto the coastal plain, heading S, and reached the ocean on 29 April. Lava continued to flow into the ocean, just W of the "old" coastal viewing area during the rest of the reporting period. Lava also flowed along the E margin, between the highway and the coast. Incandescence was sometimes seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 April-27 April 2010

During 21-27 April HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued at the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, episodic rising and falling of the lava column continued at the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u crater; glow from the vent was often visible. On most mornings the plume of gas and ash from the summit vent drifted SW, depositing small amounts of tephra near the vent. Sulfur dioxide emission rates measured at the summit during 21-23 April were in the 630-770 tonnes/day range.

At the east rift zone, lava flowed through tubes to supply a surface flow that had advanced down the Pulama pali and onto the coastal plain, heading SE along the east margin of the TEB flow field. The lava flowed through vegetation, causing small brush fires and minor methane bursts. On 22 April a second lava flow to the W was also active. Two days later, the first lava flow appeared to have stalled. The W flow continued to advance, and by 27 April was within the County Viewing Area.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 April-20 April 2010

During 14-20 April activity reported by HVO at Kilauea was continuing at the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, episodic rising and falling of the lava column continued at the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u crater. Cycles occurred every 10-20 minutes until becoming more sporadic the evening of 14 April. On 15-16 April there were only 1-2 cycles/day. Activity increased again on the 17th, with cycles every 10-30 minutes. Glow from the vent was visible when the rising and falling cycles were frequent. On most mornings the plume of gas and ash from the summit vent drifted SW, depositing small amounts of tephra near the vent. Sulfur dioxide emission rates measured at the summit on 12, 14, 15, and 19 April were in the 600-790 tonnes/day range.

At the east rift zone, lava flowed through tubes to supply surface flows that advanced down the Pulama pali towards the coastal plain; on 16 April those flows were within 300 m of the coastal plain. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and east rift zone vents remained elevated. Geologists in the field on 17 April reported that the flow front had reached the E margin of the older Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) flow field on the coastal plain. On 19 April the flow front headed SE along the east margin of the TEB flow field, just W of the end of the Kalapana access road, and was 380 m NW of the viewing area.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 April-13 April 2010

During 7-13 April, HVO reported incandescence from a 60-m-wide active lava surface about 200 m below a 130-m-wide vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor; a few times the level fluctuated between 235 and 260 m below the surface. Rocks from the vent walls fell into the pond, causing spattering. Plumes from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally Pele's hair and Pele's tears, downwind. Measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 600 and 500 tonnes per day were measured on 8 and 9 April, respectively.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Lava flows moved SE down Pulama pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 March-6 April 2010

During 31 March-6 April, HVO reported incandescence from a 60-m-wide active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor; a few times the level fluctuated between 235 and 260 m below the surface. Plumes from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit on 31 March was 1,400 tonnes per day, the highest recorded in 2010. The rate on 1 and 2 April was 1,000 and 650 tonnes per day, respectively.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Lava flows advanced E, and then SE down Pulama pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 March-30 March 2010

During 24-30 March, HVO reported incandescence from an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor. Plumes from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally spatter, downwind. Gas measurements on 25 and 26 March indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 600 and 800 tonnes per day, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite, and visual observations, revealed active lava flows above the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 March-23 March 2010

During 17-23 March, HVO reported incandescence from an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash and spatter downwind. Measurements on 19 March indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 500 tonnes per day. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite, and visual observations, revealed active lava flows above the pali. Incandescence was sometimes seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 March-16 March 2010

During 10-16 March, HVO reported incandescence from an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor towards the end of the reporting period. Lava fountaining from the N edge of the pit was also noted. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. Measurements on 11 March indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 600 tonnes per day. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite, and visual observations, revealed active lava flows on the pali and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 March-9 March 2010

During 3-9 March, HVO reported an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. Measurements during 4-5 March indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 700-800 tonnes per day. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite, and visual observations, revealed active lava flows on the pali and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 February-2 March 2010

During 24 February-2 March, HVO reported an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through holes in the cavity floor. Low lava fountains rose from the south edge of the deep pit. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. Measurements on 25 February indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 900 tonnes per day. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active lava flows on the pali and on the coastal plain. Incandescence was sometimes seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 February-23 February 2010

During 17-23 February, HVO reported an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and occasionally spattered, and both rose and drained through holes in the cavity floor. Bursting bubbles and low lava fountains were also noted. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. Measurements on 18 February indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 600 tonnes per day. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed over 3 km SE through a lava tube system before breaking out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active lava flows on the W side of the TEB flow field, on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Incandescence was sometimes seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 February-16 February 2010

During 10-16 February, HVO reported an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface occasionally spattered, and both rose and drained through holes in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. Measurements on 11 February indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 900 tonnes per day. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. That same day a significant rockfall or collapse event was followed by a brown plume for several minutes.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed over 3 km SE through a lava tube system before breaking out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active lava flows on the pali and on the coastal plain. Incandescence was sometimes seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 February-9 February 2010

During 3-9 February, HVO reported an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface occasionally spattered, and both rose and drained through holes in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. Measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 1,200 and 700 tonnes per day were measured on 4 and 8 February, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed over 3 km SE through a lava tube system before breaking out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active lava flows above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain. By 8 February, pahoehoe lava flows had advanced 700 m from the base of the pali S onto the coastal plain. Incandescence was sometimes seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 January-2 February 2010

During 27 January-2 February, HVO reported an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface occasionally spattered, and both rose and drained through a hole in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted N, NW, and W, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. Measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 400 and 1,000 tonnes per day were measured on 28 January and 1 February, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed over 3 km SE through a lava tube system before breaking out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active lava flows on top of and on the pali; lava burned forest on the W side of the TEB flows. Incandescence was seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 January-26 January 2010

During 20-26 January, HVO reported an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface occasionally spattered, and both rose and drained through a hole in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted multiple directions, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through a lava tube system. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active lava flows on top of the pali from lava-tube breakouts.

During an overflight of Pu'u 'O'o crater on 19 January scientists saw a recent but inactive lava flow across the bottom of the crater. On 22 January a small part of the crater rim collapsed in front of the web camera, revealing an incandescent vent at the base of the E wall. During 23-26 January, incandescence was seen from the vent, as well as from high on the E wall, the crater floor, and low on the S wall.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 January-19 January 2010

During 13-19 January, HVO reported an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface occasionally spattered, and both rose and drained through a hole in the cavity floor. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. On 14 January, the lava surface suddenly rose to very high levels multiple times; the highest level was about 120 m below the floor of Halema'uma'u crater. Thermal anomalies from the areas above the pali, detected from satellites on the same day, indicated that lava emissions from the TEB vent had resumed. Lava flows were noted during 17-19 January.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 January-12 January 2010

During 6-12 January, HVO reported that lava flows from Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex were seen above the pali by observers, or detected in satellite images. Lava did not enter the ocean at Waikupanaha. Incandescence was seen almost daily coming from multiple locations in Pu'u 'O'o crater. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a plume that drifted SW, N, and NE, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. The NE-drifting plume resulted in poor air quality in some communities on 9 January. Incandescence originated from an active and sometimes sloshing lava surface within an opening on the deep floor of the vent cavity.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 December-5 January 2010

During 30 December-3 January, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from beneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the ocean at Waikupanaha. Lava was not seen entering the ocean on 4 and 5 January. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and occasional visual observations revealed active lava flows on the pali. Incandescence was seen almost daily coming from Pu'u 'O'o crater. During an overflight of Pu'u 'O'o crater on 29 December, geologists saw that a part of the high point of the W rim had collapsed, and a new gas vent had opened up at base of the N wall.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a plume that drifted NE and NW, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. Incandescence originated from an active and sometimes sloshing lava surface within an opening on the deep floor of the vent cavity.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 December-29 December 2009

During 23-29 December, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from beneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the ocean at Waikupanaha. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active lava flows on and at the base of the pali, and on the coastal plain. On 26 December, explosions at the ocean entry ejected material 15 m high. Incandescence was seen almost daily coming from Pu'u 'O'o crater. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a plume that drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, downwind. Incandescence originated from a very active, sloshing lava surface within a single opening on the deep floor of the vent cavity. Parts of the opening rim periodically collapsed into the lava surface generating spatter that deposited on the floor and walls of the vent cavity.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 December-22 December 2009

During 16-22 December, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from beneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the ocean at Waikupanaha. Incandescence was seen almost daily coming from Pu'u 'O'o crater. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce an off-white plume that drifted E and SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. Incandescence originated from a few holes in the deep floor of the vent cavity. Occasionally, lava ponded on the floor of the cavity. Spatter originated from a small spatter cone on the E side of the vent cavity floor. Spatter from the opening frequently fed small lava flows that traveled down the flank of the cone. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 600 tonnes per day were measured on 18 December. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 December-15 December 2009

During 9-15 December, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from beneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the ocean at multiple locations between Waikupanaha and areas farther to the W. Towards the beginning of the reporting period, thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed occasional active lava flows. Incandescence was seen almost daily from Pu'u 'O'o crater. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce an off-white plume that drifted predominantly to the SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. Incandescence originated from a few holes in the deep floor of the vent cavity. On 13 December, lava ponded on the floor, crusted over, and blocked the holes. Incandescence was again visible the next night.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 December-8 December 2009

During 2-8 December, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from beneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the ocean at multiple locations between Waikupanaha and an area 700 m farther to the W. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active lava flows on the coastal plain. Incandescence was occasionally seen from Pu'u 'O'o crater; on 2 December, incandescence originated from vents on the E wall. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white or off-white plume that drifted E, W, and SW, and dropped small amounts of ash downwind. Incandescence originated from multiple spattering holes in the deep floor of the vent cavity.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 November-1 December 2009

During 25 November-1 December, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from beneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the ocean at multiple locations between Waikupanaha and an area 700 m farther to the W. A small bench collapse may have occurred on 27 November. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows on the coastal plain. Incandescence was occasionally seen on the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white or off-white plume that drifted mainly SW and dropped small amounts of ash downwind. Incandescence originated from a lava pond deep in the vent cavity floor; the lava pond circulated and spattered during 25-26 November and 1 December. Measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 1,000 tonnes per day were measured on 28 and 30 November. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

According to a news article on 30 November, Hawaii county was declared a natural disaster area due to the negative impact that vog from Halema'uma'u crater has had on croplands and livestock.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Hawaii News Now


18 November-24 November 2009

During 18-24 November, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from beneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the ocean at multiple locations between Waikupanaha and an area 700 m farther to the W. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows at locations on and at the base of the pali, at the TEB vent, and on the coastal plain. Incandescence was seen on the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white or off-white plume that drifted mainly SW and dropped small amounts of ash downwind. Incandescence originated from a circulating and spattering lava pond that occasionally rose above and drained back below holes in the vent cavity floor. On 21 November, a sliver of the rim collapsed and was followed by an explosion that produced a dense brown plume that dissipated after a few minutes (http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/archive/2009/Nov/HMMvent_21Nov2009_x2speed.mov). Measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 700-1,100 tonnes per day was measured during 18-20 and 23 November. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 November-17 November 2009

During 11-17 November, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the ocean at multiple locations between Waikupanaha and an area 700 m farther to the W. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite suggested active surface lava flows. Incandescence was seen on the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and intermittently from an East wall vent. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted W and SW. Incandescence originated from a spattering lava pond inside the vent cavity. Measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 600 tonnes per day was measured on 16 November. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 November-10 November 2009

During 4-10 November, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry and a second location, 700 m farther to the W. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows. Breakout lava flows were located inland of the Waikpuanaha entry and also W of the County Public Viewing trail. The last remaining structure on the flow field burned on 3 November. Incandescence was seen from the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and an East wall vent during 6-7 November.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted SW and likely produced some ashfall. Incandescence originated from a spattering lava pond inside the vent cavity. Preliminary measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 700 and 400 tonnes per day were measured on 6 and 9 November, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 October-3 November 2009

During 28 October-3 November, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Lava began entering the ocean at a second location, 700 m farther to the W, on 31 October. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows. Breakout lava flows were located inland of the Waikpuanaha entry and also immediately W of the County Public Viewing trail. Intermittent incandescence was seen from the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and an East wall vent.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted SW. Incandescence originated from occasionally spattering holes from a surface inside the vent cavity. On 3 November, a collapse of the surface revealed a circulating and spattering lava pond below. Preliminary measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 800 tonnes per day was measured on 30 October. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 October-27 October 2009

During 21-27 October, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry on most days. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows. For a few days an active lava flow advanced on the coastal plain, burning vegetation and pavement along the former Kalapana access road. Intermittent incandescence was seen from the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and an East wall vent.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted SW. Incandescence originated from occasionally spattering holes from a surface inside the vent cavity. Preliminary measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 560-1,400 tonnes per day was measured during 21-22 and 26 October. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 October-20 October 2009

During 14-20 October, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows on top and at the base of the pali. Intermittent incandescence was seen from the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and an East wall vent.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted SW. Fresh Pele's Hair was collected near the summit on 16 October. Incandescence originated from sources inside the vent cavity; on 18 October a lava pond surface was seen, but then disappeared. Preliminary measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 690-940 tonnes per day was measured during 16-18 October. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 October-13 October 2009

During 7-13 October, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images revealed active surface lava flows on top of the pali. Intermittent incandescence was seen from Pu'u 'O'o crater and the East wall vent during 7-10 October.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. Incandescence originated from a source deep inside the vent cavity; on 13 October a crusted lava pond surface was seen. Preliminary measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 800 tonnes per day was measured on 11 October. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 September-6 October 2009

During 30 September-6 October, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images revealed active surface lava flows on top of the pali. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted SW. Small amounts of occasional fresh ash were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. During 30 September and 2, 4, and 5 October, a lava pond within the vent, about 200 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor, rose and fell, circulated, and weakly spattered. Preliminary measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 410, 650, and 480 tonnes per day were measured on 30 September, 1 and 2 October, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 September-29 September 2009

During 23-27 September, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Lava was not seen entering the ocean on 28 and 29 September. Visual observations and thermal anomalies detected in satellite images revealed active surface lava flows on most days. On 23 September, weak incandescence was detected from inside Pu'u 'O'o crater and from a gas vent in the E crater wall. Explosive activity at the ocean entry on 26 September was possibly caused by a small bench collapse.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted SW and W. Small amounts of ash were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. Weak incandescence from the vent, about 200 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor, was visible at night. Rushing gas and rockfall sounds were occasionally heard in the vicinity of the vent. Preliminary measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 400, 700, and 665 tonnes per day were measured on 23, 24, and 28 September, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. On 26 September, a series of rockfalls accompanied an apparent collapse of the vent floor, causing the lava level to drop and the plume to turn "dusty brown" for several minutes. On 28 September, a spattering lava pond was seen inside the vent.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 September-22 September 2009

During 16-22 September, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Visual observations and thermal anomalies detected in satellite images revealed active surface lava flows.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 1,300, 1,000, and 400 tonnes per day were measured on 16, 17, and 18 September, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. During 16 and 17 September, two hybrid earthquakes were followed by 20-40 minutes of sustained tremor. The plume turned briefly "dusty" after the first event and incandescent tephra was ejected onto the rim after the second event; both produced glassy spatter.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 September-15 September 2009

During 9-15 September, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Weak, sporadic explosions from the ocean entry were seen on 10 September. Occasional thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. The plume briefly turned brown on 9 September from a rockfall. Small amounts of ash were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. Incandescence from small openings in the floor of the vent, about 200 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor, was visible at night with varying intensity. During the night from 12 to13 September, spattering from the opening was seen on the web camera. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 900 tonnes per day was measured on 11 September. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 September-8 September 2009

During 2-8 September, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows in the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash-sized tephra were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. Degassing and rockfall sounds were occasionally heard in the vicinity of the vent. Incandescence from small openings in the floor of the vent, about 200 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor, was visible at night. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 1,200 and 785 tonnes per day were measured on 2 and 3 September, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 August-1 September 2009

During 26 August-1 September, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash-sized "rock dust" were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. Degassing sounds were occasionally heard in the vicinity of the vent. Incandescence from the floor of the vent was visible at night on the web camera, or from HVO. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 1,000 and 950 tonnes per day were measured on 26 and 27 August, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 August-25 August 2009

During 19-25 August, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations during 18-19 August revealed active surface lava flows. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash-sized "rock dust" were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. Rushing gas sounds were occasionally heard in the vicinity of the vent. Incandescence from the floor of the vent was visible at night on the web camera. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 950-1,140 tonnes per day was measured during 19-21 August. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 August-18 August 2009

During 12-18 August, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows on the flow field.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash-sized "rock dust," were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume; possibly fresh tephra, including Pele's Hair, was collected on 12 August. Rushing gas sounds were often heard in the vicinity of the vent. During 12-13 August, a new, brightly incandescent hole appeared on the floor of the vent. The vent increased in size and incandescence continued to be seen on the web camera during the reporting period. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 2,050 and 900 tonnes per day was measured on 12 and 14 August; respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 August-11 August 2009

During 5-11 August, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows on the pali, and along the E and W TEB flow field. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash-sized "rock dust," likely generated from small vent wall collapses, were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 1,800 tonnes per day was measured on 7 August. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. For the first time in weeks, on 10 August, incandescence from the vent was seen.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 July-4 August 2009

During 29 July-4 August, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows on the pali. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash-sized "rock dust," likely generated from small wall collapses in the vent, were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 675 tonnes per day was measured on 31 July. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 July-28 July 2009

During 22-28 July, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows at several locations on the pali. Explosions from the Waikupanaha ocean entry were reported on 22 July. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash-sized "rock dust" were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; measurements were 800, 500, and 950 tonnes per day on 22, 24, and 27 July, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day; between the 30 June rockfall sequence and 19 July rates were 200-400 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 July-21 July 2009

During 15-20 July, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows at several locations on the pali, and on the TEB flow field. A structure in the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision was destroyed on 16 July. Explosions from the Waikupanaha ocean entry were reported on 17 July. Lava was not seen entering the ocean on 21 July.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. No lava or incandescence from the crater had been seen since a "deflation-inflation" event on 4 July. Small amounts of ash-sized "rock dust" were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; measurements were 400 and 1,100 tonnes per day on 17 and 20 July, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 July-14 July 2009

During 8-14 July, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows on the pali and on the TEB flow field. Explosions from both ocean entries were reported on 8 July; strong explosions ejected incandescent tephra up to 20 m high at the Waikupanaha entry.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. No lava or incandescence from the crater had been seen since a "deflation-inflation" event on 4 July. Small amounts of ash-sized tephra were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; measurements were between 300 and 400 tonnes per day during 8-10 and 13 July. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 July-7 July 2009

During 1-6 July, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows on the pali and on the TEB flow field.

A sequence of rockfalls within the cavity on the floor of Halema'uma'u crater began at 1338 on 30 June. The first rockfall was followed by a loud explosion, and produced a M 2.4 equivalent earthquake felt at HVO and the adjacent Jaggar Museum. The gas plume turned brown for several minutes. Several more rockfall signals were detected by the seismic network; two more were felt locally. Booming sounds also accompanied several of the rockfalls. Chunks of the vent rim fell into the cavity. By 1600, more than 30 rim-collapse events had been recorded by seismometers, with a few more occurring on 1 July. Seismic tremor amplitudes decreased by more than 50 percent. By 1800, the levels were at their lowest values since 30 August 2007. On 1 July, scientists observed rocky rubble within the vent and no incandescence. Sporadic gas jetting noises were heard coming from the vent.

During 1-2 July, a few areas of incandescence were seen in the vent by the web camera. During 2-4 July, scientists observed a small ponded lava surface and weak spattering deep within the vent. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; measurements were 360 and 200 tonnes per day on 3 and 5 July, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 June-30 June 2009

During 24-30 June, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows on the pali and on the TEB flow field. Explosions from both ocean entries were occasionally reported. On 28 June, officials reported a wide swath of lava flows descending the pali.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash-sized tephra, including Pele's hair and fresh spatter, were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. A molten lava pool (54 m in diameter) near the base of the cavity, about 290 m below the floor of the crater, produced incandescence of variable brightness. The level of the lava pond rose periodically. Sounds resembling rushing gas and rockfalls were occasionally heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; measurements were 800 tonnes per day on 24 and 26 June. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 June-23 June 2009

Daily reports from HVO about Kilauea during 17-23 June indicated continuing visible glow from the Halema'uma'u vent. Molten lava remained in the neck of a funnel-shaped cavity in the floor of Halema'uma'u Crater. Webcam views showed the lava level rising several meters for brief periods before returning to depths of about 290 m below the crater rim and 205 m below the crater floor, as determined by laser-ranging measurements. Throughout the week lava from east rift zone vents flowed through tubes to the coast and entered the ocean at two locations west of Kalapana; active surface flows also continued on the pali within the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `O`o vents remained elevated. The plume continued to carry glassy bits of spatter and small amounts of ash. A deflation-inflation event began on 22 June and was continuing the next day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 June-16 June 2009

During 10-16 June, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows on the pali and on the TEB flow field. Explosions from the Waikupanaha ocean entry were reported on 13 June.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of tephra, including Pele's hair and fresh spatter, were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. A molten lava pool near the base of the cavity, about 100 m below the floor of the crater, produced bright incandescence. The Halema'uma'u Overlook Vent webcam that has a view into the vent cavity showed a draining event from the actively bubbling lava pond on the evening of 12 June. Sounds resembling rushing gas and rockfalls were occasionally heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; measurements were 1,100 and 1,000 tonnes per day on 11 and 12 June, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 June-9 June 2009

During 3-9 June, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. The Kupapa'u ocean entry was again active starting on 4 or 5 June. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows above and in the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision, and on the TEB flow field.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of tephra, including Pele's hair and fresh spatter, were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. A molten lava pool near the base of the cavity, about 100 m below the floor of the crater, produced bright incandescence. Lava was clearly visible in the Halema'uma'u Overlook Vent webcam on 5 June. On 8 and 9 June, sounds resembling rushing gas and rockfalls were heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; measurements were 700 and 800 tonnes per day on 4 and 5 June, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 May-2 June 2009

During 27 May-2 June, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. The Kupapa'u ocean entry was active until 31 May. On 30 May, a thermal anomaly on the upper TEB flow field was detected on satellite imagery. Pilot reports and satellite imagery analysis on 2 June confirmed active surface lava flows in this area. A small channelized 'a'a lava flow had stagnated above the top of the pali.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume, occasionally tinged brown, that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of ash-sized tephra, including Pele's hair, Pele's tears, and fresh spatter, were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. A molten lava pool near the base of the cavity, deep below the floor of the vent, produced incandescence of variable intensity. Sounds resembling rushing gas were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 May-26 May 2009

During 20-26 May, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that rose 200-300 m. The plume drifted N, NE, and SW, and caused poor air quality in the summit region. Small amounts of usually ash-sized tephra, including Pele's hair, Pele's tears, and glassy spatter, were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. A molten lava pool near the base of the cavity, deep below the floor of the vent, produced incandescence of variable intensity. Sounds resembling rushing gas and rockfalls were heard in the vicinity of the crater on 26 May.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 May-19 May 2009

During 13-19 May, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume, occasionally tinged brown, that drifted mainly W. Various amounts of tephra, including Pele's hair and irregular pieces of vesicular glass, were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. A molten lava pool near the base of the cavity, deep below the floor of the vent, produced incandescence of variable intensity. Sounds resembling rushing gas and rockfalls were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 May-12 May 2009

During 6-12 May, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. On 6 May, a bench collapse from Kupapa'u was detected by seismic signals. Tour pilots reported an active surface lava flow above the pali that was less than half a kilometer long. A thermal anomaly corresponding to the flow was detected on satellite imagery. Geologists on an overflight on 7 May mapped a stalled 'a'a flow that broke out from the TEB lava tube and was being covered by pahoehoe from the breakout point. They also saw that the Waikupanaha delta had built out to the furthest point in its over 13-month history and that bus-sized chunks of delta were scattered on the beach fronting the Kupapa'u entry, as a result of the 6 May collapse. Some explosions occurred at the Waikupanaha ocean entry on 10 May.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume that that drifted W and SW. A molten lava pool near the base of the cavity, deep below the floor of the crater, produced the brightest incandescence from the summit vent since early December 2008. Sounds resembling rushing gas and falling rocks were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Fresh spatter was retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during 6-7 May. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was elevated; measurements were 1,100 and 700 tonnes per day on 8 and 10 May, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 April-5 May 2009

During 29 April-5 May, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Some explosions occurred at the Waikupanaha ocean entry. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume that sometimes caused poor air quality in nearby areas. Sounds resembling rushing gas were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Various amounts of tephra, spatter, and ash were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. On 3 May, unusually bright incandescence seen from the vent on the web camera was accompanied by a decrease in summit tremor levels of about 40 percent. During 4-5 May, bright incandescence was again noted; summit tremor levels were variable but never exceeded moderate values.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 April-28 April 2009

During 22-28 April, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Occasional explosions occurred from the Waikupanaha ocean entry, and on 22 April small littoral explosions continued to build up a steep-sided cone at the Kupapa'u entry. Surface flows were present on the coastal plain. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume occasionally tinged brown that drifted SW, N, and NE. Poor air quality in nearby communities was sometimes caused by the plume. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas or rockfalls were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Various amounts of tephra, including Pele's hair, spatter, and ash, were frequently retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 April-21 April 2009

During 15-21 April, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Occasional explosions occurred from the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Surface flows were present on the coastal plain and at the base of the pali. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume occasionally tinged brown that drifted mainly SW. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas or rockfalls were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Pele's hair, tiny glass spheres, and ash were frequently retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was elevated, reaching 700 tonnes per day on 15 April; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 April-14 April 2009

During 8-14 April, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Occasional explosions occurred from the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Surface flows on the coastal plain or from the Prince lobe were seen or detected by satellite imagery. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume occasionally tinged brown that drifted mainly SW. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was elevated; measurements were 1,000, 900, and 1,000 tonnes per day on 8, 9, and 13 April, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. On 13 April, Pele's hair, tiny glass spheres, and ash were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. On 14 April, ash was collected from the bins. Seismic instruments recorded a M 5 earthquake beneath the S flank, 12 km SE of the summit, at a depth of 10 km.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 April-7 April 2009

During 1-7 April, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Surface flows on the coastal plain were seen or detected by satellite imagery. Occasional explosions occurred from the Waikupanaha ocean entry. On 2 April, geologists found that the surface lava flow feeding the Kupapa'u entry was 1 km (0.6 m) wide.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Variable amounts of tephra including some Pele's hair, Pele's tears, and rock dust were retrieved daily from collection bins placed near the plume. During 31 March and 1 April, geologists utilizing an infrared camera to look into the vent saw a lava pond that rose and fell approximately every 3 minutes. During 2-3 April, the lava pond was replaced by a large hot opening; ejected spatter built up a rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was elevated; measurements were 550, 800, and 700 tonnes per day on 1, 2, and 3 April, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 March-31 March 2009

During 24-31 March, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Daily thermal anomalies seen on satellite imagery suggested surface flows on the coastal plain.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Variable amounts of tephra and some Pele's hair were retrieved almost daily from collection bins placed near the plume. On 24 March, a dusty brown plume rose from the vent. Geologists utilizing an infrared camera saw at least two spattering openings deep below the vent rim. On 25 March, two more brown plumes were emitted. A larger collapse was followed by a large, dense, brown plume, and several more brown plumes over the next two hours. The rockfalls within the vent covered the previously seen hot vents. During 26-28 March, infrared camera views revealed a rising and falling lava surface deep below the crater floor. The lava surface was static, but circulating on 29 March. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 500, 900, and 1,000 tonnes per day on 25, 26, and 30 March, respectively; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 March-24 March 2009

During 18-24 March, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Activity near the Prince Lobe was noted, and thermal anomalies seen on satellite imagery during most days suggested surface flows on the coastal plain. Explosions from the Waikupanaha ocean entry were seen on 19 March. During 19-20 March, the Kupapa'u bench was 450 m wide (along shore) and extended 70 m into the ocean.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume, occasionally tinged brown, that drifted mainly SW. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Tephra and some glassy spatter were retrieved almost daily from collection bins placed near the plume. On 20 March, geologists utilizing an infrared camera saw that a single small spattering vent (another was out of sight to the E) at the bottom of a large overhung cavity beneath the Halema'uma'u crater floor emitted gas and steam. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 500 and 900 tonnes per day on 19 and 23 March, respectively; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 March-17 March 2009

During 11-17 March, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry and occasionally producing explosions. Thermal anomalies noted during most days on the coastal plain suggested surface flows. During 11-13 March, scattered surface flows near the Prince lobe were noted. On 13 March, a 30-m-wide lava flow entered the ocean at Kupapa'u, a second ocean entry location to the W of Waikupanaha. Kupapa'u was active during 14-17 March.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume; southwesterly winds often caused poor air quality in communities to the N. Incandescence from the vent was seldom seen. On 12 March, seemingly fresh spatter was collected from bins placed near the plume; minimal amounts of ash were collected the next day. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 1,000 tonnes per day on 13 March; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. Field visits to the caldera floor indicated that there was an ash emission event sometime before dawn on 15 March, possibly following a wall collapse within the Halema'uma'u vent. Ash coated several monitoring instruments and was detected in Volcano, about 6 km NE. On 16 March, the plume drifted N and dusted HVO with ash.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 March-10 March 2009

During 4-10 March, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry and occasionally producing explosions. Thermal anomalies noted during most days on the coastal plain suggested surface flows. Scattered surface flows near the Prince lobe were noted on 5 and 9 March. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW; incandescence was intermittently seen. Small amounts of newly ejected tephra were collected on 5, 6, and 10 March. Geologists utilizing an infrared camera on 3 March saw two spattering vents and a hot area about 100 m below the vent rim. Hot areas were also visible during 4-5 March, and on 6 March they saw an enlarged puffing vent. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 700 tonnes per day on 5 and 6 March; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 February-3 March 2009

HVO reported that during 25 February-3 March lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry and occasionally producing explosions. A sizable collapse of the Waikupanaha bench was seen by a visitor on 28 February. Thermal anomalies noted during most days on the coastal plain suggested surface flows.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW; incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent. Small amounts of ejected tephra, including Pele's hair, were routinely collected. On 26 February, geologists utilizing an infrared camera saw two spattering and episodically degassing vents about 100 m below the vent rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 1,100 tonnes per day on 27 February and 1 March; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 February-24 February 2009

HVO reported that during 18-24 February lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry and occasionally producing explosions. On 17 February, four large explosions that accompanied a collapse of the Waikupanaha bench ejected rocks and spatter 275 m inland. Lava also entered the ocean at Waha'ula during 18-20 February, and at a second point further E, named Poupou, starting on 18 February. Incandescence originated from the Prince lobe on 20 February. Thermal anomalies noted on the coastal plain suggested surface flows.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW; incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent. Small amounts of ejected tephra, including Pele's hair and some spatter, were routinely collected. Geologists utilizing an infrared imager during an overflight on 20 February saw a small, hot degassing vent deep below the vent rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 1,400, 1,500, 1,300, and 900 tonnes per day on 17, 18, 19, and 20 February, respectively; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 February-17 February 2009

HVO reported that during 11-17 February lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Waha'ula ocean entries. On most days, multiple explosions and spatter at the ocean entry were seen. On 11 February, geologists found a new littoral cone, on the edge of the bench, with a large crack running through it. Spatter on the cone and the bench behind it resulted from lava bubble bursts and steam jetting reported during the previous two days. A second crack between the cone and the sea cliff was also noted. The cracks suggested that the bench was slowly failing and did not collapse as reported a few days prior. Occasional incandescence originated from the Prince lobe, the flow that feeds the Waha'ula ocean entry. Thermal anomalies suggesting surface flows were noted on the coastal plain and on the pali.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW; incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent. Small amounts of tephra, including Pele's hair and some spatter, were routinely collected. Infrared images taken during an overflight on 11 February revealed the development of a small spattering cone over the conduit that hosted a lava pond the previous week. Images taken on 14 February indicated that the conduit had mostly crusted over; a small, puffing vent was visible. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 800 tonnes per day on 12 February, and 500 tonnes on 13 February; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 February-10 February 2009

HVO reported that during 4-10 February lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Waha'ula ocean entries. On 7 and 8 February, multiple explosions at the ocean entry were seen. On 9 February, booming noises and explosions were noted at the ocean entry; observers reported lava bubble bursts at 15-30 minute intervals. Seismicity and later observations indicated that the bench had collapsed. Incandescence originated from the Prince lobe, the flow that feeds the Waha'ula ocean entry. Thermal anomalies suggesting surface flows were noted on the coastal plain and on the pali.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW; the plume turned brown on 5 and 7 February. Small amounts of tephra were routinely collected. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas and rockfalls were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Geologists looked into the vent on 4 and 6 February and saw lava rising and falling about 115-120 m below the vent rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 900 tonnes per day on 4 and 9 February, and 500 tonnes on 5 February; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 January-3 February 2009

HVO reported that during 28 January-3 February lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha and Waha'ula ocean entries. Explosions at the ocean entry were seen on 28 January. Incandescence originated from the Prince lobe, the flow that feeds the Waha'ula ocean entry. Thermal anomalies suggesting surface flows were noted on the coastal plain.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW; occasional shifts in the wind caused poor air quality at the summit and surrounding areas. Small amounts of newly ejected tephra, including rock dust, spatter, and Pele's hair, were collected. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas and rockfalls were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 1,100 tonnes per day on 30 January and 1,500 tonnes on 2 February; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 January-27 January 2009

HVO reported that during 20-27 January lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Explosions at the ocean entry were seen on 20, 21, and 26 January. On 22 January, the Prince lava flow, W of the main lava-tube system, entered the ocean at Waha'ula but was too small to generate a steam plume. Thermal anomalies suggesting surface flows were noted on the coastal plain and on the pali; geologists found active lava flows on the coastal plain on 26 January.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of newly ejected tephra, including rock dust, spatter, and Pele's Hair, were collected. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas, rockfalls, and rock impacts were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 900 tonnes per day on 22 and 23 January; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 January-20 January 2009

HVO reported that during 14-20 January lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Surface flows were noted on the coastal plain and incandescence was seen on the pali. Explosions at the ocean entry were seen on 17 and 18 January. Variable winds caused the County Viewing Area to close during 14-16 January.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Variable winds occasionally caused poor air quality around the summit; on 16 January sulfur dioxide concentrations in the air reached unsafe levels. On 17 January, a geologist near the vent heard rockfalls, and rock impact and rushing sounds. Vent rim collapses the next day caused a dusting of fine tephra, and on 20 January faint incandescence from deep within the vent was noted.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 January-13 January 2009

HVO reported that during 7-13 January lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Surface flows were noted on the coastal plain and incandescence was seen at the base of the pali. Explosions at the ocean entry were seen on 6, 8, and 11 January. A lobe of lava called the Prince lobe, to the W of Waikupanaha, advanced to within about 160 m of the coastline.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Tephra production had stopped; rockfalls inside the vent continued. An infrared camera showed that the vent conduit was closed by rubble deep beneath the floor of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 800 tonnes per day on 7 January; above the 2003-2007 average rate of 140 tonnes per day. Variable winds periodically caused sulfur dioxide concentrations in the air to reach unsafe levels and effect nearby communities, and caused the Jaggar Museum to close on 12 January.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 December-6 January 2009

HVO reported that during 31 December-6 January lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Surface flows were noted on the coastal plain and incandescence was seen at the base of the pali. Explosions at the ocean entry were seen on 31 December and 5 January.

Earthquakes strong enough to be located were variously scattered beneath the caldera, along the SW rift zone, and along the S-flank fault. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Consistent with a decreasing trend of ash production since 15 December, the vent produced minimal amounts of fine tephra; essentially no tephra was collected during 5-6 January. Sounds resembling rockfalls were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 500 tonnes per day on 31 December and 2 January; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 December-30 December 2008

HVO reported that during 24-30 December lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies were detected on satellite imagery at the base of the pali and on the coastal plain. Explosions at the ocean entry were noted on 26 and 29 December.

Earthquakes were variously located beneath the caldera, along the S-flank fault, and along the SW rift zone. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Following a decreasing trend since 15 December, the vent produced minimal amounts of tephra that mostly consisted of fine rock dust. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 400 and 800 tonnes per day on 24 and 29 December, respectively; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 December-23 December 2008

HVO reported that during 17-23 December lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies were detected on satellite imagery at the base of the pali and on the coastal plain. During 19-20 December geologists reported explosions at the ocean entry. Earthquakes were variously located beneath the caldera and along the S-flank fault. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW and deposited small amounts of tephra.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 December-16 December 2008

HVO reported that during 10-16 December lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was occasionally seen at the TEB vent, and surface flows were noted on and at the base of the pali, and on the coastal plain. A branch of lava previously seen traveling S towards the Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park boundary went about 55 m into the park. On 16 December, a Pu'u 'O'o Crater web camera was hit with a small amount of debris, suggesting a collapse in the crater.

Earthquakes were variously located beneath the caldera, along the SW rift zone, and along the S-flank fault. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater the number of earthquakes on 10 December ranged from 150 to 200, but were too small to be located more precisely (less than M 1.7 and recorded on fewer than four seismometers). The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW and deposited small amounts of tephra. Weak winds caused poor air quality at the summit. Sounds resembling rockfalls were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 December-9 December 2008

HVO reported that during 3-9 December lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was occasionally seen at the TEB vent, and surface flows were noted on and at the base of the pali. On 6 December, a few explosions originated from the ocean entry. Observers reported that a small bench collapse that occurred sometime between 6 and 7 December sent boulders up to 0.5 m in diameter inland about 50-75 m.

Earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, along the SW rift zone, and along the S-flank fault. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW and deposited small amounts of tephra. Night-time incandescence was rarely seen at the base of the plume, and sounds resembling rockfalls were heard in the vicinity of the crater. During 2-4 December, the plume drifted NW and high concentrations of sulfur dioxide were measured at various locations. On 4 December, hybrid earthquakes were followed by several minutes of dense brown emissions. A vent rim collapse was seen on 5 December after rockfall and booming sounds were heard, and brown ash was emitted. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 1,000 and 500 tonnes per day on 4 and 5 December, respectively; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 November-2 December 2008

HVO reported that during 26 November-2 December lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was seen at the TEB vent. Breakout lava flows low on the pali fed channelized flows that traveled S towards the Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park boundary. GPS stations spanning Pu'u 'O'o Crater recorded almost 4 cm of contraction during the previous 3 months. Earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, and along the SW rift zone, the S-flank fault, and the Koa'e fault. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW and deposited small amounts of tephra. Night-time incandescence was occasionally seen at the base of the plume. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 500 tonnes per day on 26 November; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 November-25 November 2008

HVO reported that during 19-25 November lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence and active surface flows were seen on and at the base of the pali (fault scarp), and at the TEB vent. Earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, and along the S-flank fault. During 20-21 November, tremor levels increased to four times the background level. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW and deposited small amounts of tephra. Night-time incandescence was occasionally seen at the base of the plume. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 1,700 and 700 tonnes per day on 20 and 24 November, respectively; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 November-18 November 2008

HVO reported that during 12-18 November lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence and active surface flows were seen on and at the base of the pali (fault scarp). Earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, and along the S-flank fault. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater daily earthquakes ranged from 20 to 40 (background is about 40), but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW and deposited small amounts of tephra. Night-time incandescence was seen at the base of the plume on the web camera for the first time in about a month, and sounds resembling distant surf and rockfalls were heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,200 and 800 tonnes per day on 14 and 17 November, respectively; the 2003-2007 rate average was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 November-11 November 2008

HVO reported that during 5-11 November lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected on satellite imagery indicated active surface flows. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 2,000 tonnes per day on 7 November, near the 2005-2007 average background rate of 1,700 tonnes per day.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera and along the S-flank fault. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater earthquakes ranged from 40 to 60 (background is about 40), but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume that occasionally turned brown and drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume, and sounds resembling distant surf and rock clattering were heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 900 tonnes per day on 7 November. The 2003-2007 rate average was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 October-4 November 2008

HVO reported that during 29 October-4 November lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected on satellite imagery indicated active surface flows, especially in the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision. Explosive activity at the ocean entry was reported on 31 October and 1 November. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 1,200 and 1,700 tonnes per day on 30 October and 3 November, respectively, half of the background rate of the 2005-2007 average.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera and along the S-flank fault. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater earthquakes ranged from 40 to 60 (background is about 40), but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume, and sounds resembling distant surf and rock clattering were heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 500-700 tonnes per day during 29-31 October and 3 November. The 2003-2007 rate average was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 October-28 October 2008

HVO reported that during 22-28 October lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Lava flow production possibly paused during 26-27 October. Multiple surface lava flows on the pali were noted. On 23 October, a plume drifted above the County Viewing Area near the ocean entry and rained acid droplets, causing a closure. Explosions at the ocean entry were reported on 24 October. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 1,000 tonnes per day on 23 and 24 October, half of the background rate of the 2005-2007 average. Weak winds caused the viewing area to close again on 25 October.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW rift zone. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater earthquakes ranged from less than 30 per day to 70 (background is about 40), but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume, and sounds resembling distant surf, rock clattering, and rock impacts were heard in the vicinity of the crater. Weak winds resulted in poor air quality at the summit during 21 and 25-28 October. During an overflight on 24 October, HVO geologists used a FLIR (Forward Looking InfraRed) camera to view the vent. The vent (about 80 m by 60 m) was wider than a lower orifice (about 30 m by 15 m), but narrower than a chamber above the orifice, resulting in an over-hanging vent rim prone to collapse. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 500-900 tonnes per day during 22-24 October. The 2003-2007 rate average was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 October-21 October 2008

HVO reported that during 15-21 October lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Multiple surface lava flows on the pali were noted; on 16 October a channelized 'a'a flow was active in the Royal Gardens subdivision and a pahoehoe flow was seen on the W side of the active flow field. Lava destroyed one of two remaining intermittently occupied structures in the subdivision. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 1,000 tonnes per day on 17 October, half of the background rate of the 2005-2007 average. Explosions at the ocean entry were reported on 19 October.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, and along the S-flank faults. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater earthquakes ranged from 40 per day to more than 100 (background is about 40), but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume, which was occasionally tinged brown in association with small local earthquakes or vent rim collapses, that drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume. Two vent explosions occurred on 14 October. The first was initiated by the collapse of a thin piece of the vent rim. The second explosion ejected molten spatter that fell within 100 m of the vent and produced an eruption plume that rose 2 km above the caldera rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 600 and 900 tonnes per day on 16 and 17 October, respectively. The 2003-2007 rate average was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 October-14 October 2008

HVO reported that during 8-14 October lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Multiple lava breakouts, including a small 'a'a flow E of the Royal Gardens subdivision, and points of incandescence on the pali were noted. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 1,400 tonnes per day on 12 October, below the background rate since early 2005. Explosions at the ocean entry were reported on 13 October.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, and along the S-flank faults. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater earthquakes ranged from 40 per day to more than 80 (background is about 40), but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume, which was occasionally tinged brown in association with small local earthquakes, that drifted mainly SW and S. Night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume. An explosion on 12 October produced pulsating ash-rich clouds with pulses of incandescent gas and tephra. Significant tephra deposits included frothy ejecta up to fist and grapefruit sizes. In a video of the eruption, incandescence in the plume appears to be well above the level of the crater rim (about 70 m above the vent). The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,200 tonnes per day on 10 October. The 2003-2007 rate average was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 October-7 October 2008

HVO reported that during 1-7 October lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex. Lava that reached the ocean entry generated a steam plume during much of the reporting period; a plume was absent during 4-6 October. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 1,400 tonnes per day on 5 October, below the background rate as averaged over the past 25+ years.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW rift zone. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater small earthquakes per day ranged from less than 40 to 100 (background is about 20-40), but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume with occasional minor ash content that drifted mainly SW, but also in multiple other directions. Weak night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 900 and 1,100 tonnes per day on 3 and 5 October, respectively. The 2003-2007 rate average was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 September-30 September 2008

HVO reported that during 24-30 September, lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the ocean entry. Explosions at the ocean entry were noted on 25 and 27 September.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, along the SW rift zone, and along the S-flank faults. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, 40-100 small earthquakes per day (background is 20-40) also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume with minor tephra content that drifted mainly SW. Weak night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume. The plume was occasionally tinged brown in association with small local earthquakes. During an overflight on 26 September, HVO geologists estimated that the surface of the lava pond was about 120-140 m below the crater floor, about 20-40 m lower than the previous pond surface observed on 5 September.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 September-23 September 2008

HVO reported that during 17-23 September, lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. During 18-19 September, explosions from the base of the plume ejected debris into the air. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 1,700 tonnes per day on 21 September, near the background rate as averaged over the past 25 years.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, and along the S-flank faults. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, 40-80 small earthquakes per day (background is 20-40) also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely. On 19 September a M 4.3 earthquake, felt island-wide, was located at a depth of 9.7 km below the S flank. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume with occasional minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. Weak night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume, and rock impact and rushing gas sounds were heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,200 tonnes per day on 21 September. The pre-2008 background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 September-16 September 2008

HVO reported that during 10-16 September, lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. On 9 September, geologists observed small littoral explosions that ejected debris 20 m into the air. Incandescence flashed from multiple sources within the central and western parts of Pu'u 'O'o crater were seen during 11-12 September.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW rift zones. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, 50-100 small earthquakes per day (background is 20-40) also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. The plume was occasionally tinged brown in association with small local earthquakes. Weak night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume, and rock impact sounds were heard in the vicinity of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 September-9 September 2008

HVO reported that during 3-9 September, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry and one further to the E. On 5 September, geologists saw multiple surface flows during an aerial observation: four on the coastal plain, and a large 'a'a flow and a small pahoehoe flow in the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. The plume was occasionally tinged brown in association with small local earthquakes. Weak night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume, and rock impact sounds were heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sample collection bin contained tephra, Pele's hair, Pele's tears, and a variously shaped glass fragments. On 5 September, scientists saw the surface of a sloshing lava lake, 50 m in diameter, about 100 m below the vent rim while hovering over the vent in a helicopter. A second view revealed a roiling pond with multiple bursting bubbles that changed into a central upwelling circulation pattern. The level of the lake dropped slightly before the cycle restarted.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 August-2 September 2008

HVO reported that during 27 August-2 September, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex and reached the Waikupanaha ocean entry. On 31 August, students from the University of Hawaii at Hilo reported low-level explosive activity at Waikupanaha.

A high number of Kilauea's earthquakes were centered in various locations along the Koa'e fault system, beneath the summit, N of Kupaianaha, along the S-flank faults, and along the E and SW rift zones. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, more than 40 and up to 400 small earthquakes per day (background 40) also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. The plume was occasionally tinged brown. Weak night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume, and rock impacts and muted rushing sounds were heard in the vicinity of the crater. During 26-27 August, multiple ash ejections were observed. On 27 August, the white plume was temporarily tinged brown and rose to a higher altitude following an explosive eruption (the fifth in 2008). Glass fragments and tephra up to 5 cm in diameter burned holes in a collection tarp placed near the overlook. Analysis of photos captured over the previous month showed that the vent had lengthened by almost 50 percent along the edge of the crater floor. On 29 August, the collection bin contained Pele's hair, Pele's tears, and a variety of other shapes of glass fragments.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 August-26 August 2008

HVO reported that during 20-26 August, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. On 20 August, geologists observed bursting lava bubbles from an area E of Waikupanaha that threw molten fragments 10-20 m into the air. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 3,200 and 1,800 tonnes per day on 20 and 22 August, respectively; the average background rate is about 2,000 tonnes per day.

Kilauea earthquakes were centered in various locations along the Koa'e fault system, S and W of the caldera, beneath the summit, along the S-flank faults, and along the E and SW rift zones. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, more than 40 small earthquakes per day (background 40) also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely. About 100 earthquakes were detected on 26 August. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. The plume was occasionally tinged brown. Weak night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume, and rock impacts and muted rushing sounds were heard in the vicinity of the crater. On 21 August, an earthquake was accompanied by a 400-m-high jet of mostly gas that rose vertically, then drifted SW. The jet also contained some rock dust and bits of volcanic glass. Several small ash ejections occurred on 25 August. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 600-1,000 tonnes per day during 20-25 August. The pre-2008 background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 August-19 August 2008

HVO reported that during 13-19 August, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was noted from the rootless shield complex during 13-15 August. Earthquakes were in various locations along the Koa'e fault system, S and W of the caldera, beneath the summit, along the S-flank faults, and along the E and SW rift zones. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, around 40 small earthquakes per day (background is 20-40) also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. The plume was occasionally tinged brown. Night-time incandescence was intermintently seen at the base of the plume, and rock impacts and rushing sounds were heard in the vicinity of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 August-12 August 2008

HVO reported that during 6 and 9-12 August lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Occasional explosions and surface lava flows were noted near the ocean entry. A small fountain in a lava pond at the top of one of the rootless shields was observed on 10 August. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 1,700 and 2,400 tonnes per day on 8 and 9 August, respectively; the average background rate is about 2,000 tonnes per day.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, along the Koa'e fault system, SE and W of the caldera, along the S-flank faults, and along the E and SW rift zones. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, up to 100 small earthquakes per day (background is 20-40) also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a mainly white plume with minor ash content that drifted SW. The plume was occasionally tinged brown. Night-time incandescence was seen at the base of the plume rock-clattering sounds were heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 900 tonnes per day on 7 August. The pre-2008 background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 July-5 August 2008

HVO reported that during 30 July-5 August lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Explosions from the ocean entry were noted on 30 July. On 31 July, about 2.3 acres (or 25 percent) of the bench E of the ocean entry collapsed. A small lava pond at the top of one of the rootless shields was observed during an overflight. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 1,800 tonnes per day on 31 July; the average background rate is about 2,000 tonnes per day.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, along the Koa'e fault system, N of the summit, along the S-flank faults, and along the E and SW rift zones. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, 40 or fewer small earthquakes per day also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a mainly white plume with minor ash content that drifted SW, then occasionally rotated SE. During 1-3 August, seismic signals resembling those from explosions were accompanied an increase in plume vigor and by the color turning temporarily brown. An event on 1 August started with a collapse of a small portion of the vent rim and was followed by ejected incandescent tephra. Night-time incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Rushing and rock-clattering sounds were heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 800 and 700 tonnes per day, on 31 July and 4 August, respectively. The pre-2008 background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 July-29 July 2008

Based on visual observations from HVO geologists, video footage, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 23-29 July, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. A bench collapse at the ocean entry occurred on 22 July. Pu'u 'O'o crater incandescence originated from vents on the crater floor and was reflected in a gas plume emitted from a vent on the E wall. A surface lava flow was seen behind the coastal bench on 28 July. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was high at 4,700 and 5,400 tonnes per day on 24 and 26 July, respectively; the average background rate is about 2,000 tonnes per day.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, along the Koa'e fault system, beneath Makaopuhi crater, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW rift zone. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, another 20-60 small earthquakes per day also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in the crater continued to produce a white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Rock-clattering sounds were heard in the vicinity of Halema'uma'u crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and between 600 and 800 tonnes per day, during 24-26 July. The pre-2008 background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day. On 26 July, incandescent material was ejected from the vent in Halema'uma'u crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 July-22 July 2008

Based on visual observations from HVO crews, video footage, pilot reports, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 16-22 July, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex. The lava flowed into the ocean at the Waikupanaha ocean entry resulting in occasional explosions and a vigorous steam plume from contact with the water. Lightning was sometimes seen in the steam plume. Incandescence was observed from the TEB vent, rootless shields, breakouts along the W margin of the TEB lava tube, and from vents and sporadic spatter in Pu'u 'O'o crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was very high at 6,300 tonnes per day on 17 July; the average background rate is about 2,000 tonnes per day.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were located beneath the summit area and beneath Halema'uma'u crater, along S-flank faults, and along the E and SW rift zones. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, another 20-40 small earthquakes per day also occurred but were too small to be located. The vent in the crater continued to produce a white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Rock clattering, booming noises, and "rushing sounds" were heard in the vicinity of Halema'uma'u crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and between 700 and 800 tonnes per day, during 16-18 July. The pre-2008 background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day. On 19 July, incandescent material was ejected from the vent.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 July-15 July 2008

During most of 9-15 July 2008 the Kilauea summit and Pu`u `O`o cone continued to deflate. Small amounts of ash and elevated amounts of sulfur dioxide gas continued to issue from the Halema`uma`u vent.

At the east rift eruption site, an unusually high amount of sulfur dioxide gas issued from Pu`u `O`o crater on 9 July. More lava than usual continued to erupt from the TEB vent area during 9-12 July and flowed into the tube system, feeding multiple short surface flows. Lava also resumed flowing into the ocean at Waikupanaha. Surface flows within the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision were seen on the morning of 13 July; they may have reached the coastal plain the next day. Strong incandescence was seen from within Pu`u `O`o crater from the 10th through the 15th.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 July-8 July 2008

Based on visual observations from HVO crews, video footage, pilot reports, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 2-8 July, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex. The TEB vent is located a little over 2 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o crater. During 2-6 July, lava flows reached the Waikupanaha ocean entry and created a steam plume from contact with the water. Incandescence was also seen from surface lava flows at multiple breakout points along the lava tube system. On 7 July, seismic tremor levels near the TEB vent abruptly doubled, corresponding to a substantial new breakout in the rootless shield area. The steam plume at the Waikupanaha ocean entry was also absent that day and the next. An overflight revealed that a lava fountain from one of the breakouts on rootless shield 3 (about 1 km SE of the TEB vent) was 12-15 m high and fed several lava flows. The lava fountain and a lava pond were active during 7-8 July and incandescence at shield 6 (about 2 km SE of the TEB vent) was noted.

At Pu'u 'O'o the sulfur dioxide emission rate fluctuated between 3,100 and 4,800 tonnes per day when measured during 4-6 July; the average background rate is about 2,000 tonnes per day. Incandescence from two distinct sources in the E and W ends of Pu'u 'O'o crater was observed on the web camera during 4-6 July. Diffuse incandescence was noted during 7-8 July.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were located beneath the summit area, along S-flank faults, along the E and SW rift zones, beneath Halema'uma'u crater, and beneath the area where the Koa'e fault system joins the upper E rift zone. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, another 20-100 small earthquakes per day also occurred but were too small to be located. The vent in the crater continued to produce a white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high, between 700 and 1,400 tonnes per day, during 2-7 July. The pre-2008 background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 June-1 July 2008

Based on visual observations from HVO crews and web camera views, HVO reported that during 25 June-1 July, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. On 24 June, small episodic explosions at Waikupanaha propelled spatter about 50 m into the air; explosions were also noted on other days. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,300 tonnes per day when measured on 24 June; the average background rate was about 2,000 tonnes per day. During 28 June-1 July, a small surface 'a'a lava flow near the E boundary of the Royal Gardens subdivision advanced E. During 30 June-1 July, several surface flows from multiple points along the lava tube system were noted.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the summit area, along S-flank faults, and along the E and SW rift zones. Another 20-60 small earthquakes per day also occurred but were too small to be located. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 900 tonnes per day when measured on 26 June. The background rate is 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 June-24 June 2008

Based on visual observations from HVO crews and web camera views, HVO reported that during 18-24 June, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was occasionally noted from the TEB vent area. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,400 tonnes per day when measured on 18 June; the average background rate was about 2,000 tonnes per day.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, beneath the summit area, along the Koa'e and S-flank faults, and along the E and SW rift zones. About 100-140 small earthquakes (not located) were detected during 18-21 June. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce white plumes with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and fluctuated between 400 and 1,100 tonnes per day when measured during 18-22 June. The background rate is 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 June-17 June 2008

Based on visual observations from HVO crews, reports from county officials, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 11-17 June lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was occasionally noted from the TEB vent area. Gas continued to jet from a vent about 30 m below Pu'u 'O'o crater's E rim.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath HVO, beneath Puhimau Crater, N of Pu'u 'O'o, beneath the summit area, along the S-flank fault, and along the SW rift zone. An average of 10-40 small earthquakes (not located) were detected daily. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce white plumes with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and fluctuated between 420 and 800 tonnes per day when measured during 9-14 June. The background rate is 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 June-10 June 2008

Based on visual observations from HVO crews and web camera views, HVO reported that during 4-10 June lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was occasionally noted from the TEB vent area. Gas continued to jet from a vent about 30 m below Pu'u 'O'o crater's E rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was generally high and fluctuated between 1,530 and 3,080 tonnes per day when measured on 3, 5, 6, and 9 June. The background rate was about 2,000 tonnes per day when measured on 25 May and earlier.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the summit, along the S-flank fault, and along SW rift zones. An average of 10-20 small earthquakes (not located) were detected daily. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce white plumes with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. During the night incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and fluctuated between 680 and 1,160 tonnes per day when measured during 3-9 June. The background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 May-3 June 2008

Based on visual observations from HVO crews and web camera views, HVO reported that during 28 May-3 June lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was occasionally noted from the TEB vent area. Gas continued to jet from a vent about 30 m below Pu'u 'O'o crater's E rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and fluctuated between 2,740 and 4,700 tonnes per day when measured on 27 and 30 May. The background rate was about 2,000 tonnes per day when measured on 25 May and earlier.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located along the S-flank fault and along the E and SW rift zones. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce white plumes with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. During the night incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and fluctuated between 550 and 1,840 tonnes per day when measured during 27-31 May and 2 June. The background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 May-27 May 2008

Based on observations during helicopter overflights, visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 21-27 May lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was occasionally noted from the TEB vent area. An overflight of Pu'u 'O'o crater on 23 May revealed that a new gas vent about 30 m below the E rim jetted gas at temperatures as high as 600 degrees Celsius.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the Halema'uma'u crater, S of the summit, along the S-flank and Koa'e faults, SW of Hi'iaka Crater, and along the SW rift zone. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce white plumes with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. During most nights incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and fluctuated between 990 and 1,540 tonnes per day when measured during 23-25 May. The background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 May-20 May 2008

Based on visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews and web camera views, HVO reported that during 14-20 May lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was occasionally noted from the TEB vent area. Spatter at the Waikupanaha ocean entry built a second littoral cone.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the Halema'uma'u crater, W of the summit, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW rift zone. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce white plumes with minor ash content that drifted mainly NE and occasionally SW. During most nights incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and fluctuated between 1,320 and 680 tonnes per day when measured on 17 and 18 May, respectively. The background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 May-13 May 2008

Based on observations during helicopter overflights, visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 7-13 May lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was occasionally noted from the TEB vent area. During 10-13 May, spatter at the Waikupanaha ocean entry was propelled 20-30 m high and built a littoral cone.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the Halema'uma'u crater, N of the summit, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW and E rift zones. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce white plumes with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. During most nights incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated. During 11-12 May, the summit tiltmeter network recorded the tenth 'deflation-inflation' (DI) tilt event since the emergence of the new vent in Halema`uma`u Crater and the seventeenth so far in 2008.The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and fluctuated between 590 and 1,100 tonnes per day during 6-12 May. The background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 April-6 May 2008

Based on visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews and web camera views, HVO reported that during 30 April-6 May lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. On 4 May, lava flows from breakouts on the pali reached the coastal plain. Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the Halema'uma'u crater, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW and E rift zones. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce white plumes with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. During most nights incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high and fluctuated between 540 and 1,250 tonnes per day during 30 April-5 May. The background rate was 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 April-29 April 2008

Based on observations during helicopter overflights, visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 23-29 April lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence from breakouts along the lava-tube system was noted on 23 April.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the Halema'uma'u vent, beneath the S Kilauea caldera, NW of Pahala, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW rift zone. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce white plumes with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. During most nights incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated.

Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit area have been elevated at 2-4 times background values since early January. On 28 April, the emission rate at the summit was 1,910 tonnes per day, compared to a background rate of 150-200 tonnes per day. According to news articles, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park closed during 24-25 April due to elevated levels of sulfur dioxide. About 2,000 people were evacuated from the Park.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Associated Press


16 April-22 April 2008

Based on observations during helicopter overflights, visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 16-22 April lava flowed SE through a lava tube system underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entries. The Ki ocean entry was inactive during 19-22 April. Occasionally, incandescence from breakouts along the lava-tube system was noted.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u Crater, beneath Napau Crater, along the S-flank faults, and along the upper E and SW rift zones. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce white ash plumes that drifted mainly SW. During most nights incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. On 16 April, a small explosion from the vent ejected ash onto the overlook parking lot and on a portion of Crater Rim drive. Seismic tremor was elevated.

Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit area have been elevated at 2-4 times background values since early January. The emission rate fluctuated between 870 and 1150 tonnes per day during 15-21 April, compared to a background rate of 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 April-15 April 2008

Based on observations during helicopter overflights, visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 9-15 April lava flow activity from Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex was mostly concentrated at multiple locations of the Waikupanaha and Ki ocean entries. Occasionally, incandescence from a skylight adjacent to the TEB vents and from breakouts along the lava-tube system was noted.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the summit, along the S-flank faults, and along the upper E rift zones. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce white ash plumes that drifted mainly SW. During most nights incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. On 10 April, a small explosion from the vent ejected incandescent blocks to the rim of the crater, about 70 m above, and enlarged the vent by 5-10 ms. Seismic tremor was elevated.

Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit area have been elevated at 2-4 times background values since early January. The emission rate fluctuated between 575 and 890 tonnes per day during 10-14 April, compared to a background rate of 150-200 tonnes per day. At Pu'u 'O'o crater the emission rate was between 1,760 and 2,750 tonnes during 8-13 April. According to news articles, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park was closed during 8-9 April due to elevated levels of sulfur dioxide.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Associated Press


2 April-8 April 2008

Based on observations during helicopter overflights, visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 2-8 April lava flow activity from Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield was mostly concentrated at the E Waikupanaha, W Waikupanaha, and Ki ocean entries. Spattering and small steam explosions were intermittently reported. Occasionally, incandescence from a skylight adjacent to the TEB vents and from breakouts along the lava-tube system was noted. Diffuse incandescence was seen on the web camera at Pu'u 'O'o crater during 2-4 and 7-8 April.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath Halema`uma`u Crater, beneath the summit to the S and W, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW and E rift zones. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce brown or white ash plumes that drifted mainly SW. During most nights incandescence was seen at the base of the plume and incandescent fragments were ejected from the vent. Based on pilot observations, the Washington VAAC reported that the plumes rose to altitudes of 3.4-3.8 km (11,200-12,500 ft) a.s.l. on 5 and 7 April. Seismic tremor was elevated.

Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit area have been elevated at 2-4 times background values since early January. The emission rate fluctuated between 480-800 tonnes per day during 2-7 April, compared to a background rate of 150-200 tonnes per day. At Pu'u 'O'o crater the emission rate was 1,300 tonnes on 5 April.

According to a news report, the Hawaii County Civil Defense issued a health advisory on 7 April for those living downwind of Halema'uma'u and Pu'u 'O'o craters. Residents of specified areas were then advised by the State Department of Health to evacuate because of projected dangerous level of sulfur dioxide. Residents of other areas were put on alert.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); Honolulu Advertiser


26 March-1 April 2008

Based on visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews as well as web camera views, HVO reported that during 26 March-1 April lava flow activity from Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield was mostly concentrated at multiple points along the Waikupanaha and Ki ocean entries. Incandescence from the TEB vent was noted. During 25-26 March, an active lava flow was spotted SE of Kalalua Cone. Diffuse incandescence was seen on the web camera in Pu'u 'O'o crater.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath Halema`uma`u Crater, beneath the summit to the W, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW and E rift zones. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce brown ash plumes that turned white for periods of time on 27, 28, and 31 March and on 1 April. Analysis of ash from the white plumes revealed that there was more volcanic glass than ash from the brown plumes. The plumes drifted mostly SW. Incandescence was seen at the base of the plume during the night. During 29 March-1 April, incandescent fragments were ejected from the vent.

Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit area have been elevated at 2-4 times background values since early January. The emission rate fluctuated between 700-1,500 tonnes per day during 26-31 March, compared to a background rate of 150-200 tonnes per day.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


19 March-25 March 2008

Based on visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews as well as web camera views, HVO reported that during 19-25 March lava flow activity from Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield was mostly concentrated in and near the Royal Gardens subdivision and at multiple points along the Waikupanaha and Ki ocean entries. Lava flows advanced eastward over an old sea cliff and onto the 1990 lava delta, and were 120 m W of the viewing area on 23 March. Flows through a kipuka produced fires during 18-22 March.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the S-half of the caldera, beneath Halema`uma`u Crater, N of Pu'u 'O'o, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW rift zone. At 0258 on 19 March, an explosion from Halema'uma'u Crater scattered debris over an area of about 75 acres (30 hectares), covering a portion of Crater Rim Drive and damaging the overlook. On Crater Rim Drive, the debris was up to 2 cm in diameter and increased in size and thickness towards the overlook. The largest block ejected during the explosion was about 1 cubic meter. Small impact craters from 30-cm-blocks were abundant in the overlook area. The event was the first explosive activity in the crater since 1924. During 19-24 March, seismic tremor levels were elevated above their already high pre-explosion levels and incandescence at the gas vent was intermittent. Small incandescent tephra particles erupted from the vent overnight during 23-24 March and were deposited on the rim of the crater. On 24 March, the gas plume from the vent became ash-laden and rose to an altitude of about 2.8 km (9,200 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted SW. Geologists found Pele's hair, Pele's tears, and spatter in the overlook area. The largest spatter was 10 cm in diameter. During 24-25 March, overnight observers reported incandescence at the base of the continuous ash plume. Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,500 ft) a.s.l. on 25 March and drifted SW. The eruption was the first to produce lava in Halema'uma'u since 1982.

Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit area have been elevated at 2-4 times background values since early January. The emission rate fluctuated between 1,200-2,200 tonnes per day during 18-23 March, compared to a background rate of 150-200 tonnes per day. On 23 March, the emission rate was 2,200 tonnes per day at Pu'u 'O'o. Sulfur dioxide concentrations were mostly below detection limits at the Jaggar museum and the Kilauea Visitors Center.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


12 March-18 March 2008

Based on visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews as well as web camera views, HVO reported that during 12-18 March lava flow activity from Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield was concentrated at rootless satellitic shields to the SE, in and near the Royal Gardens subdivision, and at ocean entries. During 12-13 March, lava flows entered the ocean at multiple locations on the Waikupanaha delta and at a new location 100 m E. A breakout from the E margin near the access road split into two lobes, surrounded and destroyed existing structures and covered the access road, and entered a nearby kipuka. On 14 March, lava entered the ocean at two primary Waikupanaha delta locations; the W delta was 600 m wide. An overflight revealed that the Kalalua flow (from the rootless shield complex to the E and SE of the TEB shield) advanced 240 m since 6 March. Lobes from the E-margin lava flows advanced SE into the kipuka and S of the access road, and entered the ocean during 14-15 March. Breakout lava flows were visible inland of the Waikupanaha and new ocean entires, at the base of Royal Gardens, and near the top of the pali. During 15-18 March, lava flows entered the ocean at multiple locations on the Waikupanaha delta and at a new location, 200 m W of the viewing area, named the Ki entry. On 17 March, breakouts and burned vegetation were visible within 1 km of the ocean entries.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located E of Halema'uma'u crater, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW and lower E rift zones. Sometime during 10-12 March, a new gas vent appeared just above the base of the E wall of Halema'uma'u crater. During 14-18 March, incandescence from the gas vent originated from a spot about 30 m wide within the rubble at the base of the E crater wall. Cracking rocks, possibly due to the heat, were heard by scientists at the Halema'uma'u overlook. On 17 March, the area of incandescence appeared slightly enlarged with a new area higher on the crater wall and to the N.

Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit area have been elevated at 2-4 times background values since early January. The emission rate abruptly increased on 12 March and fluctuated between 1,600-2,500 tonnes per day during 12-16 March, compared to a background rate of 150-200 tonnes per day. On 16 March, emission rates reached 2,500 tonnes per day, the highest recorded at Kilauea's summit since measurements began in 1979.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 March-11 March 2008

Based on visual observations and web camera views when weather permitted, HVO reported that during 5-11 March lava flow activity from Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield was concentrated at rootless satellitic shields to the E and SE, in the Royal Gardens subdivision, and at two ocean entries. A lava flow from the rootless shield complex traveled E towards Kalalua. Earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, along the S-flank faults, beneath the summit, and along the SW rift zones.

During 4-6 March, the TEB flow expanded E above and within Royal Gardens, and also split into two 100-m-wide lobes (E and W) about 150 m N of the County access road. According to local sources, at about 2330 local time on 5 March the W lobe entered the ocean at the Waikupanaha entry, named for a nearby pond that was covered by lava in the 1990s. During 7-11 March, incandescence was visible from vents on top of two of the SE satellitic shields. On 8 March, the W lobe continued to build a delta; the E lobe was 470 m from the ocean. A public viewing area with excellent views of the pahoehoe flows opened. On 9 March, the Waikupanaha entry steamed from four points, but small streams of lava were only visible entering the ocean in the evening. The delta was 500 m wide and extended 100-150 m out into the ocean. During 9-10 March, smoke plumes and incandescence from Royal Gardens suggested that active breakouts from the tube system had possibly diminished the amount of lava arriving at the ocean. Diffuse incandescence was observed on the web camera in Pu'u 'O'o crater on 10 and 11 March.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 February-4 March 2008

Based on observations during overflights, and web camera views when weather permitted, HVO reported that during 27 February-4 March activity from Kilauea's fissure segment D was concentrated at the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield and satellitic shields to the E and SE. A pahoehoe flow ponded between the rootless shields and Kalalua Cone. Two lava flow lobes advanced through Royal Gardens subdivision and destroyed three abandoned homes by 28 February. One lobe reached the base of the Royal Gardens kipuka and Campout flow from early 2007.On 1 March the lobes merged and cut off the road access to the homes of the last two known residents. Incandescence from the TEB vent was noted during 29 February and 2-3 March.

Diffuse incandescence was observed in Pu'u 'O'o crater through the fume during 27 February and 1-3 March. Earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, along the S-flank faults, beneath the summit, N of Makaopuhi crater, and along the upper E and SW rift zones. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit area were elevated at 2-4 times background values where levels have been since early January. The emission rate was about 970 tonnes per day on 3 March, compared to a background rate of 150-200 tons per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 February-26 February 2008

Based on observations during overflights, and web camera views when weather permitted, HVO reported that during 20-26 February activity from Kilauea's fissure segment D was concentrated at the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield and satellitic shields to the E and SE. A lava flow from the shields traveled E towards Kalalua. A pahoehoe lava flow from the SE rootless shield was observed 250 m S of the northern boundary of the Royal Gardens subdivision during an overflight on 20 February. During 25-26 February, lava flows advanced through the subdivision. Diffuse incandescence was observed in Pu'u 'O'o crater through the fume during 20-22 February. Earthquakes were located E of and beneath Halema'uma'u crater, along the S-flank faults, beneath the summit, N of the summit, and along the SW rift zones.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 February-19 February 2008

Based on observations during overflights, and web camera views when weather permitted, HVO reported that during 13-19 February activity from Kilauea's fissure segment D was concentrated at the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield and new satellitic shields to the E and SE. On 15 February, a broad pahoehoe flow traveled E from the main complex of shields. During 15-18 February, a lava flow traveled SE from a rootless shield (number 6) towards the N boundary of the Royal Gardens subdivision. Diffuse incandescence was observed in Pu'u 'O'o crater through the fume during 17-19 February. Earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, along the S-flank faults, beneath the summit, and along the E and SW rift zones.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 February-12 February 2008

Based on field observations, and web camera views when weather permitted, HVO reported that during 6-12 February activity from Kilauea's fissure segment D was concentrated at the perched lava channel, the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield, and satellitic shields to the SE. Lava flows issued from the tops and flanks of the shields. Lava in the original perched lava channel, formed from the 21 July fissure eruption, overflowed the NW and reached a forested area on 8 February; smoke was seen through the web camera. Incandescence was observed in Pu'u 'O'o crater for less than 10 minutes at a time every day during 6-8 February. A few earthquakes were located beneath the summit, the adjacent flank of Mauna Loa, and along the S-flank faults.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 January-5 February 2008

Based on observations during overflights, and web camera views when weather permitted, HVO reported that during 30 January-5 February activity from Kilauea's fissure segment D was concentrated at the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield and satellitic shields to the SE. Lava flows issued from the tops and flanks of the shields. Lava in the original perched lava channel, formed from the 21 July fissure eruption, overflowed the N end. On 30 January, the channelized 'a'a lava flow from a rootless shield that collapsed on 26 January advanced, burning small kipukas and another small area of the Royal Gardens subdivision. The lava flow was inactive the next day. During 30-31 February, the rootless shields at the SE end of the field (within 2 km of fissure D) issued abundant lava flows overnight. The lava pond within the Shield-4 collapse overflowed several times; lava flows advanced S.

Incandescence was observed in Pu'u 'O'o crater for less than 10 minutes at a time every day during the reporting period. A few small earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater and along the S-flank faults, SW rift zone, and upper E rift zone.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 January-29 January 2008

Based on observations during overflights, and web camera views when weather permitted, HVO reported that during 23-29 January activity from Kilauea's fissure segment D was concentrated at the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield and satellitic shields to the SE. Lava flows issued from the tops and flanks of the shields. A crusted lava pond a few meters below the rim of the TEB shield was seen during an over flight on 25 January. A lava flow that advanced 1 km and started another rootless shield was also spotted during the aerial observations. On 28 January, low lava fountaining was seen from the TEB vent and a couple of the shields. The original perched lava channel formed from the 21 July fissure eruption refilled and overflowed the N end. On 29 January, a channelized 'a'a lava flow from a rootless shield that collapsed on 26 January advanced about 0.6 km into the Royal Gardens subdivision. The new 29 January flows mostly moved over older lava.

Incandescence was observed in Pu'u 'O'o crater for less than 10 minutes at a time every day during the reporting period. During 22-23 January, the summit tiltmeter network recorded the first DI (deflation-inflation) tilt event that coinciding with rain. A few small earthquakes were located along the S-flank faults and SW rift zone.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 January-22 January 2008

Based on overflights and web camera views when weather permitted, HVO reported that during 16-22 January activity from Kilauea's fissure segment D was concentrated at the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield and satellitic shields to the SE. Lava flows from the tops and flanks of the shields traveled S and E. During 16-19 January, incandescence was observed in Pu'u 'O'o crater for less than 10 minutes at a time. During 18-19 January, the summit tiltmeter network recorded the first DI (deflation-inflation) tilt event since October 2007. A few small earthquakes were located beneath the summit, Halema'uma'u crater, and Pulama pali, and along the upper and lower E rift zones and S-flank fault.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 January-15 January 2008

Based on overflights and web camera views when weather permitted, HVO reported that during 2-8 January activity from Kilauea's fissure segment D was concentrated at the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield and satellitic shields to the SE. Lava flows were noted from the tops and flanks of the shields and traveled S and E. On 8 January, the SE-most shield breached on the SE flank and issued a vigorous and channelized 'a'a lava flow. The 'a'a flow advanced SE during 8-10 January and stalled approximately 480-650 m from the upper reaches of the Royal Gardens subdivision on 10 January. On 13 January, one of four narrow and secondary lava flows initiated from the 8 January 'a'a flow, advancing along the E margin to 180 m N of the subdivision.

According to a news article, most of the upper portion of the Royal Gardens subdivision was abandoned after lava flows cut the highway that provided access to the subdivision during Kilauea's ongoing 25-year eruption. County officials later cleared a path through the cooled lava for a few remaining residents.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); The Honolulu Advertiser


2 January-8 January 2008

Based on overflights and web camera views when weather permitted, HVO reported that during 2-8 January activity from fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption was concentrated at the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield and two satellitic shields to the SE. Lava flows traveled S and stalled within 2.2 km SE of fissure D. From 21 July 2007 to 4 January 2008, the Pu'u 'O'o cone contracted about 0.45 m, based on interpretation of GPS data. Incandescent flashes at the top of the TEB shield were visible during 4-6 January and one short lava flow to the N was detected on 6 January. On 7 January, a lava pond was seen in a vent on top of the TEB shield during an overflight. During 7-8 January, brief flashes and one lava overflow at the top of the shield was seen on the web camera. Tremor remained low below Pu'u 'O'o crater. A few small earthquakes were located beneath the summit and along the S-flank fault.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 December-1 January 2008

Based on overflights and web camera views when weather permitted, HVO reported that during 25 December -1 January activity from fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption was concentrated at the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield and two satellitic shields to the SE. Short lava flows were noted to the SE and N. During 25-26 December, bursts of high-frequency tremor were noted every 70-90 minutes and interpreted as episodic spattering events near fissure D. Incandescence was visible from one of the lava seeps E of the perched lava channel on 1 January. Tremor remained low below Pu'u 'O'o crater. A few small earthquakes were located beneath the summit and along the S-flank fault, SW rift zone, and E rift zone.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 December-25 December 2007

Based on overflights and web camera views, HVO reported that fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption continued to feed perched lava ponds within a lava flow that frequently overflowed their channel edges during 19-25 December. Lava flowed from the base and top of the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield and crust overturned in multiple lava ponds. An overflight on 20 December revealed that lava from fissure D built up two more shields SE of the TEB shield. A few small earthquakes were located beneath the summit and Halema'uma'u crater, and along S-flank fault.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 December-18 December 2007

Based on overflights and web camera views, HVO reported that fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption continued to feed perched lava ponds within a lava flow that frequently overflowed its channel edges during 12-18 December. An overflight on 13 December revealed that flows from the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) were limited to breakouts at the base of the shield and were not active past 800 m from the source. Lava spattered and overturned in Pond 1 and overflowed the rim. On 16 December, a 4-5-m-high hornito at the summit of the TEB shield was active. On 17 December, lava from the TEB was about 1.1 km SE from fissure D and fume puffed from the top of the shield about every 15-20 minutes when visible. During 17-18 December, crust overturned in a new lava pond that had formed from a seep on the E side of Pond 3, and lava in the pond overflowed the margins. A few small earthquakes were located beneath the summit, and along the upper and lower E rift zones and S-flank fault.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 December-11 December 2007

HVO reported that web camera views of fissure D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption were mostly blocked by fog and fumes during 5-9 December. A brief view on 5 December revealed several overflows on the W side of Pond 1, a perched lava pond in the eruption channel formed by fissure D. A pilot report from an overflight on 6 December noted that all of the activity was close to fissure D and none of the SE Thanksgiving Eve breakout (TEB) flows traveled beyond 1.5 km. On 8 December, minor incandescence was observed in Pu'u 'O'o crater for the first time since 31 August, and was accompanied by a possible inflationary signal. Clear web camera views on 9 and 10 December revealed that the TEB shield continued to build vertically and was an estimated 15 m high. A few small earthquakes were located beneath the summit area and along the upper E rift zone and S-flank fault.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 November-4 December 2007

Based on overflights and web camera views, HVO reported that fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption continued to feed a lava channel and perched lava ponds that occasionally overflowed their edges during 28 November-3 December. Views were blocked by fumes on 4 December. The small lava pond at the top of the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield, built directly over the fissure, occasionally overflowed and fed lava flows in multiple directions. On 1 December, one of these flows was L-shaped and 2.1 km long, but mostly active within the upper 800 m. A few small earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater and along the SW rift zone and S-flank fault.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 November-13 November 2007

Based on overflights and web camera views, HVO reported that fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption continued to feed an advancing lava flow that frequently overflowed its channel edges during 7-13 November. Lava tubes traveling E and S continued to burn kipukas N and SE of Pu'u Kia'i. Built-up and overturned crust in a lava pond nearest to the vent caused spattering to heights of 8-10 m during 10-11 November. A few small earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater and along the S-flank fault during the reporting period. During 11-12 November, several earthquakes were located in an area between the Holei and Hilina palis.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 October-6 November 2007

HVO reported that during 31 October-6 November fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption continued to feed an advancing lava flow that frequently overflowed its channel edges. Small breakouts from a lava tube continued to slowly burn a kipuka about 1.2 km N of the main channel's end. An E-traveling lava tube supplied flows that burned into a small kipuka and forested areas. A few small earthquakes were located beneath the summit area, Halema'uma'u crater, and along the E rift zone and S-flank faults during the reporting period. During 3-4 November, an unusually large number of earthquakes were located beneath the S-flank faults. Tremor remained low below the summit and Pu'u 'O'o crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 October-30 October 2007

HVO reported that during 24-30 October fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption continued to feed an advancing lava flow that frequently overflowed its channel edges. Aerial observations on 26 October confirmed that a tube-fed pahoehoe flow along the N margin of the main channel advanced 2.4 km from the channel end. A few small earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, and along the lower SW rift zone and S flank faults during the reporting period. Tremor remained low below the summit and Pu'u 'O'o crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 October-23 October 2007

HVO reported that during 17-23 October fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption continued to feed an advancing lava flow that frequently overflowed its channel edges. Activity was concentrated at the NE end of the channel where 200-500-m-long pahoehoe lobes built out in a fan shape to the NW, N, and SE. On 23 October, a lava flow traveled 1.5 km and entered the remains of a kipuka along the N margin of the flow field. A few small earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater and the S flank during the reporting period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 October-16 October 2007

HVO reported that during 10-16 October fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption continued to feed an advancing lava flow that occasionally overflowed its channel edges. Lava flows advanced NE and along the S margin of earlier flows. Aerial observations on 12 October revealed that the S margin of the flow field was mostly inactive. A few small earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater and the S flank during the reporting period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 October-9 October 2007

HVO reported that during 3-9 October fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption continued to feed an advancing 'a'a lava flow that occasionally overflowed its channel edges. Lava flows advanced NE over earlier flows and along the S margin of earlier flows. On 3 October, aerial observations revealed that the lava flow along the S margin burned trees in a kipuka (an "island" of vegetation). A few small earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater and the S flank during the reporting period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 September-2 October 2007

HVO reported that during 26 September-2 October fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption continued to feed an advancing 'a'a lava flow that occasionally overflowed its channel edges. Lava flows that were advancing E and NE from the lower section of the channel shifted S during 26-27 September and burned a bit of kipuka (an "island" of vegetation) during 28 September-1 October. A few small earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, the summit area, and the S flank during the reporting period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 September-25 September 2007

HVO reported that during 19-25 September fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption continued to feed an advancing 'a'a lava flow that occasionally overflowed its channel edges. Several of the lava flows that branched from the main channel continued to advance, widening and lengthening the flow field. A few small earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, the upper E rift zone, the S flank, and the lower SW rift zone during the reporting period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 September-18 September 2007

HVO reported that during 12-18 September fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption continued to feed an advancing 'a'a lava flow that frequently overflowed its channel edges. Several of the lava flows that branched from the main channel continued to advance, widening the flow field. An 'a'a flow that developed within the previous two weeks crusted over and pahoehoe breakouts issued from near the flow front on 14 September. A few small earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, the S flank, and the lower SW rift zone during the reporting period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 September-11 September 2007

HVO reported that during 5-11 September fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption continued to feed an advancing 'a'a lava flow that frequently overflowed its channel edges. Several of the lava flows that branched from the main channel continued to advance. A section of the lava flow's channel collapsed during 6-7 September, and several new lava flows branched away and advanced less than 1 km. On 8 September, the level of the lava in the channel was about 3-8 m below the previous level before the channel was breached. On 9 September, the channel was again full and overflowing. On 11 September, a breakout occurred at the fissure vent of segment D, sending a small lava flow to the S. A few small earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, the S flank, and the SW rift zone during the reporting period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 August-4 September 2007

HVO reported that during 29 August-4 September fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption continued to feed an advancing 'a'a lava flow that frequently overflowed its channel edges. During 29-30 August, a few small collapses within the Pu'u 'O'o' s crater were detected by seismometers. Incandescence in the crater was visible on the web camera on 31 August. Small earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, the lower SW rift zone, the N and W summit area, and the S flank during the reporting period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 August-28 August 2007

HVO reported that fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption continued to feed an advancing 'a'a lava flow during 22-28 August. In the last several weeks, four 'a'a flows had started from the open lava channel fed by Fissure D. From the second flow, each had advanced along the N edge of the previous one. The first two flows advanced a total of 6.3 km from the fissure source by 24 August. On 25 August, HVO geologists confirmed that the first three flows were inactive and the fourth flow had advanced 300 m and burned vegetation at the forest edge. During 25-26 August, the channel overflowed at a point about 1 km from the vent and spread along a section of the channel about 200-300 m long. During 27-28 August, the fourth flow was about 5.1 km from the vent and continued to advance.

Incandescence was visible on the web camera from E and W vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater on 24 and 26 August. Small earthquakes were predominantly located beneath Halema'uma'u crater and the S flank during the reporting period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 August-21 August 2007

HVO reported that fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption continued to feed an advancing 'a'a lava flow during 15-21 August. Aerial observations on 17 August revealed that the first 'a'a flow had advanced 24 m since 13 August but was inactive. The second 'a'a channel had advanced 2.3 km along the N side of the first flow. Smoke from burning vegetation was visible near the flow front. On 18 August, a new and widening crack was seen on the rim of Pu'u 'O'o crater. A few small earthquakes were located beneath the summit, Halema'uma'u crater, and the S flank.

On 14 August, approximately 17.8 hectares (44 acres) of the East Lae'apuki bench collapsed, possibly due to a M 5.4 earthquake, high surf from hurricane Flossie, or a combination of both.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 August-14 August 2007

HVO reported that fissure segment D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption remained active during 8-14 August. The 'a'a flow from segment D advanced 760 m during 8-11 August and overflowed the N side of the channel multiple times during 10-12 August. On 13 August, an extension of the lava flow formed in an area of frequent overflows. Smoke from burning vegetation was visible near the flow front. Fissure segment C produced small lava flows during 8-10 August but only fumes during 11-14 August.

Incandescence was visible on the web camera from E and W vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater on 11 August. A few small earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, the S flank, and the SW rift zone during 8-13 August. On 13 August, a M 5.4 earthquake was located beneath the S flank at a depth of 9 km.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 August-7 August 2007

HVO reported that two of the four fissures from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption remained active during 1-7 August. The four fissures, A, B, C, and D, consecutively segment an approximately 2 km-long line that trends NE; fissure A is to the SE and fissure D is to the NE. During the reporting period, fissure C minimally fed a perched lava pond. Fissure D fed a NE-advancing 'a'a lava flow that was an estimated 3.5 km long on 1 August. The 'a'a flow entered the forest on 6 August as evident by smoke near the flow front.

Fuming was seen on Pu'u 'O'o's crater web camera images on 4, 5, and 7 August. A few small earthquakes were located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, the S flank, and an area offshore between Kilauea and Lo'ihi during 1-7 August.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 July-31 July 2007

An important new eruption initiated at Kilauea very early on 21 July. It occurred along the E rift zone from fissures trending ENE for several kilometers from Pu'u O'o. The fissures caused drainage of both the West Gap lava lake and the Puka Nui pit. These and following events have come to be called the 21 July eruption and an associated fissure system by the same name.

As of 25 July, the 21 July eruption included instability at Pu'u 'O'o, fissuring along an NE-trending zone stretching a bit over 2 km in length, and lava flows over an area of a little over 1 km2.

A noteworthy feature of this eruption during the week 25-31 July was the formation of a series of perched ponds of lava. These formed as the edges of pools of lava hardened to create confining walls. These walls enable the pond's surface to be much higher--in some cases as much as 5 m (15 feet) higher than the surrounding land--like a volcanic above-ground swimming pool. During the 21 July eruption the walls of these perched ponds breached repeatedly, allowing lava to suddenly flood surrounding terrain. For example, at least three perched lava ponds breached by the 25th, each breakage spawning radially directed lava flows. Other small lava flows also emerged from fissures during the week as well.

The behavior of the perched ponds is difficult to judge and accordingly, around the start of this week the area was closed to the public. The eruption resided completely within the Kahauale'a Natural Area Reserve (just NE of the Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park).

On the morning of the 26th, an M 3.2 earthquake occurred on the lower E rift zone, beneath Pu'ulena crater, at a depth of 3 km (2 miles). Lava ponds again formed in the area surrounding the fissures but views of the process were hampered by foul weather. The HVO update for 31 July noted two prominent lava ponds then. In addition, one of the fissures fed an 'a'a flow advancing to the NE around the N side of Kupaianaha.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 July-24 July 2007

During 18-21 July, the E vent and dominant W vent in Kilauea's Pu'u 'O'o produced lava flows. On 18 July, new vents opened in the Puka Nui pit, in the SSW area of Pu'u 'O'o crater, and produced lava flows that ponded. On 20 July, a vent high on the S crater wall, adjacent to the Puka Nui Gap pit, produced spatter and propelled lava bombs 10 m into the air. Meanwhile, the lava lake in the West Gap pit continued to fill, overturn, and occasionally overflow. The spatter cone that built up around the S wall vent in West Gap pit was submerged beneath the lava lake surface on 20 July. Uplift of the crater interior continued. Earthquakes occurred beneath the upper E rift zone, S flank, and Halema'umau crater.

On 20 July, just before midnight, Pu'u 'O'o's crater floor started to subside; a tiltmeter recorded a nearly 300 microradian tilt change. Just after midnight, on 21 July, the West Gap lava lake and Puka Nui pit drained. A new eruption initiated along a set of fissures that extended 1.7 km E from a point about 150 m E of the E rim of Pu'u 'O'o crater. Preliminary reports described two 600-800 m long, left-stepping fissures between Pu'u 'O'o and Kupaianaha. The easternmost fissure fed two lava flows; the farthest extent of the flow was 1-1.5 miles from the fissure in the SE direction.

On 22 July, HVO reported that the westernmost fissure was inactive by mid-morning on 21 July and the uppermost segment of the active lower fissure was completely sealed by mid-morning on 22 July. The rest of the fissure erupted lava, constructing several small perched ponds. A perched pond at the upper segment of the active fissure breached and produced an a'a' flow that traveled 300-400 m to the E. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, several new cracks were observed around its rim, parts of which had collapsed. During 23-24 July, lava ponds surrounding lower fissure segments grew in thickness and spilled lava over their edges.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 July-17 July 2007

The W vent and dominant E vent in Kilauea's Pu'u 'O'o crater fed a growing lava lake during 11-13 July. Levees built up from overflows during 11-12 July. On the S wall of West Gap pit, intermittent incandescence and fuming from new vents that opened were observed during 13-14 July. On 14 July, the level of the lava lake dropped but remained active near the E vent. On 15 July, the E and W vents erupted small lava flows that drained onto the solidifying lava lake bed. Low lava fountains were observed from West Gap pit. During 15-17 July, lava filled the pit and overflowed into the main crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 July-10 July 2007

On 2 July, HVO scientists confirmed new lava flows at the bottom of Kilauea's Pu'u 'O'o crater and raised the Volcanic Alert Level from Advisory to Watch and Aviation Color Code from Yellow to Orange. During 3-10 July, the lava lake grew and was active. On 6 July, two vents that fed the growing lava lake were identified: the W vent near the former Beehive location and the E vent near the former East Pond location. On 8 July, a small area of crust in the lava lake intermittently fumed.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 June-3 July 2007

During 27 June-2 July, views of Kilauea's Pu'u 'O'o crater were obscured by steam. Active lava was not visible anywhere on the flow field or at the site of the 18-19 June eruption. Fuming from the W base of Kane Nui o Hamo and diffuse patches of rain-induced steaming were visible on the Mauna Ulu web camera.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 June-26 June 2007

During 20-26 June, incandescence was not visible from the vents in Kilauea's Pu'u 'O'o crater. A tiltmeter at Pu'u 'O'o continued to show steady tilting inward toward the crater, and the crater floor was estimated to have subsided 100 m between 17 and 21 June.

On 19 June, new ground cracks were discovered in an area west of Mauna Ulu. On 20 June, HVO scientists measured sulfur dioxide concentrations greater than 10 parts per million (ppm) in a broad area adjacent to Halema'uma'u crater. Typical concentrations are generally negligible except for areas downwind of Halema'uma'u crater, where they can get up to 2.5 ppm in narrow zones. On 21 June, scientists confirmed that lava was not entering the ocean at the Poupou entry.

During 21-26 June lava was not visible anywhere on the flow field or at the site of the 18/19 June eruption. The crack W of Kane Nui o Hamo continued to emit steam and fume. The summit area continued to inflate very slowly and seismic tremor values at Pu'u 'O'o were below pre-June 17 levels. On 25 June, sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide emissions were at approximately pre-June 17 levels after a gradual decline. HVO lowered the Volcanic Alert Level from Watch to Advisory and Aviation Color Code from Orange to Yellow. Aerial observation revealed that steaming from the site of the 18/19 June fissure eruption decreased, though the steaming cracks at the base of Kane Nui o Hamo were vigorously fuming. Ground-based mapping of the new lava flow was also completed; the eruption occurred from two places along the fissure, separated by about 40 m.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 June-19 June 2007

During 13-19 June, lava from Kilauea flowed SE across a growing lava delta into the ocean at the Poupou entry. On 14 June, the Petunia flow went over the top of the Pulama pali. On 16 June, the front of the Petunia flow advanced down the Pulama pali and was about 90-180 m wide.

On 17 June, a swarm of earthquakes and rapid deflation began at 0215 in the upper E rift zone. The earthquakes were centered about 1 km SW of Mauna Ulu and about 1.5-3 km deep. About 70 earthquakes were recorded in the first 2 hours; at least 10 of those earthquakes were M 3 or greater. NPS crews evacuated visitors and closed the Chain of Craters road and the Crater Rim Drive between Jaggar museum and the Thurston lava tube parking lot. Fresh cracks about 2 cm wide opened in the Chain of Craters road near the Mauna Ulu turnoff. GPS receivers in the area of most intense seismic activity documented an approximate 10 cm of widening across the rift zone, near Makaopuhi crater. HVO observers noted rockfalls from the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o cone and collapse of the crater floor around the vents.

On 18 June, the earthquake swarm continued at a lower rate; about 10 to 15 small earthquakes per hour were recorded compared to more than about 100 per hour the morning of 17 June. Strong tremor beneath the summit was recorded and deflation continued. GPS receivers continued to show widening across the rift zone to more than 40 cm. According to a news article, Crater Rim drive and a few trails were re-opened to the public.

On 18 June, the earthquake swarm continued at a lower rate; about 10 to 15 small earthquakes per hour were recorded compared to more than about 100 per hour the morning of 17 June. Strong tremor beneath the summit was recorded and deflation continued. GPS receivers continued to show widening across the rift zone to more than 40 cm. According to a news article, Crater Rim drive and a few trails were re-opened to the public.

Seismicity decreased on 20 June and GPS receivers no longer showed extension on the rift zone. Aerial views of the crater floor and SW flank indicated more subsidence since 18 June.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Associated Press


6 June-12 June 2007

During 6-12 June, lava from Kilauea flowed SE across a growing lava delta into the ocean at the Poupou entry. Incandescence was visible from several vents in the Pu'u 'O'o crater and on 10 June from breakouts above the Pulama pali fault scarp and on 11 June at the base of the pali. An earthquake swarm that began on 12 May continued beneath the S flank and upper rift zones. Aerial observation and satellite imagery confirmed that the 2-km-long Petunia flow, initiating about 1 km S of Pu'u 'O'o crater, was somewhat active. Surface flow activity was seen inland of the Poupou entry on the E side of the flow field.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 May-5 June 2007

During 30 May-5 June, lava from Kilauea flowed SE across a growing lava delta into the ocean at the Poupou entry. By 24 May, lava no longer entered the ocean at the Kamokuna entry. Incandescence was visible from several vents in the Pu'u 'O'o crater and from breakouts above the Pulama pali fault scarp. The earthquake swarm that began on 12 May continued S of Halema'uma'u and in the upper E rift zone. On 18 May, a large lava flow broke out of the PKK lava tube at the site of an old skylight named Petunia. By 4 June, the Petunia flow advanced 2 km. Also on 4 June, a M 3.8 earthquake occurred about 4 km NE of Pahala town. Surface flow activity was seen on the E flow-field between Royal Gardens subdivision and the coast.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 May-29 May 2007

During 23-29 May, lava from Kilauea flowed SE across a growing lava delta into the ocean at the Poupou entry. By 24 May, lava no longer entered the ocean at the Kamokuna entry. Incandescence was visible from several vents in the Pu'u 'O'o crater and from breakouts above and at the base of the Pulama pali fault scarp. The earthquake swarm that began on 12 May continued S and E of Halema'uma'u, in the upper E rift zone, and at scattered locations in the S flank.

On 24 May, HVO recorded a M 4.7 earthquake at 0913, located beneath the upper E rift zone, near Puhimau crater, at a depth of 2 km. A M 4.1 aftershock occurred 20 minutes later and was located 1.5 km farther down-rift, beneath Koko'olau crater. A M 3.9 aftershock occurred at 1051 and was located another 2.5 km down-rift at a depth of 1 km. Since 1998, a few earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 4.0 have occurred at shallow depths beneath the upper E rift zone.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 May-22 May 2007

During 16-22 May, lava from Kilauea continued to flow SE across a lava delta into the ocean at the Kamokuna entry. On 16 May, lava from the E arm of the Campout flow advancing along the coastal plain from the base of the Royal Gardens sub-division, reached the ocean at the newly-formed Poupou entry. On 18 May, field crews reported that the Poupou entry, about 1.6 km E of the Kamokuna entry, was 20 m wide and building a delta. Incandescence was visible from several vents in the Pu'u 'O'o crater and from breakouts on, above, and at the base of the Pulama pali fault scarp. Earthquake activity that initially increased on 12 May was scattered beneath the upper rift zone and S-flank areas.

According to a news article, new measurements revealed that the area of the 10 May bench collapse at East Lae'apuki lava delta was about 9.3 hectares (23 acres). Scientists reported that new cracks in the lava delta were observed within several hundred yards of the ocean's edge.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Honolulu Advertiser


9 May-15 May 2007

During 9-15 May, lava from Kilauea continued to flow SE across a lava delta into the ocean at the Kamokuna entry. Incandescence was visible from several vents in the Pu'u 'O'o crater and from breakouts on, above, and at the base of the Pulama pali fault scarp. Earthquake activity was scattered at the S edge of the summit, upper E rift zone between Puhimau and Pauahi craters, and S-flank areas. On 10 May, approximately 6.5 hectares (16 acres) of the East Lae'apuki bench collapsed, starting from the E-side and moving progressively westward. Each section of collapse generated a steam plume, occasionally blackened with rock dust, which rose to about 0.1-0.3 km (200-1,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes resulted from the explosive interaction between seawater and incandescent rock exposed immediately after each section collapsed. On 11 May, HVO scientists surveyed the collapse and mapped cracks inland of the sea cliff. Rock fragments covered a 1.2 hectare (3 acre) area.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 May-8 May 2007

During 2-8 May, lava from Kilauea continued to flow SE across a lava delta into the ocean at the Kamokuna entry. Incandescence was visible from several vents in the Pu'u 'O'o crater and from breakouts on, above, and at the base of the Pulama pali fault scarp. Earthquake activity was scattered at the summit, upper E rift zone, and S-flank areas. Tremor remained at moderate levels. During 3-4 May, large channelized a'a' flows descended down the pali on the Campout flow. On 4 May, a sheet flow ponded lava at the base of the Royal Gardens sub-division. On 8 May, HVO scientists reported that for the past several months, Kilauea caldera widened at a rate of 1.5 cm/month and Pu'u 'O'o cone was slowly collapsing, as indicated by new cracks on the S flank. Subsidence of the cone's N flank at a rate of 1 cm/month was also measured.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 April-1 May 2007

During 25 April-1 May, lava from Kilauea continued to flow SE across a lava delta into the ocean at the Kamokuna entry, but lava was not seen entering the ocean at East Lae'apuki. Incandescence was visible from several vents in the Pu'u 'O'o crater and minimally visible from breakouts on the Pulama pali. On 28 April, a gas plume rose from an unidentified location above the pali. Earthquake activity was scattered at the summit, upper E rift zone, and S-flank areas. Tremor remained at moderate levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 April-24 April 2007

During 18-24 April, lava from Kilauea continued to flow SE across a lava delta into the ocean at the Kamokuna entry, but lava was not seen entering the ocean at East Lae'apuki. Incandescence was intermittently visible from several breakouts on the Pulama pali and from several vents in the Pu'u 'O'o crater. Earthquake activity was scattered at the summit and S-flank areas. Tremor remained at moderate levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 April-17 April 2007

On 11 April, lava from the E arm of Kilauea's Campout flow at the base of the long-abandoned Royal Gardens ignited fires within the subdivision. During 11-17 April, lava continued to flow across a lava delta into the ocean at the Kamokuna entry, but lava was not seen entering the ocean at East Lae'apuki. Incandescence was intermittently visible from several breakouts on the Pulama pali and from several vents in the Pu'u 'O'o crater. Earthquake activity was scattered at the summit and S-flank areas.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 April-10 April 2007

During 4-10 April, lava from Kilauea continued to flow across a lava delta into the ocean at the Kamokuna entry. Lava was not seen entering the ocean at the East Lae'apuki entry. Incandescence was intermittently visible from several breakouts on the Pulama pali and from several vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Earthquake activity was scattered at the summit and S-flank areas.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 March-3 April 2007

During 28 March-3 April, lava from Kilauea continued to flow across a lava delta into the ocean at the Kamokuna entry. Lava was not seen entering the ocean at the East Lae'apuki entry. During 28-29 March, a more than usual number of earthquakes were located near the Halema'uma'u and Koko'olau craters and on the S flank. Incandescence was intermittently visible from several breakouts on the Pulama pali and from several vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. On 31 March, a major lava breakout from the Campout flow caused trees to ignite on a near-by kipuka (an "island" of vegetation) and produced small explosions from trapped gas.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 March-27 March 2007

During 21-27 March, lava from Kilauea continued to flow across lava deltas into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and Kamokuna entries. Incandescence was intermittently visible from several breakouts on the pali and from several vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. A few small earthquakes were located in the summit and Poliokeawe (South Flank) areas. On 27 March, a'a' flows were active on the pali. Tremor at Pu'u 'O'o' continued at moderate levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 March-20 March 2007

During 14-19 March, lava from Kilauea continued to flow across lava deltas into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and Kamokuna entries. Incandescence was intermittently visible from several breakouts on the pali and from several vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. On 14 March, 'a'a flows from the Campout flow were seen on the pali. Tremor at Kilauea's summit continued at low levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 March-13 March 2007

During 7-13 March, lava from Kilauea continued to flow across lava deltas into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and Kamokuna entries. On 10 March, lava no longer entered the ocean at East Ka'ili'ili and likely branched off W towards the Royal Gardens subdivision. Steam plumes at East Ka'ili'ili possibly from water washing onto hot rocks, were visible on subsequent days. Incandescence was intermittently visible from several breakouts on the pali and from several vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Tremor at Kilauea's summit continued at low levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 February-6 March 2007

During 28 February-6 March, lava from Kilauea continued to flow from lava deltas into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki, Kamokuna, and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence was intermittently visible from several breakouts on the pali and from several vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Tremor at Kilauea's summit continued at low levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 February-27 February 2007

During 21-27 February, lava from Kilauea continued to flow from lava deltas into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki, Kamokuna, and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence was intermittently visible from several breakouts on the pali and from several vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. On 22 February, HVO field crews reported gas jetting from vents on the S side of Pu'u 'O'o. Tremor at Kilauea's summit continued at low levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 February-20 February 2007

During 14-20 February, lava from Kilauea continued to flow from lava deltas into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki, Kamokuna, and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence was intermittently visible from several breakouts on the pali and from several vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. On 15 February, breakout surface lava from the Campout flow produced seven lava falls over the seacliff behind the East Lae'apuki bench. Lava continued to flow over the seacliff in this area for the rest of the reporting period. Tremor at Kilauea's summit continued at low levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 February-13 February 2007

During 7-13 February, lava from Kilauea continued to flow from lava deltas into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki, Kamokuna, and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence was seen from the Campout and PKK flows on the pali and from several vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Tremor near Pu'u 'O'o continued at low levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 January-6 February 2007

During 31 January-6 February, lava from Kilauea continued to flow from lava deltas into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki, Kamokuna, and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence was intermittently visible on the pali and from several vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Tremor near Pu'u 'O'o continued at low levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 January-30 January 2007

During 24-30 January, lava from Kilauea continued to flow from lava deltas into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki, Kamokuna, and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence was intermittently visible on the pali and from several vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Breakout lava from the Campout flow advanced about 1.6 km per hour on 24 January. The USGS field crew noticed several small breakouts of lava from the Campout flow at the base of the pali that flowed E and burned trees near the long-abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision. Tremor near Pu'u 'O'o increased to a moderate level.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 January-23 January 2007

During 17-23 January, lava from Kilauea continued to flow from lava deltas into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki, Kamokuna, and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence was intermittently visible on the pali and from several vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Tremor near Pu`u `O`o continued at low levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 January-16 January 2007

During 10-16 January, lava from Kilauea continued to flow from lava deltas into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki, Kamokuna, and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence was intermittently visible on the pali and from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. On 12 January, the summit tilt network recorded the start of the tenth deflation-inflation (DI) event; after 7 microradians of deflation, inflation began on 13 January. Tremor near Pu'u 'O'o increased and decreased in response to the DI event.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 January-9 January 2007

During 3-9 January, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki, Kamokuna, and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence was intermittently visible on the pali and from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Tremor near Pu`u `O`o continued at low levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 December-2 January 2007

During 27 December-2 January, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Between those two entries, lava streams were visible on 27 and 28 December descending to the ocean to re-establish the Kamokuna entry. Incandescence was intermittently visible on the pali and from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Tremor near Pu`u `O`o continued at low levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 December-26 December 2006

During 20-26 December, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence on the pali was visible during the reporting period. Intermittent incandescence was seen coming from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 December-19 December 2006

During 13-19 December, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence on the pali was visible during the reporting period. Rare surface activity on the flow field was observed on 13 December. Incandescence was intermittently visible from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Tremor near Pu`u `O`o continued at moderate levels.

According to a news article, a three-year-long inflationary trend of Kilauea's summit and E and SW rift zones ceased in early October. Since the current on-going eruption began in 1983, a total of three such events have occurred.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Honolulu Advertiser


6 December-12 December 2006

During 6-12 December, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence on the pali was visible during the reporting period. A large breakout on Pulama pali on 5 December resulted in downed and burned trees. Incandescence was also intermittently visible from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 November-5 December 2006

During 29 November-5 December, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. On 30 November and 5 December, incandescence was visible on the Pulama pali. Incandescence was intermittently visible from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole and Beehive vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. The intensity of the incandescence was strongest at the E (East Pond) and diminished towards the W (Beehive).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 November-28 November 2006

During 22-28 November, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. During 23 and 25-26 November, incandescence was visible on the Pulama pali and the coastal flats in the vicinity of the Campout flow. Incandescence was intermittently visible from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 November-21 November 2006

During 15-21 November, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. During 15-18 November, break-out flows were visible on the Pulama pali. Incandescence was intermittently visible from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. On 18 November, the Drainhole vent twice ejected spatter as high as 25 m above its rim. Summit inflation S of Halema'uma'u caldera continued. Tremor at Pu'u 'O'o remained at a typical moderate level.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 November-14 November 2006

During 8-14 November, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. During 7-9 November, a break-out flow was visible about halfway down Pulama pali. Incandescence was intermittently visible from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Summit inflation S of Halema'uma'u caldera continued. Tremor at Pu'u 'O'o remained at a typical moderate level.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 November-7 November 2006

During 1-7 November, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Break-out lava flows were visible along the Campout flow on and at the base of the Pulama pali. When weather permitted, incandescence was visible from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. The summit continued to slowly inflate S of Halema'uma'u caldera.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 October-31 October 2006

The summit of Kilauea continued to slowly inflate S of Halema'uma'u caldera during 25-31 October. Incandescence was intermittently but strongly visible from the East Pond and January vents, and occasionally dimly visible from South Wall complex and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Lava from the Campout and PKK systems continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. On 25 October, two separate break-out lava flows were visible on Pulama pali. The upper flow at about 320 m (1,050 ft) elevation consisted of 'a'a and pahoehoe and the lower flow at 114 m (375 ft) was solely pahoehoe.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 October-24 October 2006

During 18-24 October, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence was intermittently visible from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole and Beehive vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Summit inflation S of Halema'uma'u caldera continued. Weak incandescence was visible on the Pulama pali during 18-19 October. Tremor at Pu'u 'O'o remained at a typical moderate level.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 October-17 October 2006

The summit of Kilauea continued to slowly inflate S of Halema'uma'u caldera during 11-17 October. Incandescence from surface flows was intermittently visible on the pali and at the base of the pali on 14 October. Lava from the Campout and PKK systems continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Two large earthquakes (largest, M 6.7) occurred on 15 October on the northwest side of Hawai'i Island. On 16 October, HVO reported that the earthquakes did not affect the Kilauea eruption.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 October-10 October 2006

The summit of Kilauea continued to slowly inflate S of Halema'uma'u caldera during 4-5 October. Incandescence was intermittently visible from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater, when weather permitted. Lava from the Campout and PKK systems continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence from surface flows was intermittently visible on Pulama pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 September-3 October 2006

Fountaining on 28 September was reported about 15 m inland of the W edge of the East Lae`apuki bench. Lava jetted about 30 m in the air accompanied by loud rumbling and jetting sounds. Over the next couple of days, 3-4 lava streams were visible on the W side of East Lae`apuki entry, as were incidents of tephra jetting and lava fountaining 15-23 m (50-75 ft) high. Glow had been visible from the East Lae`apuki entry and the Campout flow breakout on the pali, but not from the Ka`ili`ili entry. The consistent lack of visible glow from the Ka`ili`ili entry is due to its inability to build a very large bench, so its continuing activity remains hidden at the base of the seacliff.

Observers reported on 28 September that the floor of Drainhole vent had collapsed, and was replaced by an overturning lava pond. As of 29 September a new tube and flow were forming on the E side of the Campout flow. The USGS field crew also noticed a small stagnant breakout of lava at about 60 m (200 ft) elevation that flowed E to cover a little more of the long-abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 September-26 September 2006

Throughout 20-26 September Kilauea continued to erupt from the Pu`u `O`o vent on the East Rift Zone. Summit inflation centered in the south part of the caldera also continued. Lava was flowing through the PKK lava tube from its source on the SW flank of Pu`u `O`o to the ocean. About 1 km S of Pu`u `O`o, the Campout flow branches off from the PKK tube. The PKK and Campout systems feed two widely separated ocean entries named East Lae`apuki and East Ka`ili`ili, respectively. Activity during this period included numerous small breakouts from the Campout flow, new skylights along the PKK tube, and variable activity at the ocean entries. At Pu`u `O`o, intermittent lava incandescence reflected on gas plumes was visible from the usual four vents (East Pond, January, South Wall Complex, and Drainhole).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 September-19 September 2006

The summit of Kilauea continued to slowly inflate S of Halema'uma'u caldera during 13-19 September. Incandescence was intermittently visible from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Lava from the Campout and PKK systems continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 September-12 September 2006

During 6-12 September, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence was intermittently visible from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Summit inflation S of Halema'uma'u caldera continued. Tremor at Pu'u 'O'o remained at a typical moderate level.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 August-5 September 2006

During 23-29 August, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. On 1 September, the area of the East Lae'apuki lava bench was an estimated 22 hectares (54 acres) and East Ka'ili'ili was an estimated 2.3 hectares (5.7 acres). Incandescence was visible from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater during the reporting period. Summit inflation S of Halema'uma'u caldera continued. Tremor at Pu'u 'O'o remained at a very typical moderate level.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 August-29 August 2006

During 23-29 August, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence was visible from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater during the reporting period. Summit inflation S of Halema'uma'u caldera continued. Tremor at Pu'u 'O'o remained at a very typical moderate level.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 August-22 August 2006

During 16-22 August, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence was visible from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater during most of the reporting period.

A recent leveling survey revealed an inflationary trend at the summit of Kilauea, in areas S of Halema'uma'u crater. Elevations have increased 11 cm in the past 6 months and continued to increase during the reporting period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 August-15 August 2006

During 9-15 August, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence was visible from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater during most of the reporting period. Tremor remained at a very typical moderate level at Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 August-8 August 2006

A 4-hectare (10-acre) area of the lava delta at Kilauea's East Lae'apuki collapsed into the ocean on 30 July. The collapse represented less than 15% of the delta's total area.

During 2-8 August, lava from the PKK lava tube flowed into the ocean at two entries on the SE flank, East Lae`apuki and about 3.5 km E at East Ka`ili`ili. Tilt at the Pu`u `O`o cone displayed a saw tooth pattern and tremor remained at a moderate level.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); The Honolulu Advertiser


26 July-1 August 2006

During 26 July-1 August, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki entry. Incandescence was strongly visible from East Pond and January vents, moderately visible from the South Wall complex, and dimly visible from the Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater during most of the reporting period. Tremor remained at a very typical moderate level at Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 July-25 July 2006

During 19-24 July, incandescence from Kilauea was observed due to reflections from the fumes over East Pond and January vents and the South Wall complex. On 21 July, the terminus of the Campout flow was ~1.7 km from the sea at Ka'ili'ili, about 440 m from the observed terminus on 14 July. Pu'u 'O'o tremor remained at a moderate level.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 July-18 July 2006

During 14-18 July, small areas of incandescence were observed from Kilauea's Campout flow on Pulama pali. Lava continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. Seismicity levels were low at the summit and moderate at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 July-11 July 2006

During 5-11 July, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. Background volcanic tremor was at normal levels at Kilauea's summit, with small shallow earthquakes occurring. Volcanic tremor remained at a very typical moderate level at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 June-4 July 2006

During 28 June-4 July, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. On 30 June, surface lava flows originating from the Campout lava tube were visible on the upper part of the Pulama pali fault scarp, which had not been the case since 8 February. Incandescence was visible from Drainhole vent in Pu`u `O`o's crater during most of the reporting period. Tremor remained at a very typical moderate level at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 June-27 June 2006

During 21-27 June, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. On 24 June, lava that flowed over a 67 m wide sea cliff was fed from a breakout point about 50 m inland from the cliff on the W surface of the delta. The area of East Lae`apuki lava delta was estimated to be 20.5 hectares. On 24 June, the floor of Drainhole vent in Pu`u `O`o's crater collapsed and produced a 30 m by 25 m lava pond with dynamically active lava on the SE side of the pit. Lava from the Campout flow and tube, located on the E margin of the PKK shield, advanced 1.2 km towards the Pulama pali approximately during 19-24 June.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 June-20 June 2006

During 14-20 June, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. Incandescence was visible from Drainhole vent in Pu`u `O`o's crater during the reporting period. Tremor remained at a very typical moderate level at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 June-13 June 2006

During 7-13 June, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. Incandescence was visible from Drainhole vent during the reporting period. Tremor remained at a very typical moderate level at Pu`u `O`o. The summit of Kilauea slowly inflated.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 May-6 June 2006

During 31 May to 5 June, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. Incandescence was visible from East Pond Vent, January Vent, Drainhole, and South Wall Complex when weather permitted observations. Incandescence high up on the PKK lava tube was observed on 4 June from the ground and by GOES satellite.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 May-30 May 2006

During 24-30 May, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. Incandescence was visible from East Pond Vent, January Vent, and Drainhole during 24-30 May, and from South Wall Complex on 24 and 30 May. Tremor remained at a very typical moderate level at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 May-23 May 2006

Small lava flows were visible on 19 May and minor incandescence was observed on 21-22 May at Kilauea's East Lae`apuki lava delta. Seismicity levels were low at the summit and moderate at Pu`u `O`o. After 16 May, there was very little change in deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 May-16 May 2006

During 15-16 May, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. No surface lava flows were visible on the Puluma pali fault scarp, as has been the case since 8 February. Kilauea's summit began to deflate on 14 May. On 16 May, inflation occurred that was accompanied by an abrupt drop in volcanic tremor at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 May-9 May 2006

During 4-8 May, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. No surface lava flows were visible on the Puluma pali fault scarp, as has been the case since 8 February. Low-level volcanic tremor was recorded at Kilauea's summit, accompanied by a few small earthquakes. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 April-2 May 2006

During 26 April to 2 May, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. No surface lava flows were visible on the Puluma pali fault scarp, as has been the case since 8 February. Continuous low-level volcanic tremor was recorded at Kilauea's summit, accompanied by a few small earthquakes. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 April-25 April 2006

During 20-24 April, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. No surface lava flows were visible on the Puluma pali fault scarp, as has been the case since 8 February. Continuous low-level volcanic tremor was recorded at Kilauea's summit, accompanied by a few small earthquakes. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 April-18 April 2006

During 13-17 April, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. Background volcanic tremor was at normal levels at Kilauea's summit, with small shallow also earthquakes occurring. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 April-11 April 2006

During 5-11 April, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. Background volcanic tremor was at normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Small, shallow earthquakes continued beneath the summit area and upper E rift zone. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Slight inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 March-4 April 2006

During 29 March to 3 April, lava from Kilauea flowed off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. Background volcanic tremor was at normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Small, shallow earthquakes continued beneath the summit area and upper E rift zone at a fluctuating rate. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Slight inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 March-28 March 2006

During 22-28 March, lava from Kilauea flowed off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. Background volcanic tremor was at normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Small, shallow earthquakes continued beneath the summit area and upper east rift zone, often occurring in bursts but, they were less numerous than during the previous week, and much less than a month ago. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Slight inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 March-21 March 2006

During 15-22 March, lava flowed off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry and surface lava flows were occasionally visible. Background volcanic tremor was at normal levels at Kilauea's summit, with shallow earthquakes continuing to occur beneath the summit area and the upper E rift zone. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Slight inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 March-14 March 2006

During 9-13 March, lava flowed off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. Background volcanic tremor was at normal levels at Kilauea's summit, with shallow earthquakes continuing to occur beneath the summit area and the upper east rift zone. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Slight inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 March-7 March 2006

During 2-7 March, no surface lava flows were visible on Kilauea's Pulama pali fault scarp, which had been the case since 8 February. Lava flowed into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. Beginning on 1 March, lava emerged from the PKK lava tube between the 45- and 75-m elevations, and lava streams extended 200-400 m downstream from this point. Background volcanic tremor was at normal levels at Kilauea's summit, with shallow earthquakes continuing to occur beneath the summit area and the upper east rift zone. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Slight inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 February-28 February 2006

During 27-28 February, no surface lava flows were visible on Kilauea's Pulama pali fault scarp, which had been the case since 8 February. Lava flowed into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. Background volcanic tremor was at normal levels at Kilauea's summit, with shallow earthquakes continuing to occur beneath the summit area and the upper east rift zone. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Slight inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 February-21 February 2006

During 16-20 February, no surface lava flows were visible on Kilauea's Pulama pali fault scarp, which had been the case since 8 February. Several streams of lava poured into the sea from the lava delta at the East Lae`apuki entry. Background volcanic tremor was at normal levels at Kilauea's summit, with shallow earthquakes continuing to occur beneath the summit area and the upper east rift zone. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 February-14 February 2006

During 8-14 February, surface lava flows were not visible on Kilauea's Pulama pali fault scarp due to lava traveling underground through the PKK lava tube until reaching the East Lae`apuki lava delta and flowing into the sea. Observations on 7 February revealed that the lava delta had broadened 120 m westward since 30 January. During the report period, background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit, with numerous sporadic shallow earthquakes continuing to occur at the summit and upper E rift zone. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Slow, steady inflation continued at Kilauea's summit as it has more-or-less since mid-January.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 February-7 February 2006

During 2-7 February, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area and surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp. Background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit, with numerous shallow earthquakes continuing to occur at the summit and upper E rift zone. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 January-31 January 2006

During 30-31 January, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area, building a new lava delta. Surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp. On 31 January, the lava delta was 615 m long and 140 m wide. Background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit, with numerous shallow earthquakes occurring at the summit and upper E rift zone during several days. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 January-17 January 2006

During 11-14 January, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area, building a new lava delta. Surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp. On 10 January the summit deflation switched abruptly to inflation after a loss of 5.2 microradians. Relatively high tremor occurred at this time. Tremor quickly dropped, becoming weak to moderate when deflation ended, with seismicity punctuated by a few small earthquakes. By 13 January, background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit and reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. On 14 January, the lava delta was about 500 m long (parallel to shore) and still only 140 m wide.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 January-10 January 2006

During 4-9 January, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area, building a new lava delta. Surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp. Background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of deformation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 December-3 January 2006

During 28 December to 3 January, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area and surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp. Background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of deformation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 December-27 December 2005

During 22-27 December, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area and surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp. Background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of deformation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 December-20 December 2005

During 15-20 December, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area and surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp. Background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of deformation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 December-13 December 2005

During 9-12 December, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area and surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp. Background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of deformation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 November-6 December 2005

A lava bench collapse in the East Lae`apuki area on 29 November lasted several hours, sending the 34-acre bench plus another 10 acres of adjacent cliff into the sea. This was the largest bench collapse of the current eruption, which began in January 1983. The collapse left a 20-m-high cliff exposed, from which a 2-m-thick stream of lava was emitted from an open lava tube. Cracks had been observed on the inland portion of the bench several months earlier; visitors are not allowed near the bench, but a viewing area is provided about 3 km away. Growth of the new delta at East Lae`apuki was continuing as of 6 December. At that time breakouts were also active on Pulama Pali.

Sources: Honolulu Advertiser; US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 November-29 November 2005

During 23-29 November, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area and surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp. Background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of deformation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 November-22 November 2005

During 18-22 November, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area and surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp. Background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of deformation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 November-15 November 2005

On 14 November, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area. Surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp although surface activity had decreased in comparison to the previous week. Background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 November-8 November 2005

During 2-7 November, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area, and surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp. Background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 October-1 November 2005

During 26-31 October, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area, and surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp. Background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 October-25 October 2005

During 19-25 October, surface lava flows at Kilauea were occasionally visible along the E branch of the PKK flow. Lava flows continued to enter the sea at East Lae`apuki area, mostly NE of the point of the lava delta. Background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 October-18 October 2005

On 18 October, weak surface lava flows were visible at Kilauea and one cascade of lava flowed off of the western front of the East Lae`apuki delta. Background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. During 11-18 October, small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 October-11 October 2005

During 10-11 October, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area, and surface lava flows were visible along the PKK lava flow. During the report period, background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 September-4 October 2005

During 28 September- 2 October, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area, and surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama Pali fault scarp. During the report period, background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 September-27 September 2005

During 22-27 September, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area, and surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama Pali fault scarp. During the report period, background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 September-20 September 2005

During 14-19 September, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area, and surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama Pali fault scarp. During the report period, background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Around 19 September, several small shallow earthquakes occurred along the Kao`iki fault system or the adjacent upper southwest rift zone. Small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 September-13 September 2005

During 7-12 September, lava from Kilauea entered the sea at the East Lae`apuki area, and surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama Pali fault scarp. Lava filled a collapse scar left by a lava-bench (land built out from the sea cliff) collapse that occurred on 27 August. On 6 September, piecemeal collapse of the lava bench removed much of the central part of the new fill. During the report period, background volcanic tremor was around normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. On 11 September, substantial deflation at the volcano was followed by sharp inflation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 August-6 September 2005

During 1-5 September, lava from Kilauea entered the sea at the East Lae`apuki area, and surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama Pali fault scarp. On 27 August, part of a lava bench (land built out from the sea cliff) collapsed. During the report period, background volcanic tremor was around normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small periods of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 August-30 August 2005

During 25-29 August, lava from Kilauea entered the sea at the East Lae`apuki area, and surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama Pali fault scarp and the coastal flat. Background volcanic tremor was around normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small periods of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 August-23 August 2005

During 17-22 August, lava from Kilauea entered the sea at the East Lae`apuki area, and surface lava flows were sometimes visible on the Pulama Pali fault scarp and the coastal flat. By 22 August, surface lava on the W branch of the PKK lava flow was no longer visible. Background volcanic tremor was around normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small periods of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 August-16 August 2005

During 15 and 16 August, surface lava at Kilauea was visible on the W and E branches of the PKK lava flow, and lava continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki entry. Background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit and at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o cone. There were small periods of inflation and deflation at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 August-9 August 2005

Up to seven ocean-entry points were visible off the W-facing front of the East Lae`apuki lava delta during 3-9 August; others were hidden from view off the E-facing front. On Pulama pali, the W branch of the PKK flow reached its greatest extent of the week on 5 August, when it broadened to include a couple of hundred meters of scattered breakouts and reached from about the 1,500-foot elevation down to about 850 ft. Background volcanic tremor was about normal at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor was at a moderate level at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 July-2 August 2005

On 30 July, small areas of surface lava were visible along Kilauea's PKK lava flow on the Pulama pali fault scarp. Background volcanic tremor was at normal levels at Kilauea's summit, and at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o cone. There were periods of inflation and deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 July-26 July 2005

During 21-26 July, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Kamoamoa and East Lae`apuki entries. Small areas of surface lava were occasionally visible along the PKK lava flow. Background volcanic tremor was well above normal levels at Kilauea's summit and at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o cone. An M 4.5 earthquake occurred on 25 July at 2208 along the SE edge of Kilauea's SW rift zone at a depth of ~30 km.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 July-19 July 2005

During 13-18 July, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Kamoamoa and East Lae`apuki entries. East Lae`apuki was larger, with lava spilling into the sea at several entry points. Surface lava was visible along the PKK lava flow. Background volcanic tremor remained above normal levels at Kilauea's summit and at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Slight inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 July-12 July 2005

During 6-11 July, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Kamoamoa and East Lae`apuki entries. East Lae`apuki was much larger, with several entry points. East Kamoamoa barely emitted a glow from the incandescent lava. Surface lava was visible along the PKK lava flow. Background volcanic tremor remained above normal levels at Kilauea's summit and at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Slight inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 June-5 July 2005

Lava from Kilauea entered the sea during 4-5 July, and few surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp. Background volcanic tremor remained above normal levels at Kilauea's summit and at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Slight inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano. According to a news report, around 3 July a lava-viewing area was closed at Kilauea due to the increased chance of a 10-hectare size lava bench (land built out from the sea cliff) in the vicinity collapsing without warning.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Associated Press


22 June-28 June 2005

On 22 June lava in the west branch of the current flow descended onto the coastal flat for the first time in several months. Volcanic tremor remains above normal levels at Kilauea's summit. On 24 June it was noted that Kilauea's summit continued its inflation, while Pu`u `O`o was deflating during the same period. On 27 June part of the active East Lae`apuki lava delta collapsed. Lava stored within the delta gushed out onto the surface of the delta and thence into the water. Fountains of lava reported to be about 25 m high spurted from the central part of the delta soon afterward.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 June-21 June 2005

On 21 June lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea and there was a small number of surface lava flows on the Pulama pali fault scarp. Background volcanic tremor remained above normal levels at Kilauea's summit and at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. There was no significant change in deformation at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 June-14 June 2005

Lava entered the sea at two points along Kilauea's S flank during 8-12 June, and at three points on 13 June. During the report period, surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp. Volcanic tremor remained above normal levels at Kilauea's summit and at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of deformation were recorded during the report week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 May-31 May 2005

On 31 May, three ocean entries were active at Kilauea and surface lava flows traveled down the Pulama pali fault scarp. Background volcanic tremor remained above normal levels at Kilauea's summit and at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. No deformation was recorded.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 May-24 May 2005

On 18 May lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at three areas. Surface lava flows were visible on the coastal plain and on the Pulama pali fault scarp. Volcanic tremor remained above background levels at Kilauea’s summit and at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 May-17 May 2005

Ocean entries remained active during 11-17 May in the East Lae`apuki and Kamoamoa areas. By 16 May the East Lae`apuki and East Kamoamoa entries both had benches ~350 m long and up to 75 m wide. A large plume from West Highcastle on 10 May probably recorded a collapse of part of that lava delta, which has been inactive for the past several weeks following growth in March and April. The middle branch of the PKK flow remained active and extending down Pulama Pali. The east branch reached out farther but was narrower and contained fewer breakouts. The west branch was reduced to a cluster of breakouts about halfway down the pali. Glow was seen throughout the report period from all of the Pu`u `O`o crater vents, as well as the MLK vent at the SW foot of the cone. Background seismicity, both tremor and long-period earthquakes, remained above the norm at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor is at a moderate level at Pu`u `O`o. Tilt at the summit was relatively flat, while Pu`u `O`o showed its usual ups and downs.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 May-10 May 2005

A third ocean entry, in the East Lae`apuki area, became active on 5 May. That entry and the Far East Lae`apuki entry were both being fed by lava falls down the old sea cliff and were relatively small. Based of the brighter glow, the Kamoamoa entry was thought to be more substantial. By the morning of 9 May lava was treaming over the old sea cliff in four locations; two falls fed ocean entries and two were falling onto an old delta. The branch of the PKK flow feeding East Lae`apuki was full of breakouts on 9 May. The next day the middle branch of the PKK flow developed an open-channel stream on the Pulama pali 10-20 m wide, 500-600 m long, and moving rapidly. Volcanic tremor remained at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Episodes of inflation and deflation occurred during the week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 April-3 May 2005

During 27 April to 3 May, lava entered the ocean at the Kamoamoa entry. Numerous surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat. Seismicity remained above background levels at Kilauea's summit, consisting of both tremor and long-period earthquakes. Volcanic tremor remained at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Episodes of inflation and deflation occurred during the week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 April-26 April 2005

During 21-25 April, there were fewer surface lava flows visible at Kilauea than during the previous week. On 24 April a small amount of lava began to enter the sea. Seismicity remained above background levels at Kilauea's summit, consisting mainly of tremor and some long-period earthquakes. Volcanic tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Episodes of inflation and deflation occurred during the week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 April-19 April 2005

During 14-19 April, surface lava flows from Kilauea were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp and lava was not seen entering the ocean. Seismicity remained above background levels at Kilauea's summit, consisting mainly of tremor and some long-period earthquakes. Volcanic tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Episodes of inflation and deflation occurred during the week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 April-12 April 2005

During 6-11 April, lava from Kilauea continued to flow into the ocean at several points. Seismicity remained above background levels at Kilauea's summit, consisting mainly of tremor and some long-period earthquakes. Volcanic tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Episodes of inflation and deflation occurred during the week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 March-5 April 2005

Lava from Kilauea continued to flow into the ocean at several points during 1-4 April. Seismicity remained above background levels at Kilauea's summit, consisting mainly of tremor and some long-period earthquakes. Volcanic tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 March-29 March 2005

On 29 March lava from Kilauea entered the ocean at five ocean entries. The largest, named Kamoamos, consisted of six or more places where lava entered the water along the front of a growing lava delta. A cascade of lava streamed down the old sea cliff at one of the two Highcastle entries. Bright glow came from Ka`ili`ili entry, and weak glow from East Highcastle entry. Seismicity remained above background levels at Kilauea's summit, consisting mainly of tremor and some long-period earthquakes. Volcanic tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Surface waves from a M 8.7 earthquake on 28 March off Sumatra, Indonesia disturbed tilt measurements at Kilauea, otherwise the tilt change was small.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 March-22 March 2005

During 16-21 March, lava from Kilauea's PKK lava flow continued to travel down the Pulama pali fault scarp and onto the coastal flat. Lava entered the ocean at the Ka`ili`ili and East Lae`apuki entries. Seismicity at Kilauea's summit was above background levels and tremor at Pu`u `O`o was at moderate levels. Slow deflation occasionally occurred at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 March-15 March 2005

On 15 March only small areas of surface lava flows at Kilauea were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp, and the amount of lava in the three branches of the PKK lava flow continued to decrease. Lava continued to enter the ocean at the Ka`ili`ili and East Lae`apuki ocean entries. Only a few small earthquakes occurred below the volcano's S flank. The level of volcanic tremor was low at the summit and moderate at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of deflation occurred at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 March-8 March 2005

During 3-7 March, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the ocean at the Ka`ili`ili and East Lae`apuki ocean entries; there were no signs of activity at the West Highcastle entry. Surface lava flows were visible on the Pulami pali fault scarp and the coastal flat. Small earthquakes occurred at Kilauea's summit, and no tremor was recorded. Tremor remained at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 February-1 March 2005

During 23-26 February, lava from Kilauea entered the sea at three ocean entries that were located along 4.7 km of the island's SE coast. Lava may have stopped flowing into the sea at the westernmost entry, West Highcastle, on the 26th. The number of surface lava flows diminished in comparison to the previous week. Small earthquakes occurred at Kilauea's summit, and no tremor was recorded. Tremor remained at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. As of 28 February, deflation had occurred at Pu`u `O`o for more than a week, and at the summit since 24 February.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 February-22 February 2005

On 21 February a new ocean entry, named East Lae`apuki, started at Kilauea. The entry was located between the other two ocean entries (Ka`ili`ili and West Highcastle) that had been active since 31 January 2005. This was the first time there had been three ocean entries active since early 2003. During 17-22 February, surface lava flows were visible on the volcano. A few small earthquakes occurred at Kilauea's summit, and no tremor was recorded. Tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of deformation occurred during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 February-15 February 2005

During 9-15 February, Kilauea's PKK lava flow continued to enter the sea and surface lava was visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp. A few small earthquakes occurred at Kilauea's summit and no tremor was recorded there. Volcanic tremor remained at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. A small amount of deformation was recorded at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 February-8 February 2005

Lava from Kilauea began to enter the ocean on 31 January at two entry points. The Ka`ili`ili entry to the E of the flow field was the largest and was fed by the large eastern arm of the PKK lava flow. The West Highcastle ocean entry was supplied by the W branch of the W arm of the PKK lava flow. On 7 February lava continued to enter the ocean and surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp and on the coastal flat. A few small earthquakes were recorded at Kilauea's summit. No tremor was recorded at the summit, and volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained at a moderate level. Small amounts of deformation were recorded.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 January-1 February 2005

During 26-29 January, surface lava was visible at various spots along the PKK lava flow. All of the vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were visible at times. Small earthquakes were recorded at Kilauea's summit and decreased near the end of the report period. Slight tremor was recorded at the summit, and volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained at moderate levels. Small amounts of deformation was recorded at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 January-25 January 2005

During 19-25 January, surface lava from Kilauea was visible along the arms of the PKK lava flow traveling down the Pulama pali fault scarp, over Paliuli, and onto the coastal flat. Lava did not enter the sea. Seismicity at Kilauea's summit was relatively low during the report period, except during the morning of 25 January when quick inflation was accompanied by long-period earthquakes. Seismicity abruptly returned to background levels when the inflation ended.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 January-18 January 2005

During 12-18 January, surface lava flows were visible at Kilauea along the arms of the PKK lava flow on the Pulama pali fault scarp. No lava was visible near the coastline. Summit seismicity remained low with only a few long-period earthquakes recorded per day, and weak-to-absent background tremor. At Pu`u `O`o cone, volcanic tremor remained at moderate levels. Pu`u `O`o exhibited periods of slight inflation and deflation during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 January-12 January 2005

Lava entered the sea at three points along the S flank of Kilauea during 1-4 June, and then at only two points through 7 June. Small surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp and the coastal flat. Background volcanic tremor remained above normal levels at Kilauea's summit and at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of deformation occurred during the report week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 January-11 January 2005

During 5-11 January, surface lava flows were visible at Kilauea along the PKK lava flow on the Pulama pali fault scarp and on the coast. Summit seismicity remained low on both days with only a few long-period earthquakes recorded per day, and weak-to-absent background tremor. At Pu`u `O`o cone, volcanic tremor remained at moderate levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 December-4 January 2005

During 3-4 January, surface lava flows were visible at Kilauea along the PKK lava flow on the Pulama pali fault scarp and on the coast. Summit seismicity remained low on both days with only a few long-period earthquakes recorded per day, and weak-to-absent background tremor. At Pu`u `O`o cone tremor remained at moderate levels, with periods of slight inflation and deflation recorded.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 December-28 December 2004

During 22-28 December, several areas of surface lava were visible at Kilauea along the PKK lava flow on the coastal flat, and along the Pulama pali fault scarp. Overall seismicity at the summit was low, but a few long-period earthquakes continued to occur. Tremor was essentially absent at the summit and moderate at Pu`u `O`o cone. On 26 December, surface ground motion from a deadly M 9 earthquake just W of Sumatra was picked up by all tiltmeters at Kilauea. During the report period, small periods of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 December-21 December 2004

During 19-21 December, lava flows from Kilauea did not enter the ocean. Several areas of surface lava were visible on the coastal flat, and on and above the Pulama pali fault scarp. Overall seismicity at the summit was low, but long-period earthquakes continued to occur. Tremor was essentially absent at the summit and moderate at Pu`u `O`o. Small periods of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 December-14 December 2004

During 8-14 December, surface lava flows were visible along all three arms of the PKK lava flow, from high on the Pulama pali fault scarp and on the coastal flat. By 13 December, lava entered the sea at the E Lae`apuki delta. During the report period, all vents were incandescent in the crater of Pu`u `O`o. Overall seismicity at the summit was low, but long-period earthquakes continued to occur. Tremor was essentially absent at the summit and moderate at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 December-7 December 2004

During 1-6 December, surface lava flows were visible at Kilauea. Only a few areas of surface activity were visible along the PKK lava flow on 1 December. On 2 December surface flows were visible along all three arms of the PKK flow. All vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were incandescent, except for the South Wall Complex. The ocean entry at eastern Lae`apuki had not been active since 27-28 November. During the report period, overall seismicity at the summit was low, but long-period earthquakes continued to occur. Tremor was essentially absent at the summit and moderate at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 November-30 November 2004

Surface lava flows at Kilauea were visible along two to three arms of the PKK lava flow on the Pulama pali fault scarp during 24-30 November. Most vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were incandescent. Lava entered the ocean through 26 November. On 30 November, seismicity at Kilauea's summit was low, with a few long-period earthquakes continuing to occur. Tremor was essentially absent at the summit and moderate at Pu`u `O`o. About 7 microradians of inflation occurred at Pu`u `O`o on 29 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 November-23 November 2004

Lava from Kilauea's PKK flow continued to enter the sea at the newly formed lava delta at eastern Lae`apuki delta during 17-23 November. Fieldwork on 18 November determined that the new lava delta is 260 m long and extends about 80 m beyond pre-existing land (the front of the old Lae`apuki delta). The area of the delta is about 1.2 ha. One entry point was on the far west end of the delta, but most of the activity was east of center. During 17-23 November, all vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were incandescent. Seismicity at Kilauea's summit increased during the report period, with numerous small long-period earthquakes coming from the southern and southeastern parts of the caldera. Tremor remained low to absent, however. The tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained at moderate strength. No significant deformation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 November-16 November 2004

Lava from Kilauea's PKK flow continued to enter the sea during 10-16 November at a newly formed lava delta at the eastern Lae`apuki entry area. On 16 November the delta grew along a wide front, mostly near and W of the most seaward point. A new arm of the delta-feeding flow had formed ~100 m farther E. Two vigorously active tips of this new arm were within 180 m of the sea cliff just E of the new delta, and at their current rate of advance they could enter the sea within a day. All vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were incandescent during this period. Seismicity was weak at Kilauea's summit, with essentially no tremor recorded. Tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. No significant deformation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 November-9 November 2004

Lava from Kilauea's PKK flow entered the sea during the evening of 4 November. This was the first time lava had entered the sea since the Banana lava delta ceased operation in early August 2004. On the morning of 5 November, the entry was small, but vigorous. The width of the feeding lava flow was ~30 m and the new delta just starting to form seaward of the Lae`apuki delta was at most 70 m long and 8 m wide perpendicular to the shoreline. By 8 November the new lava delta was ~100 m wide along the shore and reached as far as 15 m seaward from the front of the old Lae`apuki delta. During 4-8 November, all vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were incandescent. Seismicity was weak at Kilauea's summit, with essentially no tremor recorded. Tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. No significant deformation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 October-2 November 2004

During 28-31 October, surface lava was visible on the PKK lava flow on the Pulama pali fault scarp and all vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were incandescent. Seismicity was weak at Kilauea's summit and essentially no tremor was recorded. Tremor remained at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. During the report period, no significant deformation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 October-26 October 2004

During 21-24 October, patches of incandescent lava were visible on the PKK lava flow on the Pulama pali fault scarp and all vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were incandescent. Seismicity was at low levels at Kilauea's summit and essentially no tremor was recorded there. Tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. During the report period, there were episodes of inflation and deflation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 October-19 October 2004

During 13-18 October, surface lava flows were visible on the PKK lava flow on the Pulama pali fault scarp and all vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were incandescent. Tremor remained at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o and essentially no tremor was recorded at Kilauea's summit. A M 4.5 earthquake on 13 October at 1318 occurred about 6 km S of Pu`u `O`o at a depth of ~9 km. The earthquake permanently offset the Pu`u `O`o tiltmeter and several others on the volcano. During the report period, little deformation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 October-12 October 2004

On 11 and 12 October, patches of incandescent lava were visible on the PKK lava flow on the Pulama Pali fault scarp and all vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were incandescent. Tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Essentially no tremor was recorded at Kilauea's summit. A M 4.0 earthquake occurred at Kilauea's summit at a depth of ~32 km on 11 October at 1030 that affected tilt meters. Taking earthquake- and rainfall-induced tilts into account, the volcanic tilt was minor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 September-5 October 2004

During 30 September to 5 October, patches of incandescence were visible at the PKK lava flow on the Pulama pali scarp and all vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were incandescent. During the report period, seismicity was weak at Kilauea's summit, with essentially no tremor recorded. Tremor was moderate at Pu`u `O`o. In addition, small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 September-28 September 2004

During 22-27 September, all vents in Kilauea's Pu`u `O`o cone were incandescent. After several days of absence, lava was again visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp beginning on the 23rd. The lava was at the tip of the western branch of the PKK flow. During the report period, seismicity was weak at Kilauea's summit, with essentially no tremor. Tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. In addition, periods of inflation and deflation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 September-21 September 2004

HVO reports noted that all vents in Pu`u `O`o's crater were incandescent during this period, and glow was frequently observed from the upper reaches of the PKK flow. As of the 20th seismicity was weak at Kilauea's summit, with essentially no tremor recorded, and tremor was moderate at Pu`u `O`o. Small episodes of deflation-inflation-deflation were also recorded during 15-21 September.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 September-14 September 2004

During 9-12 September, a small amount of surface lava was visible atop Kilauea's Pulama pali and all vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were incandescent. Seismicity at Kilauea's summit was low and tremor at Pu`u `O`o was moderate. Small episodes of deflation and inflation occurred during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 September-7 September 2004

During 2-6 September, surface lava flows were visible at Kilauea on the Pulama pali fault scarp, and all vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were incandescent. Seismicity was weak beneath Kilauea's summit and tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o'. Small amounts of deformation occurred during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 August-31 August 2004

During 25-31 August, surface lava flows were visible at Kilauea on the Pulama pali fault scarp, and all vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were incandescent. Seismicity was weak beneath Kilauea's summit. There was no tremor beneath Kilauea, and it was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o'. Small inflation and deflation events occurred during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 August-24 August 2004

During 21-24 August, surface lava flows were visible at Kilauea on the Pulama pali fault scap and all vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were incandescent. Seismicity was weak beneath Kilauea's summit. There was no tremor beneath Kilauea and it was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o'. There was a small deflation-inflation-deflation deformation event during 21-22 August.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 August-17 August 2004

During 11-17 August surface lava flow were visible on Pulama pali, and the vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were incandescent. Lava had not entered the sea since 4 August. Seismicity was weak beneath Kilauea's summit, and tremor was at moderate-to-high levels at Pu`u `O`o. There were periods of small inflation and deflation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 August-10 August 2004

At Kilauea during August 5-9, no lava entered the sea. Surface lava flows were active on the coastal flat and the Pulama pali fault scarp over 5-6 August. During the report period, seismicity was weak beneath Kilauea's summit and tremor was at moderate-to-high levels at Pu`u `O`o. In addition, there were small periods of inflation and deflation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 July-3 August 2004

An episode of deformation consisting of deflation, inflation, then deflation began at Kilauea on the morning of 27 July. It was accompanied by increased surface activity at several places. During inflation, seismicity greatly increased below Kilauea's caldera. Field observers reported that deformation may have occurred at the S flank of Pu`u `O`o. Several surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat during 28 July to 2 August, and lava continued to flow into the sea. Aside from the deflation-inflation-deflation event, seismicity was weak beneath Kilauea's summit and tremor at Pu`u `O`o was at moderate-to-high levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 July-27 July 2004

Several surface lava flows were visible at Kilauea during 22-26 July, and all vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were incandescent. Seismicity was weak beneath Kilauea's summit and tremor at Pu`u `O`o was at moderate-to-high levels. During 22-25 July, deflation occurred at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 July-20 July 2004

Several surface lava flows were visible at Kilauea during 15-19 July, and all vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were incandescent. Seismicity was weak beneath Kilauea's summit and tremor at Pu`u `O`o was at moderate-to-high levels. Small amounts of deflation and inflation were recorded during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 July-13 July 2004

Lava continued to flow through lava tubes from the Pu`u `O`o vent 12 km to the sea during 7-13 July. Lava spilled onto the surface from several skylights along the path of the tube system and spread across the slowly growing lava delta along the volcano's south shoreline. Volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o was at moderate-to-high levels, but no tremor was recorded at the summit. A relatively large deflation event at Pu`u `O`o on 11 July produced no apparent change in lava discharge.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 June-6 July 2004

During 29 June to 6 July, lava continued to flow down the Pulama pali scarp and small amounts flowed into the sea. In addition, vents at Pu`u `O`o cone were incandescent. A few small earthquakes continued beneath Kilauea's summit, but no tremor was recorded. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o was at moderate-to-high levels. A relatively large deflation event occurred on 29 June, with no obvious accompanying changes in eruptive activity.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 June-29 June 2004

During 24-28 June, lava continued to flow down the Pulama Pali scarp, Paliuli, and into the sea. In addition, vents at Pu`u `O`o cone were incandescent. A few small earthquakes continued beneath Kilauea's summit, but no tremor was recorded. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o was at moderate-to-high levels. During the report period, small periods of inflation and deflation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 June-22 June 2004

During 16-22 July at Kilauea, lava continued to flow into the ocean and vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were active. Surface lava flows were visible descending the Pulama pali scarp and Paliuli, a steep slope and cliff below Pulama pali and just above the coastal flat. A few small earthquakes were recorded beneath Kilauea's summit, but no tremor was recorded. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o was at moderate-to-high levels. Episodes of inflation and deflation occurred during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 June-15 June 2004

On 13 June, two collapses occurred at Kilauea's western lava delta, sending sizable chunks of the delta into the sea. On 14 June, most lava was being supplied to the ocean through lava tubes, but several surface lava flows were visible on the delta and traveling down the old sea cliff behind the Wilipe`a delta. The larger eastern lava delta had several active lava entries into the ocean, mostly larger than those on the western delta. All vents were active in the crater of Pu`u `O`o. A few small earthquakes were recorded beneath the summit of Kilauea and no tremor was detected. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o was at a moderate-to-high level.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 June-8 June 2004

Lava from Kilauea continued to enter the ocean at several points throughout the reporting week, culminating in several new lava deltas. Some small littoral explosions were reported on 6 June, but otherwise the ocean entry was passive. Many small lava flows were observed in the area of the ocean entries, on the coastal flat, in the Paliuli area, and in the Kuhio area. Incandescence and some minor spattering was observed at Pu`u `O`o throughout the week. Seismicity at Pu`u `O`o was moderate to high, but the overall seismicity at Kilauea was low. Several episodes of inflation and deflation were recorded during the week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 May-1 June 2004

Kilauea's Banana lava flow reached the sea on 30 May near the eastern end of the Wilipe`a lava delta. This was the first time lava had reached the sea since July 2003. The interaction of the water and lava was not explosive. During 26-31 May, low-frequency earthquakes and no noticeable tremor occurred at Kilauea's summit. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o was at its typical moderate level.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 May-25 May 2004

During 19-21 May, the Banana lava flow traveled toward down the Pulama pali toward the sea, reaching within ~200 m of the sea cliff before stopping on the morning of 21 May. Around this time, a few incandescent areas were visible along the flow. During 19-23 May, tremor was at low levels at Kilauea's summit and at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. There were small episodes of inflation and deflation at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 May-18 May 2004

On 12 May, the Banana lava flow at Kilauea stopped moving toward the sea. There were several incandescent areas along the route of the flow from Paliuli to the top of Pulama pali. During the report period, tremor was at low levels at Kilauea's summit and at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. A deflation-inflation-deflation event occurred at Kilauea's summit on 15 May.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 May-11 May 2004

During 5-11 May, lava from Kilauea continued to flow down the Pulama Pali and incandescence was observed in the crater of Pu`u `O`o. On 8 May the lava-flow front was ~430 m from the ocean. During the report period, tremor was at low levels at Kilauea's summit and at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small episodes of inflation and deflation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 April-4 May 2004

During 28 April to 4 May, lava from Kilauea continued to flow down the Pulama Pali and incandescence was observed in the crater of Pu`u `O`o. On 2 May, lava from the recently named Banana flow began pouring over Paliuli and advanced onto the coastal flat. By 4 May the lava-flow front was ~1 km from the ocean, the closest proximity to the coast since the fall of 2003. During the report period, tremor was at low levels at Kilauea's summit and at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small episodes of inflation and deflation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 April-27 April 2004

During 22-27 April, lava from Kilauea continued to slowly flow down the Pulama Pali and incandescence was observed in the crater of Pu`u `O`o. During most of the report period, tremor was at low levels at Kilauea's summit. Tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small episodes of inflation and deflation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 April-20 April 2004

During 14-20 April, lava from Kilauea continued to slowly flow down the Pulama Pali and incandescence was observed in the crater of Pu`u `O`o. Tremor was at low levels at Kilauea's summit and moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small episodes of inflation and deflation occurred during the reporting week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 April-13 April 2004

During 7-12 April, incandescence was visible in the crater of Pu`u `O`o cone and to its S. No tremor or low-frequency earthquakes were recorded at Kilauea, and tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained at typical moderate levels. There were small periods of inflation and deflation during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 March-6 April 2004

During 31 March to 5 April, surface lava flows were visible at the southern part of Kilauea's rootless-shield complex, which is along the Mother's Day lava tube several hundred meters S of Pu`u `O`o cone. Incandescence was also visible from several vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o. Seismicity was at low levels at Kilauea's summit, and tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained moderate. During the report period, there were episodes of inflation and deflation at Uwekahuna and Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 March-30 March 2004

During 24-30 March, two surface lava flows were active at the southern part of Kilauea's rootless-shield complex: the MLK flow and the Kuhio flow. The summit-deflation event that began on 20 March ended on 23 March, with only minor inflation and deflation events recorded after 23 March. A weak swarm of low-frequency earthquakes and a 2-hour period of moderate-to-strong volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded during 24-25 March. Overall, seismicity was at low levels during the reporting period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 March-23 March 2004

During 17-23 March, there were surface lava flows at the southern part of Kilauea's rootless-shield complex, which is along the Mother's Day lava tube S of Pu`u `O`o cone. A deflation-inflation-deflation event on 20 March culminated in lava emerging from the S base of Pu`u `O`o cone. No surface lava had been added to the crater floor over the previous couple of weeks. During the report period, very weak background tremor continued at Kilauea's summit along with brief periods of long-period earthquakes. Volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained at moderate levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 March-16 March 2004

During 11-15 March most lava flows at Kilauea were emitted from the lower and upper ends of the rootless shield complex, which is along the Mother's Day lava tube south of Pu`u `O`o cone. On 4 March, a lava flow began to issue from vents at the S base of Pu`u `O`o and traveled ~3 km S. This flow was sporadically active through 15 March. During the report period, very weak background tremor continued at Kilauea's summit along with a few long-period earthquakes. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained at moderate levels. Small periods of inflation and deflation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 March-9 March 2004

During 5-8 March at Kilauea, incandescence revealed surface lava flows in the Pu`u `O`o crater and at the southern part of the rootless shield complex (an area ~0.5 km SW of Pu`u `O`o). Very weak background tremor continued at Kilauea's summit along with a few long-period earthquakes. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained at moderate levels. Small periods of inflation and deflation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 February-2 March 2004

During 26 February to 1 March at Kilauea, incandescence revealed surface lava flows in the southern part of the rootless shield complex (an area ~0.5 km SW of Pu`u `O`o) and in Pu`u `O`o's crater. Very weak background tremor continued at Kilauea's summit, and volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o was at moderate levels. There were periods of inflation and deflation at Pu`u `O`o and Kilauea's summit.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 February-24 February 2004

During 19-23 February, lava mainly erupted from the S side of Kilauea's Pu`u `O`o crater. A large deflation event on 21 February during 0711 to 1413 amounted to 10.9 microradians of deformation. Weak background tremor continued at Kilauea's summit along with a few long-period earthquakes. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o was at moderate levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 February-17 February 2004

During 12-17 February, lava flows and incandescence were sometimes visable in Pu`u `O`o's crater, the rootless shield complex (an area ~0.5 km SW of Pu`u `O`o), and the upper area of the Mother's Day lava tube (SW of Pu`u `O`o). Weak background tremor occurred at Kilauea's summit along with a few long-period earthquakes. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o was at moderate-to-low levels. Small deflation and inflation events occurred at the summit and at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 February-10 February 2004

During 5-10 February, lava flows and incandescence were sometimes visable in Pu`u` O`o's crater and at the rootless shield complex (an area ~0.5 km SW of Pu`u `O`o). Weak background tremor occurred at Kilauea's summit along with a few long-period earthquakes. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o was at moderate-to-low levels. Small deflation and inflation events occurred at the summit and at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 January-3 February 2004

During 29 January to 1 February mild volcanic activity occurred at Kilauea, with incandescence visible at vents in Pu`u `O`o's crater and small surface flows on the central or southern part of the rootless shield complex, an area ~0.5 km SW of Pu`u `O`o. Starting on 18 January, when the MLK vent formed, the distance across the summit caldera decreased significantly, ending a period of increasing extension rate since the Mother's Day event in May 2002. During the report period, weak tremor occurred at Kilauea's summit along with a few long-period earthquakes. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained moderate. Small deflation and inflation events occurred at the summit and at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 January-27 January 2004

On 22 January lava was emitted from the vent that formed at Kilauea on 19 January (the vent and lava flow S of Pu`u `O`o cone were named MLK in honor of the activity that began on Martin Luther King Jr.'s birthday). There were also surface lava flows at the W side of the Amalgamated Bend shield SW of Pu`u `O`o. By 26 January there were no surface lava flows at the MLK vent, and incandescence was only visible at the S part of the rootless shield complex. On 23 January moderate-to-strong tremor beneath Kilauea's caldera stopped, while it lessened at Pu`u `O`o. On 26 January deflation that began on 18 January ended at Pu`u `O`o after reaching 24.7 microradians. This was probably the largest deflation event since early 1997.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 January-20 January 2004

On 18 January during 0550 to 0830 a large period of deflation occurred at Kilauea's Pu`u `O`o cone, amounting in 18.1 microradians of net deflation. During this period a fissure opened at the SE base of Pu`u `O`o, trending approximately radial to the cone. Lava was emitted from the fissure and from three to four vents nearby. The initial flow reached about 1.5 km S of the cone. The S side of Pu`u `O`o was cut by many new fractures. The longest fracture constituted the N boundary of a shallow graben (a linear trough bounded by faults) that was ~75 m long and up to 1 m deep. Surface lava flows were emitted from the E end of the graben, at the base of Pu`u `O`o. The area S of Pu`u `O`o cone appeared to be quite unstable, so HVO scientists warned that no one should venture into the area. Seismicity at Kilauea's summit during 15-20 January was at low levels, while tremor at Pu`u `O`o was continuous and at moderate levels. The tremor picked up during the formation of the graben on 18 January. As of 20 January tilt continued to steadily decline following the 18 January deflation event.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 January-13 January 2004

Volcanic activity continued at Kilauea's Pu`u `O`o crater during 8-12 January. Observers confirmed that most of the cones in the crater grew during the previous week and most cones were incandescent. Some days much lava was emitted from the West Gap vent, and the West Gap lava shield (a pile of lava flows built over a lava tube rather than over a conduit feeding magma) continued to expand. At Kilauea's summit few earthquakes and little, if any, volcanic tremor occurred. Volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o was continuous and at moderate levels. During the report period, small episodes of inflation and deflation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 December-6 January 2004

During 30 December to 5 January, volcanic activity continued at Kilauea's Pu`u `O`o crater, but surface lava flows were not observed on Pulama pali or the coastal flat below Paliuli and no lava entered the ocean. During 30 and 31 December, much lava was emitted from vents on the W side of Pu`u `O`o's crater floor. Nearly the entire W part of the crater floor was covered by new lava flows. Above the Pulama pali fault scarp, SW of Pu`u `O`o, several active shields (a pile of lava flows built over a lava tube rather than over a conduit feeding magma) were seen in the upper rootless shield complex on 31 December and spatter cones were seen at the top of West Gap shield on 5 January. During the report period, few earthquakes occurred at Kilauea's summit and volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o continued at moderate levels. In addition, small amounts of inflation and deflation were recorded.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 December-30 December 2003

During 24-30 December, no active lava flows were observed on Pulama pali or the coastal flat below Paliuli and no lava entered the ocean. Eruptive activity continued at the Pu`u `O`o vent. Few earthquakes occurred at Kilauea's summit, only steady weak tremor was recorded. Volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o continued at moderate levels. Deflation of the volcano during 24-28 December signified relatively rapid extrusion.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 December-23 December 2003

During 18-22 December, eruptive activity at the Pu`u `O`o vent of Kilauea continued unabated. Fresh lava from the southwestern vents within Pu`u `O`o coated a quarter of the crater floor. No active flows were observed on Pulama pali or the coastal flat below Paliuli and no lava entered the ocean. As of 18 December surface lava flows at high elevations along the Mother's Day lava-tube system ignited trees. A few small earthquakes were recorded at Kilauea's summit along with steady weak tremor. Volcanic tremor continuously occurred at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o and small amounts of inflation and deflation were detected during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 December-16 December 2003

During 10-16 December, eruptive activity continued at Kilauea's Pu`u `O`o vent. Various vents within Pu`u `O`o were occasionally active and new lava flows covered parts of the crater floor. No surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat or Pulama pali. During 15-16 December, only steady weak tremor was recorded at Kilauea's summit, tremor at Pu`u `O`o was at moderate levels, and slight deformation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 December-9 December 2003

During 3-9 December, incandescence and surface lava flows were observed in the upper flow field at Kilauea. Seismicity was low with weak tremor in the caldera interspersed with rare earthquakes. The swarm of shallow long-period earthquakes reported last week is over. Short periods of inflation and deflation occurred throughout the week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 November-2 December 2003

During 30 November to 2 December, incandescence was visible from lava in the upper flow field. Surface lava flows were not seen on the coastal flat or Pulama pali. At Kilauea, relatively strong shallow long-period seismicity at Halemaumau crater on 29 November decreased the following day. On these days a few deeper long-period earthquakes were recorded. On 29 November small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred, followed by very little deformation on 30 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 November-25 November 2003

Minor surface lava flows were observed upslope of Kilauea's coastal plain the week of 19-25 November. Small amounts of inflation and deflation were recorded through the week with sharp deflation beginning at both Uwekahuna and Pu`u O`o early on the morning of 25 November. Moderate, shallow seismicity was recorded beneath the summit, and moderate-to-high seismicity occurred beneath Pu`u O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 November-18 November 2003

During 12-17 November, areas of surface lava were visible upslope of Kilauea's coastal flat. Seismicity at Kilauea's summit continued at moderate levels, with one or two small low-frequency earthquakes per minute occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera. There were some larger earthquakes at depths of a few kilometers. Also, during the report week small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred, including inflation on 17 November that started when the surface waves from a M 7.5 earthquake at Rat Island in the Aleutians reached Kilauea. The inflation was small, about 0.5 microradians at Pu`u `O`o tilt station and 0.3 microradians at Uwekahuna station.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 November-11 November 2003

Tiltmeters located on the NW side of Kileauea's caldera rim (Uwekahuna) and on the NW flank of the active vent along the East rift zone (Pu`u `O`o cone) showed several microradians of radial tilt, but the week's patterns were complex and plagued by instrument problems.

Moderate seismicity at the summit of Kilauea continued. Many small, low frequency earthquakes have taken place at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera. The tiny earthquakes happened at the rate of about 1-2 per minute. As has been typical of the ongoing swarm for the past several weeks, some larger earthquakes also occurred, these coming from depths of a few kilometers. Little or no volcanic tremor accompanied the swarm at the summit. In contrast, as is the norm, volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained moderate to high.

On 5 November, two small breakouts occurred. The freshly escaping lava was seen on the Kohola arm of the Mother's Day flow just below the top of the steep cliffs called Pulama pali. Observers watching a 30-40 m diameter crater located on the SW side of Pu`u `O`o crater noted a new lava pond, a new lava flow, and a fuming cone-pit. Visits to active flow fields on 7 November resulted in observations of hornitos, a 200-m-wide rootless shield, and the leading edge of 45-m-wide flow.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 October-4 November 2003

During 29 October to 3 November, areas of surface lava were visible upslope of Kilauea's coastal flat. Seismicity at Kilauea's summit continued at moderate levels, with one to two small low-frequency earthquakes per minute occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera. There were some larger earthquakes at depths of a few kilometers. Also, during the report week small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 October-28 October 2003

During 22-28 October, areas of surface lava were visible upslope of Kilauea's coastal flat. Seismicity at Kilauea's summit continued at moderate levels, with one to two small low-frequency earthquakes per minute occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera. There were some larger earthquakes at depths of a few kilometers. Also, during the report week small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 October-21 October 2003

During 15-20 October, a few areas of surface lava were visible upslope of Kilauea's coastal flat. Seismicity at Kilauea's summit continued at moderate levels, with one to two small low-frequency earthquakes per minute occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera. There were some larger earthquakes at depths of a few kilometers. Also, during the report week small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 October-14 October 2003

During 8-14 October, a few areas of surface lava were visible upslope of Kilauea's coastal flat. Generally, seismicity at Kilauea's summit continued at moderate levels, with 1-2 small low-frequency earthquakes per minute occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera. There were some larger earthquakes at depths of a few kilometers. Also, there were small inflation and deflation events during the report week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 October-7 October 2003

During 1-7 October, surface lava flows were sometimes visible on Kilauea's coastal flat and upslope areas. On 2 October lava began to flow westward after filling West Gap Pit on the W flank of Pu`u `O`o cone. Fairly vigorous spattering was visible in the pit, but died to only sporadic bursts later in the day. The flow appeared to have stopped by 4 October when no glow was observed coming from the pit. Generally, seismicity at Kilauea's summit continued at moderate levels, with 1-2 small low-frequency earthquakes per minute occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera. There were some larger earthquakes at depths of a few kilometers. Also, there were small inflation and deflation events during the report week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 September-30 September 2003

During 24-30 September, surface lava flows were sometimes visible on Kilauea's coastal flat and upslope areas. Generally, seismicity at Kilauea's summit continued at moderate levels, with 1-2 small low-frequency earthquakes per minute occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera. There were some larger earthquakes at depths of a few kilometers. There was very little deformation during the report week until small events occurred on 27 September.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 September-23 September 2003

During 17-23 September, surface lava flows were sometimes visible on Kilauea's coastal flat and upslope areas. Surface lava flows were about 800 m inland of the coast on 21 September. Generally, seismicity at Kilauea's summit continued at moderate levels, with 1-2 small low-frequency earthquakes per minute occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera. There were some larger earthquakes at depths of a few kilometers. Small inflation and deflation events occurred during the week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 September-16 September 2003

During 10-16 September, surface lava flows were sometimes visible on Kilauea's coastal flat and upslope areas. Generally, seismicity at Kilauea's summit continued at moderate levels, with 1-2 small low-frequency earthquakes per minute occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera. There were some larger earthquakes at depths of a few kilometers. Small inflation and deflation events occurred during the week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 September-9 September 2003

During 4-9 September, surface lava flows were sometimes visible on the coastal flat and in areas upslope. Generally, seismicity at Kilauea's summit continued at moderate levels, with 1-2 small low-frequency earthquakes per minute occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera. There were some larger events at depths of a few kilometers. Small inflation and deflation occurred during the report week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 August-2 September 2003

A M 5.0 earthquake occurred 10 km beneath Kilauea's central S flank on 26 August at 2024. It was the largest earthquake since 2 April 2000, an event that occurred in almost exactly the same spot. No significant damage was done, no cracks or rockfalls were seen, and there was no change in the eruption. During 27 August to 1 September, surface lava flows were sometimes visible on the coastal flat and upslope on Pulama pali. Generally, seismicity at Kilauea's summit continued at moderate levels, with 1-2 small low-frequency earthquakes per minute occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera. There were some larger events at depths of a few kilometers. Small inflation and deflation occurred during the report week.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Associated Press


20 August-26 August 2003

During 20-25 August at Kilauea, surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat and upslope on the Holei Pali. Generally, seismicity at Kilauea's summit continued at moderate levels, with 1-2 small low-frequency earthquakes per minute occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera. There were some larger events at depths of a few kilometers. Small inflation and deflation occurred several times during the report week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 August-19 August 2003

During 13-18 August at Kilauea, surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat, in some areas flowing to within 500 m of the sea. Generally, seismicity at Kilauea's summit continued at moderate levels, with 1-2 small low-frequency earthquakes per minute occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera. There were some larger events at depths of a few kilometers. Small inflation and deflation occurred during the report week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 August-12 August 2003

Surface lava flows were visible on Kilauea's coastal flat and at several areas upslope during 6-12 August. Deflation that began on 8 August amounted to about 1.8 microradians at Uwekahuna tiltmeter and 4 microradians at Pu`u `O`o tiltmeter, both located at the volcano's summit. The deflation was accompanied by a drop in the level of lava in a lava tube, as seen by field workers at midday. Then, inflation began later that day at 1928, and in ~3.5 hours there was ~3.5 microradians of inflation at Uwekahuna and ~6 microradians at Pu`u `O`o. A lava breakout occurred on 9 August between 0200 and 0300, about 1.3 km SE of the center of Pu`u `O`o cone. A very large sheet flow emerged from a point on the uptube side of a rootless shield that was formed on 21 January. Observers saw a lava stream, up to 40 m wide. By 0600 the area of the flow was about 5.2 hectacres (0.052 square km). During the report week, seismicity at Kilauea's summit continued at moderate levels, with many small, low-frequency earthquakes continuing at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera every 1-2 minutes. During the deflation on 8 August, there was an increase in such earthquakes and changes in their frequency content. Some larger events occurred at depths of a few kilometers, as had been the case during the previous several weeks

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 July-5 August 2003

During 30 July- 5 August at Kilauea, surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat and upslope on the Pulama pali and beginning around 3 August at the Holei pali. Surface lava flowed to within 1.1 km of the sea. Generally, seismicity at Kilauea's summit continued at moderate levels, with 1-2 small low-frequency earthquakes per minute occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera. There were some larger events at depths of a few kilometers. Small inflation and deflation occurred during the report week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 July-29 July 2003

During 23-28 July at Kilauea, surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat and upslope on the Pulama pali. No lava flowed into the sea. Generally, seismicity at Kilauea's summit continued at moderate levels, with 1-2 small low-frequency earthquakes per minute occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera. There were some larger events at depths of a few kilometers. Small inflation and deflation occurred during the report week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 July-22 July 2003

During 16-22 July at Kilauea, surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat and upslope on the Pulama pali and Paliuli. No lava flowed into the sea. Generally, seismicity at Kilauea's summit continued at moderate levels, with 1-2 small low-frequency earthquakes per minute occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera. There were some larger events at depths of a few kilometers. Small inflation and deflation occurred during the report week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 July-15 July 2003

During 12-15 July at Kilauea, surface lava flows were occasionally visible on the coastal flat and upslope on the Pulama pali fault scarp and Paliuli. Seismicity continued at moderate levels at Kilauea's summit, with small low-frequency earthquakes persisting at shallow depths at a rate of about 1-2 per minute. Volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained at moderate-to-high levels, as is the norm recently. Small periods of inflation and deflation occurred during the report week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 July-8 July 2003

During 2-8 July at Kilauea, surface lava flows were occasionally visible on the coastal flat and upslope on the Pulama pali fault scarp. Small amounts of lava continued to flow into the ocean at the Highcastle ocean entry. Seismicity continued at moderate levels at Kilauea's summit, with small low-frequency earthquakes persisting at shallow depths at a rate of about 1-2 per minute. Volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained at moderate-to-high levels, as is the norm recently. Small periods of inflation and deflation occurred during the report week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 June-1 July 2003

During 25-30 June at Kilauea, surface lava flows were occasionally visible on the coastal flat and upslope on the Pulama pali fault scarp, but diminished by 29 June. Seismicity continued at moderate levels at Kilauea's summit, with many small low-frequency earthquakes continuing at shallow depths at a rate of about 1-2 per minute. Volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained at moderate-to-high levels, as is the norm. Small periods of inflation and deflation occurred during the report week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 June-24 June 2003

During 18-24 June at Kilauea, lava continued to weakly enter the sea at the Highcastle entry and surface lava flows were occasionally visible on the coastal flat and upslope on the Pulama pali fault scarp. Seismicity continued at moderate levels at Kilauea's summit, with many, small, low-frequency earthquakes continuing to occur at shallow depths at a rate of about 1-2 per minute. Volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained at moderate-to-high levels, as is the norm. Small periods of inflation and deflation occurred during the report week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 June-17 June 2003

At Kilauea lava continued to enter the sea mainly at the Highcastle ocean entry during 11-17 June and surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat and Pulama pali. Seismicity at the summit was at moderate-to-high levels, with many small, low-frequency earthquakes occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera for the past two weeks. Little or no volcanic tremor accompanied the swarm, however. Volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained at moderate-to-high levels, as is the norm. A quasi-cyclic tilt pattern ended at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o on the 13th after lasting about a week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 June-10 June 2003

Small amounts of lava continued to flow into the sea at the Highcastle entry during 4-10 June, and lava flows were sometimes visible on Pulama pali and the coastal flat. Seismicity at the summit of Kilauea continued at moderate-to-high levels, with many small, low-frequency earthquakes occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera for more than a week. The tiny earthquakes occurred at the notably high rate of 2-4 per minute. Little or no volcanic tremor accompanied the swarm, however. Volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained moderate to high, as is the norm. Almost cyclic inflation and deflation occurred during the report week, but did not culminate in significant overall tilt.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 May-3 June 2003

During 27 May to 2 June, lava continued to flow down Kilauea's SE flank, with surface lava flows occasionally visible on the coastal flat and upslope at Pulama pali, and Paliuli. Small amounts of lava continued to flow into the sea at Highcastle beach. A fire started by lava flows the previous week continued to burn W of the flow field. Seismicity at Kilauea's summit was at moderate-to-high levels around 1 June, with many small, low-frequency earthquakes occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera. There were small episodes of inflation and deflation during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 May-27 May 2003

During 21-26 May, surface lava flows were visible on Kilauea's coastal flat and the Pulama Pali fault scarp. Small amounts of lava began to flow into the sea on 21 May. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels, with little or no volcanic tremor occurring at Kilauea's summit. A swarm of small, low-frequency earthquakes occurred during 23 May until at least 26 May. The swarm occurred at shallow depths below the caldera floor and was the second such swarm in a 10-day period. No significant deformation occurred during the report period.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 May-20 May 2003

During 14-19 May, lava flows continued to travel down Kilauea's S flank. Surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat and the Pulama Pali fault scarp. Lava trickled into the sea at the West Highcastle entry on the 14th and then ceased thereafter. Generally, seismicity was at normal to below normal levels, with a few earthquakes and no tremor at Kilauea's summit. There were several small periods of inflation and deflation at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 May-13 May 2003

Lava continued to flow down Kilauea's S flank, with small surface flows visible. On 12 May lava began to enter the sea again at the West Highcastle lava delta. Generally, seismicity was at normal to below normal levels, with very few earthquakes. Volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained at moderate-to-high levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 April-6 May 2003

Lava flows continued to descend the S flanks and pour into the sea. Distances measured across Kilauea caldera between two points ~10 km apart, remained stable as they have since early 2003. There had been consistent progressive lengthening of this distance during late 2001 through mid-2002, and some minor fluctuations after that. In general, tilt during late April through 2 May changed little at Uwekahuna station (W side of the caldera), and showed a progressive decline at Pu`u `O`o station (E of the caldera). In the first few days of May slight inflationary tilt appeared at both stations.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 April-29 April 2003

For the week ending 29 April eruptive activity continued unabated from the Pu`u `O`o vent of Kilauea. The flows on Pulama pali were frequently visible at night as streams of incandescence from the top of the pali down to the coastal flats. Late in the previous week and early in this week, the east arm of the Mother's Day flow split in two with the western segment being more active. A new ocean entry near Lae`apuki only lasted a day before the flow stagnated. Scattered surface breakouts were seen throughout the inflating Kohola flow, especially on its W side. The National Park Service has marked trails out to the closest activity. As of 24 April, lava entered the ocean at two point along the West Highcastle delta.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 April-22 April 2003

During the week ending 22 April, Kilauea continued to erupt, sending lava down its SE flank either traveling over the land surface or through tubes. Lava entered the sea at the West Highcastle entry; activity there was sometimes weak, though one or more glowing areas were typically seen.

On 16 April a large tract of land not over-run by surrounding lava (a kipuka or ahu in the local parlance) remained within the Kohola lava flow, still ~30 cm above the top of inflated lavas that surround it. On the eastern margin of the swath of lava flows going down the steep slopes of Pulama pali, one partly crusted-over lava stream was highly visible. The crater of Pu`u `O`o was dark and obscured by fume. The previous day ended with a small inflation-deflation event recorded at both Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. These tilt changes began at Uwekahuna.

During 16-17 April, the Uwekahuna tiltmeter at Kilauea's summit recorded three small inflations, the last apparently right at its crest. Pu`u `O`o has generally followed suit, though in this case showing only two of the inflations very well. These tilts are not major but continue to illustrate the clear connection between Kilauea's summit, where most tilt events start, and Pu`u `O`o, 20 km away, where the tilt events follow a few minutes later.

Seismicity during the week was at low to normal levels. Instruments continued to register the summit swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor, which began last June. Volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained elevated, as has been the norm for more than a week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 April-15 April 2003

Lava continued to enter the ocean at the West Highcastle entry at Kilauea during 10-14 April. Surface lava flows were visible on the Kohala flow and the easternmost stream of the Mother's Day flow. Generally, seismicity remained at normal levels, with a swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor continuing to occur. Volcanic tremor was recorded at Pu`u `O`o for more than a week and there were small deformation events at Kilauea's summit and at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 April-8 April 2003

Lava continued to enter the ocean at the West Highcastle entry at Kilauea during 1-8 April. Surface lava flows were visible on the Kohala lava flow and Pulama pali. During the beginning of the report period, lava traveled over the Chain of Craters Road. The lava cooled and ceased flowing over the road by the 3rd. Generally, seismicity remained at normal to below-normal levels. The summit swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor, which began last June, was weak, with scattered earthquakes and sparse low-frequency tremor. Volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o was relatively high during the last few days of the report period. Small deformation changes occurred mostly at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 March-1 April 2003

During 26-30 March at Kilauea, moderate amounts of lava continued to enter the sea at the West Highcastle entry. Surface lava flows were visible along the Kohala lava flow and on Pulama pali. Generally, seismicity was at normal to below-normal levels. The summit swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor, which began last June, was weak, with scattered earthquakes and sparse low-frequency tremor. Small episodes of inflation and deflation occurred at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 March-25 March 2003

During 20-25 March at Kilauea, lava continued to enter the sea at the West Highcastle entry at moderate levels. Surface lava flows were visible along the Kohala lava flow and on Pulama pali. Generally, seismicity remained at normal levels, with the long-lasting swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor at Kilauea's summit, which began last June, continuing at moderate levels. Small episodes of inflation and deflation occurred at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 March-18 March 2003

During 11-18 March at Kilauea, lava flowed into the sea at moderate levels at the West Highcastle entry. Many surface lava flows were visible along the Kohala lava flow. Tongues of lava were visible traveling down Pulama pali that were a part of the activity that began on 12 May 2002 (named the Mother's Day flow). Generally, seismicity remained at normal levels, with the long-lasting swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor at Kilauea's summit, which began last June, continuing at moderate levels. Only small deformation changes were recorded.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 March-11 March 2003

During 4-9 March at Kilauea, lava entered the sea at moderate rates at the West Highcastle entry. Small surface lava flows were scattered across the Kohala lava flow, and surface lava flows were visible above Pulama pali. By 5 March the Kohala lava flow was traveling very slowly towards the sea, to about 30 m away from the sea cliff. Generally, seismicity remained at normal levels, with the long-lasting swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor at Kilauea's summit, which began last June, continuing at low-to-moderate levels. Moderate tremor was recorded by the nearest seismometer to Pu`u `O`o until the seismometer broke on 5 March. Moderate deflation occurred on 8 March first at the Uwekahuna tiltmeter and then at the Pu`u `O`o tiltmeter. According to a news report, a member of a tour group suffered burns on 10 March when he fell on hot lava while hiking near Chain of Craters road.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Honolulu Advertiser


26 February-4 March 2003

During 26 February to 3 March at Kilauea, lava continued to enter the sea at the West Highcastle entry and the lava-flow rate was reduced to a small trickle at the Kohala entry. Small surface lava flows occurred along the W edge of the Kohala lava flow and surface lava flows were visible above the Pulama pali fault scarp. Generally, seismicity remained at normal levels, with the long-lasting swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor at Kilauea's summit, which began last June, continuing at low-to-moderate levels. Moderate tremor was recorded by the nearest seismometer to Pu`u `O`o. Small inflations and deflations occurred at the volcano around 1 March, but no significant deformation was recorded afterwards.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 February-25 February 2003

During 20-24 February at Kilauea, a small amount of lava entered the sea at the West Highcastle entry, and W of there lava flowed into the sea at the Kohala entry (an event that began on 15 February). Fresh lava oozed out of the cooling Kohala lava flow, both within the body of the flow and along its E margin. During the report period, lava continued to cross the Chain of Craters Road. Generally, seismicity remained at normal levels, with the long-lasting swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor at Kilauea's summit, which began last June, continuing at low-to-moderate levels. Moderate tremor was recorded by the nearest seismometer to Pu`u `O`o. During 17-21 February, several small periods of inflation and deflation, which were consistent with each other in magnitude and patterns, were recorded at Uwekahuna and Pu`u `O`o tiltmeters.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 February-18 February 2003

During 12-19 February at Kilauea, lava continued to flow into the sea at the West Highcastle entry. Lava flowed through lava tubes down Pulama pali and Paliuli as it traveled to the sea. Surface lava flows continued to travel through vegetation, igniting fires and causing methane explosions. Rangers' office huts, restrooms, and signs were moved out of the path of the lava flow, which reached the Chain of Craters Road on 19 February at 1005. Generally, seismicity remained at normal levels, with the long-lasting swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor at Kilauea's summit, which began last June, continuing at low-to-moderate levels. Small periods of inflation and deformation, which were consistent in magnitude and patterns, were recorded at Uwekahuna and Pu`u `O`o tiltmeters during the report period.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Honolulu Advertiser


5 February-11 February 2003

During 5-11 February at Kilauea, lava continued to enter the sea at the West Highcastle entry and surface lava flows traveled down the Pulama pali fault scarp. The Chain of Craters road, which provides access to a lava-viewing area, was closed due to a wildfire that was started by lava flows. Generally, the long-lasting swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor at Kilauea's summit, which began last June, continued at low levels. On 9 and 10 February short, small, periods of deflation and inflation occurred at the Uwekahuna and Pu`u `O`o tiltmeters.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Associated Press


29 January-4 February 2003

During 29 January to 3 February at Kilauea, lava continued to enter the sea at the West Highcastle entry. Around 28 January a large lava breakout occurred from the West Highcastle lava tube about 170 m inland from the old sea cliff. As of 2 February the area of the new breakout was about 6.15 hectares. During the report period, seismicity was at background levels at Kilauea. The long-lasting swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor at Kilauea's summit, which began last June, continued at low-to-moderate levels. No significant deformation was recorded.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 January-28 January 2003

During 20-27 January, lava continued to enter the ocean at the West Highcastle entry. Kilauea's summit began to deflate on 20 January at 1710, and Pu`u `O`o began to deflate a few tens of minutes later. Both areas deflated well into the next day. On the 21st at 1610 rapid, brief inflation began at the summit. The inflation and preceding deflation were centered near the NE corner of Halemaumau Crater, the normal center of small deformation events. Seismicity increased with the deformation events, returning to normal levels afterwards. Relatively large surface lava flows were visible starting on 21 January around 2035. By 22 January seismicity had returned to its normal level, with the long-lasting swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor at Kilauea's summit, which began last June, continuing at weak-to-moderate levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 January-21 January 2003

During 15-20 January at Kilauea, lava continued to flow into the sea at the West Highcastle entry. Most of the surface lava flows on the coastal flat crusted over, so that less incandescence was visible than the previous week. At Kilauea seismicity generally remained at background levels. The long-lasting swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor at Kilauea's summit, which began last June, continued at moderate levels. Volcanic tremor was relatively strong at Pu`u `O`o during the report week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 January-14 January 2003

During 8-13 January at Kilauea, lava continued to flow into the sea at the West Highcastle entry. Surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat and upslope of it on Paliuli. Generally, seismicity was at background levels at Kilauea. The long-lasting swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor at Kilauea's summit, which began last June, continued at low-to-moderate levels. No significant deformation was recorded.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 December-6 January 2003

During 31 December to 5 January, lava continued to enter the sea at several entry points along three deltas, though by the end of the report week only two were active. Surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat and upslope on Pulama pali. Generally, seismicity continued at background levels at Kilauea. The long-lasting swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor at Kilauea's summit, which began last June, continued at low levels. No significant deformation was recorded.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 December-30 December 2002

During 26-29 December at Kilauea, lava continued to enter the sea at several points along the coast at three lava deltas. Surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat, and upslope at Paliuli, and on the Pulama pali. On 28 December moderate collapses occurred at the Wilipe`a lava delta, apparently in the area of the 15 December collapse. None came anywhere close to the rope barrier, and no explosion debris reached this area. Generally, seismicity continued at background levels at Kilauea. The long-lasting swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor at Kilauea's summit, which began last June, continued at moderate levels. During 27-28 December, slight deflation occurred at the Uwekahuna and Pu`u `O`o tiltmeters.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 December-24 December 2002

During 18-22 December, lava continued to enter the sea at several points along the coast at three lava deltas. Surface lava flows were visible along the E arm that feeds a new lava delta, and sporadically along Paliuli. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels. The swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor beneath Kilauea's caldera, occasionally seismically active since June, continued at a relatively low level. No significant deformation was recorded.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 December-17 December 2002

During 10-17 December, lava continued to enter the sea at several points along the coast. On 15 December, shortly after 0700, the Wilipe'a lava delta partially collapsed, losing about 1/3 of its area. The tip of the delta retreated shoreward about 260 m and most of the collapse was in the central part of the delta. Around the 15th and 16th a substantial collapse occurred at the West Highcastle delta. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels. The swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor beneath Kilauea's caldera, occasionally seismically active since June, continued at a relatively low level. The Pu`u `O`o tiltmeter showed deflation for about one week until the 17th. No other significant deformation was recorded.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 December-10 December 2002

During 4-10 December, lava continued to flow into the sea at entry points from two lava deltas. Moderate-to-large littoral explosions tossed spatter onto the front of the West Highcastle delta. Surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels. The swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor beneath Kilauea's caldera, occasionally seismically active since June, continued to show some short bursts of tremor interspersed with small earthquakes. Small inflation and deflation events occurred at Pu`u` O`o and Uwekahuna tilt meters.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 November-3 December 2002

During 26 November-2 December at Kilauea, lava continued to flow into the ocean at low-to-moderate levels at the West Highcastle and Wilipe`a entries. West Highcastle was the more active of the two lava deltas, with sporadic explosions coming from one of its entry points. Several surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels. A swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor beneath Kilauea's caldera, occasionally active since June, continued to show short bursts of tremor interspersed with numerous small earthquakes. During the report week, small inflation and deflation events occurred at Pu`u `O`o and Uwekahuna tilt meters.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 November-26 November 2002

During 21-24 November at Kilauea, lava continued to enter the sea at several points along two lava deltas (West Highcastle and Wilipe`a), although to a lesser extent than the previous week. Small-to-moderate littoral explosions were common at the entry point near the tip of the West Highcastle delta. Surface flows were visible extending from Paliuli to the coast. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels. Swarms of long-period earthquakes and tremor have been detected since June beneath Kilauea's caldera. During the report week, numerous short bursts of tremor were interspersed with numerous small earthquakes. Besides gentle deflation at Pu`u `O`o, no other significant deformation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 November-19 November 2002

During 13-18 November at Kilauea two lava deltas were active, with lava entering the ocean at times. Only a small amount of incandescence was visible above Paliuli. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels. The swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor beneath Kilauea's caldera, occasionally active since June, continued to show short bursts of tremor interspersed with numerous small earthquakes. Besides gentle deflation at Pu`u `O`o, no other significant deformation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 November-12 November 2002

During 6-11 November at Kilauea, lava continued to flow into the sea at moderate rates from two lava deltas, as it has for several weeks. Spots of incandescence were visible on Paliuli, on the gentle slope below Pulama pali, and above Pulama pali. Surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat at times. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels. The swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor beneath Kilauea's caldera, occasionally active since June, was rather weak. Short bursts of tremor were interspersed with small earthquakes. Small deflation may have occurred at the Uwekahuna and Pu`u `O`o tiltmeters on the 10th, otherwise no significant deformation was recorded.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 October-5 November 2002

During 30 October to 4 November at Kilauea lava continued to enter the sea from two deltas, as it has for several weeks. Surface lava flows were visible extending from the top of Paliuli to the top of Pulama pali, but were not seen on the coastal flat. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels beneath Kilauea's caldera. Some small bursts of tremor occurred that were interspersed with tiny earthquakes. Inflation and deflation were recorded at times at Uwekahuna and Pu`u `O`o tiltmeters.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 October-29 October 2002

During 23-29 October at Kilauea, lava continued to enter the sea from two deltas as it has for several weeks. Surface lava flows were not visible on the coastal flat or Paliuli, and were occasionally seen near Pulama pali. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels beneath Kilauea's caldera. A swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor beneath the caldera occasionally occurred. A small deflation event began on the 28th that was recorded at Uwekahuna and Pu`u `O`o tiltmeters.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 October-22 October 2002

During 16-21 October at Kilauea, lava continued to flow into the sea at points along two active lava deltas. Surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat, Pulama pali, and Paliuli. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels beneath Kilauea's caldera. A swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor beneath the caldera occasionally occurred. In addition, numerous small bursts of tremor were interspersed with tiny earthquakes. Periods of deflation and inflation occurred at Pu`u `O`o and Uwekahuna.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 October-15 October 2002

During 9-14 October at Kilauea, lava continued to flow into the sea at points along two active lava deltas. Surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat, and sporadically on Pulama pali and Paliuli. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels at Kilauea. A few small swarms of long-period earthquakes and tremor occurred beneath the volcano's caldera. Regular deflation occurred at the Pu`u `O`o tiltmeter, while no significant deformation was recorded elsewhere.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 October-8 October 2002

During 1-6 October at Kilauea, lava entered the sea at several points along two active lava deltas (Middle Highcastle and Wilipe`a). No surface flows were visible on the deltas; lava either entered the water via lava tubes or inflated the delta underneath the surface. Several surface flows were visible on the coastal flat, while no incandescence was seen on Paliuli and only a few glowing spots were visible on Pulama pali. On the 3rd, the swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor beneath Kilauea's caldera that was first active beginning in June, picked up strongly, with numerous long-period events persisting for about a day. Elsewhere there was no unusual seismicity. Around the time of increased seismicity, small periods of inflation and deflation occurred at Pu`u `O`o and Uwekahuna. Otherwise, tiltmeters recorded no unusual deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 September-1 October 2002

During 25-30 September at Kilauea, lava continued to travel SE down Paliuli and Pulama pali, and surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat. Lava entered the sea at multiple points along the fronts of two lava deltas and visitors saw several sudden collapses of the front of the bench (land built out from the sea cliff). Generally, seismicity was at normal levels. The swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor beneath Kilauea's caldera that originally began in June was fairly weak. Periods of small deflation and inflation occurred at Uwekahuna and Pu`u `O`o tiltmeters, but no significant deformation was recorded elsewhere.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 September-24 September 2002

During 17-22 September, at Kilauea lava continued to travel SE down Paliuli and Pulama pali, and surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat. Lava also continued to flow into the sea. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels. For several days before the 18th, there was a period of repetitive inflation and deflation. After the 18th no significant deformation was recorded.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 September-17 September 2002

During 11-16 September, lava continued to travel SE down Paliuli and Pulama pali, and many surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat. Lava flowed onto the Wilipe`a bench directly seaward of the end of the Chain of Craters Road. Lava entered the sea at several points on the NE portion of the front of the bench. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels. There were short periods of inflation and deflation at Uwekahuna and Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 September-10 September 2002

During 3-9 September, lava continued to flow SE down Paliuli and Pulama pali, and many surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat. Lava began to enter the ocean on 3 September. Seismicity was generally at normal levels. The swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor that had been occurring since early June returned to moderate-to-low levels. There were small episodes of inflation and deflation at Uwekahuna and Pu`u `O`o for several days.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 August-3 September 2002

During 27 August to 2 September, lava flowed down Paliuli and Pulama pali, and many surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat. Seismicity was generally at normal levels, with the swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor that has been occurring since early June fluctuating. There were small episodes of inflation and deflation at Uwekahuna and Pu`u `O`o for several days. By 2 September Pu`u `O`o was slowly deflating.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 August-27 August 2002

During 21-26 August, surface lava flows continued to travel on Kilauea's coastal flat, and down Paliuli, and Pulama pali. On the 21st lava entered the sea near the Highcastle stairs (the more easterly ocean entry), but by the 25th no lava was entering the sea. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels with the swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor fluctuating but typically remaining at high levels. Deformation was nearly flat, or continued long-term trends.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 August-20 August 2002

During 14-19 August, lava flows from Kilauea sporadically entered the sea, traveling to the coast through lava tubes and also on the land surface. On the morning of the 18th several people saw part of a lava bench collapse into the sea. For most of the report period seismicity was at normal levels, with a decrease in the amount of long-period earthquakes and tremor that had been occurring since early June. On the morning of the 18th the amount of long-period seismicity increased. No significant deformation was recorded at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 August-13 August 2002

During 7-13 August, surface lava flows continued to travel down Kilauea's flank into the sea at the Wilipe`a entry and on 7 August at 1427 the W Highcastle lobe reached the sea. On the evening of the 7th several littoral explosions occurred on the E side of the most seaward tip of the lava bench, spraying spatter and solid rocks back onto the bench. No visitors were in the prohibited area. A lava bench began to grow near the W Highcastle flow 10 m from the shoreline and was 30 m long parallel to the sea cliff by 11 August. Surface lava flows also cascaded down Paliuli at times. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels, except for the continued swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor that has been taking place since early June. There were no signs of significant deformation at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 July-6 August 2002

By 6 August, only the the Wilipe`a entry was active at Kilauea, with five or six spigots sending lava off the leading edge of the bench into the water. The West Highcastle bench was steaming but had no lava. At the Highcastle kipuka, two actively advancing lobes of lava were found, one 160 m and the other 170 m from the western and eastern remnants, respectively, of the Chain of Craters Road, themselves only 40-60 m from water. Each lobe was moving very slowly.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 July-30 July 2002

Hundreds of spectators flocked to Kilauea to see the spectacular show of lava flowing into the sea at the end of easily accessible Chain of Craters Road. Surface lava flows were visible traveling down Pulama pali, Paliuli, and on the coastal flat. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels, except for the continued swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor that has been ongoing since early June. The swarm increased slightly in the last several days of the report period. Brief inflation occurred at Pu`u` O`o on 26 July.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Associated Press


17 July-23 July 2002

During 16-22 July, surface lava flows were visible traveling on the coastal flat, down the Pulama pali scarp, and down Paliuli, the steep slope and cliff below Pulama pali and just above the coastal flat. On 20 July at 1900 part of the westernmost lava flow reached Chain of Craters road, and by 0445 the next day it was entering the sea in two areas. The active flow front moved relatively quickly for lava at Kilauea on nearly flat ground; the lava flow moved 610 m in 18 hours (35 m/h). Generally, seismicity was at normal levels, except for the continued swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor that has been ongoing since early June. The swarm increased slightly in the last several days of the report period. Slow deflation occurred at Pu`u` O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 July-16 July 2002

During 10-15 July, surface lava flows were visible travelling down the Pulama pali scarp and Paliuli, the steep slope and cliff below Pulama pali and just above the coastal flat. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels, except for the continued swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor that has been taking place since early June. The only significant deformation was recorded on the 9th when deflation began at Pu`u `O`o. It ended by the 13th.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 July-9 July 2002

During 3-9 July, surface lava flows were sometimes visible on Kilauea. Seismicity was at normal levels, except for the continued swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor that has been occurring since early June. Slow deflation was recorded at Pu`u `O`o from 4 July until 6 July when inflation began. Slow inflation continued until at least 9 July.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 June-2 July 2002

During 25-30 June, surface lava flows were visible on Kilauea's SW flank. Mild deflation, totaling 0.9 microradians, occurred at Pu`u `O`o on 26 June around 2130. No other significant deformation was recorded during the report period. Seismicity was at normal levels, except for the continued swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor that has been occurring below Kilauea's caldera since early June.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 June-25 June 2002

Incandescent surface lava flows were sometimes visible at Kilauea during 19-24 June. Generally, seismicity was at background levels, except at Kilauea's crater where a swarm of long-period earthquakes that began on 5 June continued. In addition, moderate tremor occurred at Pu`u `O`o. Tiltmeters showed no unusual deformation, with overall deflation occurring at Pu`u `O`o and Kilauea's summit during the week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 June-18 June 2002

During 12-17 June, several surface lava flows were visible at Kilauea. Generally, seismicity was at background levels, except at the crater where a swarm of long-period earthquakes occurred since 5 June. Moderate tremor occurred at Pu`u `O`o. After about 2 microradians of deflation at Pu`u `O`o during 11-12 June, no significant deformation was recorded.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 June-11 June 2002

Surface lava flows were visible above, traveling down, and below the Pulama pali scarp. One flow was 1.7 km from the end of the Chain of Craters Road and 1.5 km from the nearest point along the coastline. Swarms of long-period earthquakes occurred in Kilauea's caldera during 5-10 June and moderate tremor occurred at Pu`u `O`o. Slow, uneven deflation started at Pu`u `O`o on 2 June, then inflation began during the evening of 5 June. The fires ignited by a lava flow that began on 12 May had been 65% contained by 10 June and Chain of Craters road was open to the public during the evening.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); US Hawaii Volcanoes National Park


29 May-4 June 2002

Three main surface lava flows were visible at Kilauea during 29 May-2 June. The front of one flow was ~1.8 km from the coast. As of 2 June fires continued to burn that were ignited by a lava flow that began on 12 May. On 29 May the front of the fire was 800 m from Chain of Craters road, which was closed on 1 June after 1,530 acres burned overnight. By 1 June at 0700, when the fire was 15 days old, a total of 2,588 acres had burned downwind of the lava flow. Generally, seismicity across the volcano was at background levels. Volcanic tremor at Kilauea's summit was low, broken occasionally by short-lived long-period earthquakes. Pu`u `O`o had weak-to-moderate tremor. There were no signs of significant deformation at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 May-28 May 2002

During 23-24 May, surface lava flows were visible on Kilauea's coastal flat. For several preceding days an intense swarm of small, shallow, long-period earthquakes occurred beneath Kilauea's caldera, at a rate of about one earthquake every 30 seconds. The swarm abruptly ended on 22 May. By the 24th seismicity at Kilauea was at normal background levels. In addition, tiltmeters recorded no unusual deformation, with Pu`u `O`o slowly inflating.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 May-21 May 2002

Surface lava flows were visible at Kilauea during 15-17 May. The front of one flow was about 2.5 km from the ocean. Following the 12 May inflation event, the level of volcanic tremor and long-period earthquakes at Kilauea's summit was moderate, as was the level of tremor at Pu`u `O`o. No significant deformation was recorded.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 May-14 May 2002

An extremely large deflation episode began at Kilauea's Pu`u `O`o cone on 12 May at about 0720. By 1500 Pu`u `O`o had deflated about 16.5 microradians. Following the onset of deflation at Pu`u `O`o, there was slight deflation at Kilauea's caldera. No new eruptive activity was visible in Pu`u `O`o 's crater. Within a couple of hundred meters of the SW base of Pu`u `O`o, two large ~3-m-wide lava flows were visible that apparently broke out of the upper lava-tube system. By 13 May Pu`u `O`o had deflated 18 microradians, tremor at Pu`u `O`o was higher than preceding the deflation and was accompanied by small earthquakes, background tremor and long-period earthquakes increased at the summit, and no significant deformation was recorded at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 May-7 May 2002

During 1-7 May at Kilauea, activity occurred at the rootless shields and surface lava flows were visible low on the Pulama pali scarp. None of the pits and craters at the foot of Pu`u `O`o were active, although incandescence was visible in some areas. By 7 May lava had poured over the Pulama pali scarp and flowed slowly eastward along the base of the pali. Generally, tremor at Pu`u `O`o was low and steady. Low-level tremor occurred at the caldera as well as a number of small earthquakes. There were no signs of significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 April-30 April 2002

On 23 April inflation occurred at Pu`u `O`o , with no change in seismicity at Kilauea. Observations on the 24th revealed that the January 2002 cone continued to emit lava onto the Pu`u `O`o crater floor. During 24-29 April, no surface lava was visible on Pulama pali. Fairly rapid deflation occurred on the 28th. During the report period, tremor at Pu`u `O`o was at low levels, and only a few small earthquakes and low-level tremor occurred at Kilauea's caldera.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 April-23 April 2002

During 18-22 April, surface activity was visible at a minimum of two vent areas of Pu`u` O`o's crater and at the rootless shields. No surface lava flows were visible on Pulama pali. Generally, tremor at Pu`u` O`o was low and only a few small earthquakes and low-level tremor occurred at Kilauea's caldera. During the report period, slow, small deflations occurred at Pu`u` O`o and the caldera.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 April-16 April 2002

During 10-15 April, observers saw small surface lava flows descending along the path of the lava-tube system that drains the rootless shield area. These flows were sometimes visible above and on the Pulama pali scarp. Activity occurred at the rootless shields, and lava was visible in parts of Pu`u `O`o crater. Generally, seismicity and tilt were at normal levels. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o was low-to-moderate and low-level tremor and a few small earthquakes occurred at Kilauea's caldera. Pu`u `O`o slowly inflated following relatively slow deflation during 13-14 April; otherwise, there were no signs of significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 April-9 April 2002

During 4-6 April, a remarkable series of deflation and inflation events occurred at Kilauea. Beginning on 4 April around 2100, Kilauea's summit deflated and 30 minutes later Pu`u `O`o followed. The summit deflated ~1.7 microradians and Pu`u` O`o dropped ~9 microradians. On 5 April rapid inflation began at 1600 at the summit and 12-13 minutes later at Pu`u` O`o. Inflation ended at the summit at 1700, when the summit abruptly deflated, and at Pu`u` O`o at 1800. Then, tilt at Pu`u` O`o oscillated three times between rapid deflation and slower inflation. After the tilt temporarily settled down, on 6 April at 0508 another oscillatory period commenced. Following 4.5 oscillations, tilt resumed slow, bumpy inflation after 1200 that same day.

During the period of deflation and inflation, long-period earthquakes increased at the summit, while tremor remained steady at Pu`u` O`o until it slightly increased on 6 April. Small surface lava flows were seen on the lower portion of Pulama pali and the upper part of the lava fan. During a brief trip to Pu`u` O`o on the morning of the 6th, scientists saw that the crater lake had risen ~8 m since 29 March (the lake surface was 17 m below the E rim), several cones were active, and lava was flowing into the lava lake from two vents. By the 7th activity had calmed down; tilt was relatively steady, volcanic tremor at Pu`u` O`o was at moderate levels, and tremor at the summit was at low-to-moderate levels. On the 8th there was activity at the rootless shields. Incandescence was not visible at Pu`u` O`o, which possibly means that lava lake activity was waning or had ended.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 March-2 April 2002

During 27 March-2 April at Kilauea, activity continued at the rootless shields and surface lava flows were visible low on the Pulama pali scarp. On 27 March, just after 0300, a small earthquake beneath the caldera triggered more than 30 minutes of increased tremor and small earthquakes. Sharp deflation at Pu`u `O`o on 28 March accompanied a change in eruptive activity at the cone. Observations from a helicopter overflight revealed that new lava was visible just W of the main crater, as well as fountaining, and a circulating pond. By 31 March a lava flow was visible on the floor of Pu`u `O`o's crater and several vents were incandescent. On the 31st volcanic tremor was at low-to-moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o and weak tremor continued below Kilauea's caldera that was occasionally broken by small, long-period earthquakes. Tilt across the volcano was flat or only changed slightly.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 March-26 March 2002

During 20-25 March, the rootless shields remained active at Kilauea and small surface lava flows were visible at the base of the lava fan and on the adjacent coastal flat. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o, and long-period earthquakes and weak tremor continued below Kilauea's caldera. During 21-24 March a small amount of inflation was recorded at Pu`u `O`o, but during most of the report period no deformation was recorded at the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 March-19 March 2002

During 12-19 March, bright glow was visible over Kilauea emanating from Pu`u `O`o crater and the rootless shield near 665-m elevation. The glow was widely visible in the Puna district. The most intense surface activity at the volcano occurred at the rootless shield. At Pu`u `O`o crater, HVO staff saw several incandescent vents mostly in the crater's S wall. By 18 March a lava flow had flooded the floor of Pu`u `O`o crater. During the week, lava flowed through lava tubes down the Pulama pali scarp, surfacing on the coastal flat below. Surface lava flows, which have been active for more than a month, spread on the lower fan and adjacent coastal flat. The fronts of the lava flows were ~2.3 km away from the coast. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Long-period earthquakes and weak tremor continued below Kilauea's caldera. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no evidence of significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 March-12 March 2002

During 6-12 March, lava was visible near the base of the lava fan and on the nearby coastal flat at Kilauea. At times several rootless shields (a pile of lava flows built over a lava tube rather than over a conduit feeding magma) were active. Generally, volcanic tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o and long-period earthquakes and weak tremor continued at Kilauea's caldera. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no evidence of significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 February-5 March 2002

Lava flowed down Pulama pali, and slowly advanced across the lava fan and adjacent coastal flat. Generally, volcanic tremor remained moderate at Pu`u `O`o, and long-period earthquakes and weak tremor continued at Kilauea's caldera. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no evidence of significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 February-26 February 2002

Surface lava flows were visible atop the Pulama pali scarp and at its base. Activity occurred at rootless shields (a pile of lava flows built over a lava tube rather than over a conduit feeding magma) located between 680- and 640-m elevations. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o, and long-period earthquakes and weak tremor continued below Kilauea's caldera. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no evidence of significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 February-19 February 2002

During 13-19 February, a small surface lava flow was visible at Kilauea on the Pulama pali scarp. No lava has reached the coastal plain or the ocean since the Kamoamoa and E Kupapa`u entries stopped in late January. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o and long-period earthquakes and weak tremor continued below Kilauea's caldera. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no evidence of significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 February-12 February 2002

Surface lava flows along the Kamoamoa lava tube system were visible extending from atop the Pulama pali scarp, down to its base. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o and long-period earthquakes continued below Kilauea's caldera. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no evidence of significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 January-5 February 2002

On 3 and 4 February lava flows were visible atop Pulama pali, along the Kamoamoa flow. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o and long-period earthquakes below Kilauea's caldera continued, though at greatly reduced amplitudes compared to the previous week. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no evidence of significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 January-29 January 2002

During 23-29 January lava entered the sea at the W portion of the Kamoamoa entry, and to a lesser extent at the E Kupapa`u entry. Surface lava flows emerging along the Kamoamoa lava tube system traveled down the Pulama pali scarp. On 22 January a lava flow was visible on Pu`u `O`o's crater floor. Generally, volcanic tremor remained moderate at Pu`u `O`o. The swarm of long-period earthquakes at Kilauea's summit were less regular than they had been for more than a month. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no evidence of significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 January-22 January 2002

Lava entered the ocean at multiple locations along the Kamoamoa entry, while the amount of lava entering the ocean at the E Kupapa`u entry was small. Surface lava flows were visible on both the upper portion of the flow field above the Pulama pali scarp and spreading out on the coastal flat. On 18 January at 0118 a 9.1-km-deep M-4.1 earthquake occurred about 4 km SSE of Pu`u `O`o. Generally, volcanic tremor remained moderate-to-strong at Pu`u `O`o for several days and the ongoing swarm of small long-period earthquakes continued at Kilauea's summit. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no evidence of significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 January-15 January 2002

Lava entered the ocean at multiple locations along the Kamoamoa ocean entry, while the amount of lava entering the ocean at the E Kupapa`u entry was very small. A broad, 1.5- to 2-km-long surface flow was visible on the upper portion of the flow field above the Pulama pali scarp and surface flows that emanated from the Kamoamoa lava tube system were seen on the coastal flat. Generally, volcanic tremor was moderate-to-strong at Pu`u `O`o for several days and the ongoing swarm of small long-period earthquakes continued at Kilauea's summit. Following minor deflation on 11 January, tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 January-8 January 2002

During the week lava continued to flow into the ocean at the Kamoamoa ocean entry. Surface lava was visible on the coastal flat and lava that began to flow on the W side of Kamoamoa caused the lava bench to grow. Slow deflation at the summit (up to 2.3 microradians) occurred on 1 December during noon to around 2300. The next day during 1210-1950 the summit inflated 1.6 microradians. The deformation was not accompanied by a change in seismicity. Generally, volcanic tremor was moderate at Pu`u `O`o and the ongoing swarm of small long-period earthquakes continued at Kilauea's summit. After the period of deflation and inflation no significant deformation was recorded.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 December-1 January 2002

Lava continued to flow into the ocean at the Kamoamoa ocean entry. Surface lava flowed along the Kamoamoa lava tube system, extending from above the Pulama pali scarp down to the lava fan. Generally, volcanic tremor was moderate at Pu`u `O`o and there were many small long-period earthquakes at Kilauea's summit, as there have been for 2 weeks. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 December-25 December 2001

Lava entered the ocean at two areas along the Kamoamoa entry and surface lava flows were visible along the track of the Kamoamoa lava tube. Generally, volcanic tremor was moderate at Pu`u `O`o and there were many small long-period earthquakes at Kilauea's summit. Brief, barely discernable deflation at the volcano's summit on 25 December was the only deformation recorded.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 December-18 December 2001

Lava continued to enter the ocean at the Kamoamoa and E Kupapa`u entries and surface lava flows were observed on the coastal flat. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels; volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o was low-to-moderate and small long-period earthquakes were recorded at Kilauea's summit. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 December-11 December 2001

Lava continued flowing into the ocean at the Kamoamoa and E Kupapa`u ocean entries, and surface lava flows were visible at spots along the Kamoamoa lava tube system. Volcanic tremor was at low-to-moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o and low at Kilauea's summit, with weak long-period earthquakes occurring frequently. On 8 December rapid deflation (~2.4 microradians) occurred at Kilauea's summit, followed shortly thereafter by deflation (~1.9 microradians) at Pu`u `O`o cone. On 9 December abrupt inflation at Kilauea's summit (>6 microradians) was followed by much slower and lesser inflation at Pu`u `O`o. Strong earthquakes and tremor accompanied the inflation. A shallow M 3.4 earthquake was registered in the SE part of the caldera. By 10 December, seismicity had returned to normal levels at the summit, and tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained at a moderate level.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 November-4 December 2001

Volcanic activity at Kilauea remained similar to the previous week, with lava flowing into the ocean at the Kamoamoa and E Kupapa`u ocean entries and surface lava flows at spots along the Kamoamoa lava tube system. Generally, seismicity was normal at the volcano; volcanic tremor was at low-to-moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o and low at Kilauea's summit. Tiltmeters along the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 November-27 November 2001

Lava continued to flow into the ocean at the Kamoamoa and E Kupapa`u entries. HVO personnel confirmed that the Kupapa`u entry was inactive, as was reported the previous week. Surface lava flows were visible near the E Kupapa`u entry and at spots above, on, and below the Pulama pali scarp along the Kamoamoa lava tube system. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at low-to-moderate levels at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. The level of tremor was relatively low at the summit, but the number of small earthquakes remained well above average. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o varied in amplitude. Tiltmeters along the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 November-20 November 2001

Lava continued to flow into the sea at the E Kupapa`u and Kamoamoa lava entries. The Kupapa`u entry appeared to be inactive by 18 November. Lava was mostly confined to the lava tube systems, with patches of incandescent lava visible above Pulama pali. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at low-to-moderate levels at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. Tremor at the summit was relatively low. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 November-13 November 2001

Lava continued to flow into the sea at the Kamoamoa, Kupapa`u, and E Kupapa`u entries. Surface lava flows were visible along the Kamoamoa lava tube system and just inland from the Kupapa`u entry. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at low-to-moderate levels at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. Tremor was relatively low at the summit, but a fairly large number of tiny earthquakes occurred. Bursts of higher-amplitude tremor were interspersed with more continuous tremor at Pu`u `O`o. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 October-6 November 2001

During 30 October to 5 November lava continued to flow into the sea at the Kamoamoa and E Kupapa`u entries. On 30 October a new entry located directly off the former Kupapa`u Point was observed. Surface lava flowed above and down Pulama pali along the trace of the Kamoamoa lava tube system. There were possible surface flows at the western portion of the Kamoamoa entry, while surface activity ended at the eastern portion. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at low-to-moderate levels at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. Tremor was relatively low at the summit; tiny earthquakes occurred that were strongest during the beginning of the week. Bursts of higher amplitude tremor were interspersed with more continuous tremor at Pu`u `O`o. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 October-30 October 2001

Surface lava flows were visible above and on Kilauea's Pulama pali scarp and on the coastal flat. Lava continued to flow through lava tubes, entering the sea at the E Kupapa`u and Kamoamoa entries. By 28 October the rapidly growing lava bench at Kamoamoa was 120 m seaward of the old sea cliff in comparison to 80-100 m the previous week. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at low-to-moderate levels at both Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. On 24 October short bursts of relatively high amplitude tremor returned to Pu`u `O`o after being nearly absent for 2-3 days. During 23-24 October tiltmeters at the summit and Pu`u `O`o recorded slow deflation. No significant deformation was recorded during the rest of the week.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 October-23 October 2001

During the week, surface lava flows were visible on Kilauea's Pulama pali scarp and lava continued to enter the ocean at the E Kupapa`u and Kamoamoa entries. On 21 October the lava bench at the Kamoamoa entry extended approximately 80-100 m seaward from the old sea cliff. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at low-to-moderate levels at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. Tremor at the summit was relatively low. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o became rather continuous by 21 October and was no longer broken by brief episodes of stronger events. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 October-16 October 2001

Lava continued to enter the ocean at the E Kupapa`u and Kamoamoa entries. Surface lava flows occurred along the course of the lava tube systems. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at low-to-moderate levels at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. Background tremor at Pu`u `O`o was interrupted, at intervals of ten's of minutes to an hour or two, by short-lived bursts of relatively vigorous tremor. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 October-9 October 2001

During the week, lava continued to flow into the ocean at the E Kupapa`u ocean entry and at the new Kamoamoa entry and surface lava flows were visible above and on the Pulama pali. The overall size of the E Kupapa`u entry diminished, while activity was divided into two distinct areas at the Kamoamoa entry; one to the E and one to the W. By 8 October lava was only emitted from the W Kamoamoa entry area. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at moderate-to-low levels at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. Background tremor at Pu`u `O`o was interrupted at intervals of ten's of minutes to an hour or two, by short-lived bursts of relatively vigorous tremor. Besides small deflation at Kilauea's summit on 28 September, tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


26 September-2 October 2001

Lava flows from the W of the active flow field began to enter the ocean at a new area during the evening of 28-29 September. The ocean entry was located S of the former site of Komoamoa camping area. By 30 September a new lava bench and an adjacent black sand beach had begun to form. Lava continued to flow into the ocean at the E Kupapa`u entry, although the overall size of the entry had diminished. Surface lava flows were visible above and on the Pulama pali scarp. The lava flows W and E of the flow field that had been active for the past couple of weeks had mostly crusted over. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at moderate-to-low levels at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. Background tremor at Pu`u `O`o was interrupted at intervals of ten's of minutes to an hour or two, by short-lived bursts of relatively vigorous tremor. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


19 September-25 September 2001

Lava continued to enter the ocean at the E Kupapa`u ocean entry. Lava flowed down the Pulama pali scarp W and E of the active flow field. The western flow was mainly `a`a. The more vigorous eastern flow had been active for more than two weeks. Surface lava flowed within about 0.6 km of the coastline about 1.8 km W of the E Kupapa`u ocean entry. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at moderate-to-low levels at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. Background tremor at Pu`u `O`o was interrupted at intervals of ten's of minutes to an hour or two, by short-lived bursts of relatively vigorous tremor. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


12 September-18 September 2001

Lava continued to flow down the Paluma pali scarp, across the coastal flat, and into the ocean at the E Kupapa`u ocean entry. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at low-to-moderate levels at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. During 12 and 13 September very slight deflation occurred at Kiliauea's summit. During the rest of the week tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation. On 17 September at Pu`u `O`o, background tremor was interrupted at intervals of ten's of minutes to an hour or two, by short-lived bursts of relatively vigorous tremor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 September-11 September 2001

Lava continued to flow down the Paluma pali scarp, across the coastal flat, and into the ocean at the E Kupapa`u ocean entry. The lava flow that began to cover a County lava-viewing road on 1 September ceased flowing by 5 September. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at low levels at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 August-4 September 2001

Lava continued to enter the sea at the E Kupapa`u entry. Surface lava flows were visible on Pulama pali and the coastal flat. By 1 September a surface lava flow that broke out of the ocean-entry tube on the coastal plain during mid-August flowed across a County lava-viewing road. The unpaved section of Highway 130 had been open for less than 2 weeks before the narrow lava flow crossed it. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at low-to-moderate levels at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); The Honolulu Advertiser


22 August-28 August 2001

Lava continued to flow down the Pulama pali, and into the ocean at the E Kupapa`u entry. On 25 August a small amount of sharp, short-lived inflation occurred at Pu`u `O`o cone and an hour later at Kilauea's summit. No change in volcanic or seismic activity accompanied the inflation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 August-21 August 2001

Lava continued to enter the sea at the E Kupapa`u entry. Surface lava flows were visible on the coastal plain in both the E and W branches of the current flow field. A short, stubby surface flow was visible halfway down the Pulama pali scarp. On 15 August volcanic tremor abruptly increased at Kilauea's summit and at Pu`u `O`o, but it reached only moderate-to-low levels. Generally, weak, rather steady tremor and a few small earthquakes continued beneath Kilauea's caldera. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


8 August-14 August 2001

Small amounts of lava continued to enter the ocean at the E Kupapa`u entry. Surface lava flows were observed issuing from the eastern tube of the current flow field. One of the lobes of lava reached ~1.1 km short of the coast. Generally, weak, rather steady tremor and a few small earthquakes continued beneath Kilauea's caldera. Near Pu`u `O`o, continuous tremor occurred at weak-to-moderate levels. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 August-7 August 2001

Moderate amounts of lava continued to flow into the sea at the E Kupapa`u entry. Surface lava flows were occasionally visible to the E and W of the current lava flow field. Pahoehoe lava was visible slowly spreading on the coastal flat seaward of the base of the Pulama pali scarp. Generally, weak, rather steady tremor and a few small earthquakes continued beneath Kilauea's caldera. Near Pu`u `O`o, continuous tremor occurred at weak-to-moderate levels. Elsewhere, seismicity was at normal levels. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 July-31 July 2001

During the week small-to-moderate levels of lava entered the ocean at the E Kupapa`u entry. During 26-28 July a stream of `a`a lava continuously advanced down the Pulama pali scarp to the coastal flat on the E side of the current lava flow field. Generally, weak, rather steady tremor and a few related long-period earthquakes continued beneath Kilauea's caldera. Near Pu`u `O`o the tremor also became weak and continuous. Elsewhere, seismicity was at normal levels. Tiltmeters across the volcano indicated no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 July-24 July 2001

During the week lava entered the sea at a moderate rate at the E Kupapa`u entry. On 18 July at 1803 a M 3.5 earthquake rattled though the lower east rift zone of Kilauea. Surface flows were vigorous in two areas of the current lava flow field; one in the E branch of the flow field at the base of the Pulama pali scarp, and the other just SE of the shatter ring in the W branch of the flow field. Generally, weak, steady tremor and a few related long-period earthquakes continued beneath Kilauea's caldera. Near Pu`u `O`o, the tremor alternated from weak, to moderate, to strong over periods of several hours. Elsewhere, seismicity was at normal levels. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone indicated no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 July-17 July 2001

At Kilauea small surface lava flows traveled along the E and W branches of the lava flow field active during the last 6 months and moderate amounts of lava entered the sea at the E Kupapa`u entry. Generally, weak, steady tremor and related long-period earthquakes continued beneath Kilauea's caldera. Near Pu`u `O`o, the tremor alternated from weak, to moderate, to strong over periods of several hours. Elsewhere, seismicity was at normal levels. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone indicated no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 July-10 July 2001

Small surface flows of pahoehoe lava were located in the W and E branches of the lava flow field. Like the previous week, lava poured into the sea at the E Kupapa`u ocean entry. Generally, weak, steady tremor and related long-period earthquakes continued beneath Kilauea's caldera. Tremor remained weak to moderate near Pu`u `O`o and seismicity was at normal levels elsewhere. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone indicated no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 June-3 July 2001

Small surface flows of pahoehoe lava were visible on the coastal flat below Pulama pali, clustered near the E edge of the flow field and to the W. Lava poured into the sea at two main sites along the eastern third of the E Kupapa`u bench. On 26 June from about noon until the evening, less than 1 microradian of deflation occurred at the summit, and about 0.5 microradian of deflation occurred at Pu`u `O`o. Generally, weak, steady tremor and related long-period earthquakes continued beneath Kilauea's caldera. Earthquake activity remained slightly above average at the summit. Tremor remained weak to moderate near Pu`u `O`o and seismicity was at normal levels elsewhere. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone indicated no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 June-26 June 2001

Weak glow was visible in the area where lava entered the sea at the E Kupapa`u entry. Small lava flows were active on the coastal flat at the base of the Pulama pali scarp. Generally, weak, steady tremor and related long-period earthquakes continued beneath Kilauea's caldera. Tremor remained weak to moderate near Pu`u `O`o and seismicity was at normal levels elsewhere. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone indicated no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 June-19 June 2001

Small surface pahoehoe lava flows were visible on the W end of the flow field. Lava entered the sea at the E Kupapa`u ocean entry. Generally, weak, steady tremor and related long-period earthquakes continued beneath Kilauea's caldera. On 18 June for several hours there was a slight increase in long-period earthquakes near the caldera. Tremor remained weak to moderate near Pu`u `O`o and seismicity was at normal levels elsewhere. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone indicated no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 June-12 June 2001

A small number of surface lava flows was visible along the W and E lava tube systems. Generally, weak tremor and related long-period earthquakes continued at a relatively steady rate beneath Kilauea's caldera. Tremor remained weak to moderate near Pu`u `O`o. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone indicated no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


30 May-5 June 2001

During the beginning of the week lava flowed down Pulama pali and entered the ocean at two areas. By 3 June there were few surface flows with most of the lava traveling in lava tubes and entering the ocean sporadically. On 3 June a pause in volcanic activity may have begun at about 0900 with slow deflation (~2.6 microradians) occurring at the tiltmeter closest to HVO. The inflation ended around 2400 and on 4 June at 0125 rapid inflation (~2.7 microradians) began, most occurred in about 55 minutes. On 3 June at 1015 slow deflation (0.9 microradians) began at Pu`u `O`o and ended at about 2200. Slow inflation occurred at least until 4 June. Background volcanic tremor at Kilauea's summit gradually increased on 3 June starting at mid-morning, after the deflation had begun. There was no significant change in the tremor at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


23 May-29 May 2001

The tilt event that began on 20 May ended the following day and HVO reported that the precursory deflation, remarkably rapid inflation of 10-11 microradians in one hour, and then the slow relaxation of the summit presumably recorded a pulse of magma supplied to the summit reservoir complex. The pulse was then transferred to the Pu`u `O`o area where it is currently stored. Lava continued to flow into the ocean at the SE corner of the lava flow field. On 23 May surface lava flows were visible. On 26 May tremor occurred at low-to-moderate levels beneath Pu`u `O`o, earthquake swarms occurred beneath Kilauea caldera, and background tremor was low. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone indicated no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


16 May-22 May 2001

Lava continued to flow down Pulama pali and was observed entering the sea at the SE corner of the lava flow field. On 20 May the largest tilt event to occur at Kilauea in more than 4 years took place. Beginning at 0500 the volcano's summit began to slowly deflate (~2 microradians) until about 1630 when it very abruptly began to inflate (~10 microradians). The inflation peaked at 1735, and deflation began at 1750. The event was accompanied by strong tremor, which ended a prolonged period of small earthquakes that had lasted, with a 9-hour break on the night of 18 May, for several days. At about 1920 a lava pond was observed forming in Pu`u `O`o crater. Observations the next day revealed that the pond had drained, leaving only a few spattering vents.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


9 May-15 May 2001

Surface lava flows were visible traveling down Pulama Pali. Three ocean-entry benches were seen along the SE corner of the active lava flow field. The active lava flow was 300-500 m from the nearest house in the Royal Gardens subdivision, but the homes may be protected from the lava by a barrier of `a`a deposited in 1983. Volcanic tremor was higher than normal during 12 and 13 May and small earthquakes were recorded in the caldera. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone indicated no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


2 May-8 May 2001

Small streams of lava traveled down the Pulama Pali fault scarp. On 6 May lava was visible entering the sea at three locations and producing small steam plumes. The swarm of long-period earthquakes that occurred beneath the caldera the previous week came to an end. Generally, earthquake activity and volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o and in Kilauea's caldera were at low levels. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone indicated no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


25 April-1 May 2001

Lava continued to flow down the Pulama pali and across the coastal flat. On 25 April a small stream of lava reached the sea for the first time since late January. The lava stopped trickling into the sea on 29 April. On that day an unstable block of the lava bench fell into the sea, producing a loud noise and generating an explosion that tossed rocks onto dry land. A M 4.4 earthquake on the afternoon of 25 April was followed by a few small aftershocks during the rest of the week. A swarm of long-period earthquakes that began on 18 April continued through at least 27 April. The tilt at the summit was neither flat nor consistently in one direction or the other. Tiltmeters along the east rift zone indicated that there was no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


18 April-24 April 2001

Surface lava flows were visible above the Pulama Pali and traveling down it without reaching the coast. The lava flows were predominately pahoehoe with minor `a`a. Generally, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o cone and in Kilauea's caldera was at low levels, although a swarm of long-period earthquakes occurred beneath the caldera from 18 to at least 24 April. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone indicated no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


11 April-17 April 2001

After phases of deflation, inflation, and increased seismicity last week, volcanic activity at Kilauea returned to normal levels. Lava flowed down the Pulama pali and several surface flows were visible on the coastal flat. By 15 April surface lava flows seemed to diminish. Generally, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o cone and in Kilauea's caldera was at a low levels. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone indicated no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


4 April-10 April 2001

Moderate eruptive activity was visible during most of the week, but during 7-9 April Kilauea also went through phases of deflation, inflation, and increased seismicity. On 7 April, lava flowed down the Pulama Pali in two surface streams. At 0300 on 7 April summit tiltmeters began to show deflation, and starting at ~0620 volcanic tremor and long-period earthquakes increased. The phase ended in the early afternoon with a total of 3 microradians of deflation. By 8 April there was no glow from surface flows on or above Pulama Pali, which indicated that an apparent pause in the eruption occurred the previous day. At ~0200 on 8 April the summit began to inflate and about an hour later the amplitude of tremor and the rate of long-period earthquakes began to decline for about 2 hours. The inflation ended at about 1000, regaining up to 2.5 microradians at the summit. By 9 April surface lava flows traveled down Pulama Pali, seismic activity returned to normal levels, and all tiltmeters showed flat signals.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 March-3 April 2001

The HVO reported on 2 April that surface lava flows confined to a single flow in the E branch of the flow field continued to travel down the Pulama Pali. In addition, lava flows were still visible on the coastal plain and were 400-450 m from the coast. Overall, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o cone was at low-to-moderate levels and at Kilauea's caldera tremor was low. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 March-27 March 2001

Lava continued to flow down the Pulama Pali and across the coastal flat, but has not yet entered the ocean. During the past few weeks, the flows have covered about 230 m of the private access road to Royal Gardens and are now farther east than any active flows since 1992. Activity is robust on the coastal flat near the truncated road that formerly accessed Royal Gardens but that has long since been cut off by lava. Flows in the area were observed in the last few days to be feeding dozens of breakouts and to be rapidly inflating. Ground observers can often hear methane explosions from burning vegetation along the base of Pulama pali. This activity is part of the "east flow," but lava in the old "west flow" reappeared on the morning of 28 March. Overall, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o was low-to-moderate and tremor at Kilauea's caldera was low. For approximately the previous 2 weeks, small low-frequency earthquakes occurred below the caldera. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone are showing no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 March-20 March 2001

Lava continued to flow down the Pulama Pali and across the coastal flat as it has for the past 2.5 months. By the end of the week the front of the lava flow was within 300 m of the coast. During the previous couple of weeks, the lava flows had traveled farther E than any active flows since 1992. Overall, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o was low-to-moderate and tremor at Kilauea's caldera was low. For approximately the previous 2 weeks, small low-frequency earthquakes occurred below the caldera. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the E rift zone showed flat signals.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 March-13 March 2001

Lava slowly flowed SE down the Pulama pali and across the coastal plain in a broad flow front, ~1.5 km wide. Much of the flow front was within 1-1.3 km of the coastline, with the closest point ~700 m from the coast. Overall, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o was low-to-moderate and tremor at Kilauea's caldera was low. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the E rift zone showed flat signals.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


28 February-6 March 2001

Lava continued to flow down Pulama pali without reaching the sea. Overall, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o was low-to-moderate and tremor at Kilauea's caldera was low. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the E rift zone showed flat signals.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


21 February-27 February 2001

Lava continued to flow SE down the Pulama pali and across the coastal plain to within 1 km of the coast. At 1317 on 20 February a M 3.7 earthquake occurred that was centered about 5 km SE of Halemaumau Crater at a very shallow depth. Brief summit deflation occurred on 24 February, but ended the next day with no corresponding period of inflation following it. NE of Kilauea at Mauna Kea volcano, a swarm of earthquakes occurred during 22-24 February on Mauna Kea's NE flank. The earthquakes were all approximately M 3 and occurred at 2-12 km depth. Swarms occasionally occur in this area of Mauna Kea.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


14 February-20 February 2001

Lava flows continued to travel down the Pulama pali and across the coastal flat without entering the sea. During 17 and 19 February a weak swarm of shallow earthquakes occurred within the caldera. The HVO reported that the swarm was not unusual and appeared to be dying off by the end of the report period. Overall, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o was at low-to-moderate levels. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the E rift zone showed flat signals.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


7 February-13 February 2001

Surface flows continued to travel down the Pulama pali, with no lava entering the sea. A tiltmeter near the HVO showed a small (about 0.4 microradian) deflation shortly before 1230 on 10 February. After 10 February, tiltmeters in the summit area and along the E rift zone showed flat signals. Volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o and in Kilauea's caldera was at low-to-moderate levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


31 January-6 February 2001

The HVO reported that lava had not entered the sea since 29 January. Surface lava flow activity occurred primarily on the E branch of the flow on the Pulama pali, with some breakouts occurring along the trace of the W branch of the flow. Overall, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o and in Kilauea's caldera was at low-to-moderate levels. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the E rift zone showed flat signals.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


24 January-30 January 2001

Surface lava flow activity on Pulama pali gradually declined during 27 and 28 January, with only two flows near the E and W sides of the flow field. By 29 January, the area where lava entered the ocean was relatively large and a small bench (land built out from the sea cliff) was being constructed. Overall, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o and in Kilauea's caldera was at low-to-moderate levels. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone showed no deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


17 January-23 January 2001

According to HVO, a broad lava flow traveled down Pulama pali as a continuation of the series of lava lobes that developed and descended the pali for the previous 2-3 weeks. In addition, a surface breakout E of the main flow traveled down the forested slope. Small volumes of lava began to enter the sea on 21 January, while most of the lava flowed at the surface and stopped short of the coastline. Overall, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o and in Kilauea's caldera was at low-to-moderate levels. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone showed no deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


10 January-16 January 2001

According to HVO, surface flows on Pulama pali diminished after 9 January. Activity continued on the morning of 10 January from both the W and E tongues. Each was incandescent near the top, and on the lower fourth, of the pali. The much larger W tongue was burning trees along its upper E edge. By the early morning of 11 January, the only incandescence was in the W tongue. Fires continued along the E side of the upper W tongue. The crater of Pu`u `O`o was dimly glowing both mornings. By the morning of 16 January, one flow extended more than halfway down the pali, with patchy incandescence near the base. Glow above the pali and E of the flow on the pali moved eastward overnight; this glow has been there for about a week and indicates uncrusted surface lava or a fire. Lava continued to pond, thicken, and gradually spread seaward on the coastal flat below the pali. Only the faintest of glows came from the July 2000 pit on 16 January. Volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o and in Kilauea's caldera continued through this period at a low to moderate level, but bursts of strong tremor lasted about 30 minutes on the morning of the 11th and less than an hour on the 15th.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


3 January-9 January 2001

According to HVO, lava flows continued to travel down the Pulama Pali and across the coastal flat. The flows progressed no farther than ~2 km inland from the sea as they had for the previous two weeks. By the end of the report week, surface lava flows were sparse, and only incandescent patches remained on the Pali and coastal flats. During 6 to 8 January, Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o went through periods of deflation and inflation that were accompanied by increased volcanic tremor. Refer to the US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory update for details about the event. By 8 January the tilt at the summit and Pu`u `O`o, and the seismicity appeared to have returned to background levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


27 December-2 January 2001

Surface lava flows continued to travel down Pulama Pali and across the coastal flat to within about 2 km inland from the sea. Overall, seismic tremor was weak-to-moderate near Pu`u `O`o and was weak beneath Kilauea caldera. The tiltmeters at Kilauea's summit and along the east rift zone showed flat signals.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


20 December-26 December 2000

During the week surface lava flows continued to flow down Pulama pali, with the lava flow front more than 2 km inland from the sea. Overall, seismic tremor was weak to moderate near Pu`u `O`o and was weak beneath Kilauea caldera. The tiltmeters at Kilauea's summit and along the east rift zone showed flat signals.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


13 December-19 December 2000

Lava flowed into the sea at the Kamokuna entry until 17 December. From the 17th until the 19th of December (the end of the report period) no lava was observed flowing into the sea. During the week several `a`a flows were visible traveling down Pulama pali. Overall, earthquake activity was low across the island. Volcanic tremor was at normal levels near Pu`u `O`o and beneath Kilauea caldera. A tiltmeter near HVO showed slight deflation the morning of 19 December, while all other tiltmeters on Kilauea showed flat signals.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


6 December-12 December 2000

A small flow of lava entered the sea at the Kamokuna entry and no surface activity was observed on Pulama pali (a fault scarp) or the coastal flat. Overall, earthquake activity was low across the island. Tremor and a few shallow earthquakes continued to be detected at Kilauea's summit; the tremor local to the summit that was particularly noticeable last week decreased in intensity on ~8 December. The tilt-meters at Kilauea's summit and along the east rift zone showed flat signals.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


29 November-5 December 2000

Lava continued to flow into the ocean at the Kamokuna entry. Overall, earthquake activity was low across the island. Tremor and a few shallow earthquakes continued to be detected at Kilauea's summit; the tremor local to the summit was particularly noticeable. The tilt-meters at Kilauea's summit and along the east rift zone showed flat signals.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


22 November-28 November 2000

Lava continued to flow through the tube system, entering the sea at the Kamokuna entry. Overall, earthquake activity was low across the island. Volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o vent remained at a moderate level, while tremor and a few shallow earthquakes were detected at Kilauea's summit. The tilt-meters at Kilauea's summit and along the east rift zone showed flat signals.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


15 November-21 November 2000

Lava continued to flow across the coastal flat and into the sea near the Kamokuna entry. Surface flows were visible sporadically during the week. At 1408 on 16 November tour pilots observed a large collapse of the bench (land built out from the sea cliff) at Kamokuna that sent ~30 % of the bench into the sea in ~6 seconds. The large explosion that followed the collapse produced a large amount of spatter and a big, billowing, mostly white plume that rose to 600-1,800 m a.s.l. None of the spatter was directed inland. Overall, volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o vent remained at a moderate level. Earthquake activity related to volcanism was low across the island, but for several hours on the night of 15 November a giant earthquake (M 8) in New Ireland, Paupau New Guinea caused slow, peak-to-peak oscillations at Kilauea's summit seismometer and set off alarms at two tiltmeters. Otherwise, the tiltmeters at Kilauea's summit crater and along the east rift zone showed flat signals.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); US Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program


8 November-14 November 2000

Lava continued to flow across the coastal flat and into the sea at the Kamokuna entry. Overall, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o vent remained at a moderate level and earthquake activity was low across the island. The tilt-meters at Kilauea's summit and along the east rift zone showed flat signals.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


1 November-7 November 2000

The HVO reported that lava continued to enter the ocean at the Kamokuna entry as it has since late September 2000. Surface lava flows were visible sporadically through the week. Overall, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o vent was moderate and earthquake activity was low across the island. Tilt measured at Kilauea's summit was rather flat, as it was elsewhere along the E rift zone, continuing the long-term slow deflation underway since the eruption began in 1983.

On 5 November the bodies of two hikers who died on 3 November were found on Kilauea. According to an Associated Press article, a National Park Service Ranger stated that the hikers suffered severe burns, cuts, and abrasions. Authorities believed the hikers may have bypassed warning signs and hiked beyond the recommended area. The cause of their deaths was not known as of 7 November, but it was thought that they may have been struck by lightning or scalded by lava-heated sea water while they were on the active bench (land built out from the sea cliff). Refer to the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory website for more details.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO); Associated Press


Index of Monthly Reports

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

08/1968 (CSLP 28-68) Eruption from Hiiaka Crater produces lava fountains

09/1968 (CSLP 28-68) Details of Upper East Rift Zone eruption during August

10/1968 (CSLP 48-68) Lava fountaining from fissure eruption floods Napau Crater

11/1968 (CSLP 48-68) Minor fountaining resumes east of Napau Crater

02/1969 (CSLP 16-69) Fissure eruption begins on 22 February on the upper east rift

03/1969 (CSLP 16-69) Fountaining resumed on 25 February; lava cascades into Alae Crater

05/1969 (CSLP 16-69) Eruption sends lava flows into Aloi and Alae craters

06/1969 (CSLP 16-69) Lava fountaining in mid-June

07/1969 (CSLP 16-69) Eruption on 15 July

08/1969 (CSLP 16-69) Alae Crater fills, then drains; lava fountaining

09/1969 (CSLP 16-69) Strong eruption from vent between Aloi and Alae craters

10/1969 (CSLP 16-69) Lava fountains low but continuous

11/1969 (CSLP 16-69) Summary of east rift zone activity since August 1968

02/1970 (CSLP 14-70) Summit deflation followed by moderate lava emission

04/1970 (CSLP 14-70) Lava fills Aloi Crater and overflows S toward the coast

12/1970 (CSLP 14-70) Summary of activity since May 1969 that has formed broad shield named Mauna Ulu

04/1971 (CSLP 14-70) Divers observe underwater lava flow

08/1971 (CSLP 81-71) Summit eruption from four fissures with lava fountaining

10/1971 (CSLP 81-71) Summary of 25-29 September eruption

02/1972 (CSLP 09-72) Mauna Ulu erupts in early February; new lava lake and fountains

05/1973 (CSLP 59-73) Eruption on 5 May opens 600-foot-long fissure; high lava fountains

11/1973 (CSLP 59-73) Mauna Ulu crater overflows; fountaining from fissures around Pauahi Crater

01/1975 (CSLP 04-75) Lava fountains from a fissure eruption send flows 12 km

11/1975 (SEAN 01:02) Lava fountains following a severe earthquake

01/1976 (SEAN 01:04) Slow inflation and two earthquakes

11/1976 (SEAN 01:14) Summit deflation

04/1977 (SEAN 02:04) Monitoring data from 8-9 February magma intrusion event

09/1977 (SEAN 02:09) Fissure eruption begins on the East Rift near Kalalua Crater

10/1977 (SEAN 02:10) Eruption near the Kalalua cone ends on 1 October

11/1979 (SEAN 04:11) Brief eruption from upper east rift zone

03/1980 (SEAN 05:03) Two intrusions into the upper east rift

08/1980 (SEAN 05:08) Intrusion into the upper east rift zone

10/1980 (SEAN 05:10) Two intrusions into the upper east rift

05/1981 (SEAN 06:05) Intrusion into the southwest rift

06/1981 (SEAN 06:06) Small shallow intrusion under SE part of caldera

07/1981 (SEAN 06:07) Intrusion under S summit area and SW rift zone

08/1981 (SEAN 06:08) More information on SW Rift intrusion

03/1982 (SEAN 07:03) Small intrusions into E and SW rifts

04/1982 (SEAN 07:04) Small fissure eruption in summit caldera

06/1982 (SEAN 07:06) Intrusion into the SW rift

09/1982 (SEAN 07:09) Fissure eruption in summit caldera

11/1982 (SEAN 07:11) Intrusion into upper E rift

12/1982 (SEAN 07:12) Major eruption in middle E Rift Zone

01/1983 (SEAN 08:01) Major eruption in middle E Rift Zone may continue

02/1983 (SEAN 08:02) Renewed fountaining and lava flow production on E Rift

03/1983 (SEAN 08:03) Eruption continues in middle east rift zone

04/1983 (SEAN 08:04) Lava effusion stops; low level harmonic tremor, local incandescence, and extension continue

05/1983 (SEAN 08:05) Incandescent vents, harmonic tremor, and dilation across fissure system continue, then lava extrusion resumes

06/1983 (SEAN 08:06) Lava flows and spatter cones produced by two new phases of E rift zone eruption

07/1983 (SEAN 08:07) Lava flows move ENE along east rift for 4 days

08/1983 (SEAN 08:08) 7th, 8th, and 9th major episodes produce lava flows extending NE and S from spatter cone

09/1983 (SEAN 08:09) 8th-10th major phases of E Rift Zone eruption

10/1983 (SEAN 08:10) 10th and 11th major phases of E Rift Zone eruption

11/1983 (SEAN 08:11) 11th and 12 major phases of East Rift Zone eruption

12/1983 (SEAN 08:12) Episode 12 described; tremor and inflation continue; new ground cracks

01/1984 (SEAN 09:01) 13th-15th major episodes of East Rift Zone eruption include lava fountains to 300 m and temperatures to 1,147°C

02/1984 (SEAN 09:02) 15th and 16th major episodes; lava fountains to 320 m; large tephra fall

03/1984 (SEAN 09:03) Episodes 16 and 17 include strong fountaining, tephra, and the longest flow of the 1983-84 eruption

04/1984 (SEAN 09:04) 18th episode; four lava flows, longest flow of 1983-84 eruption

05/1984 (SEAN 09:05) 19th and 20th episodes; gas-piston activity

06/1984 (SEAN 09:06) Episodes 20-22; highest lava fountains of 1983-84 eruption

07/1984 (SEAN 09:07) Episodes 22-23 of 1983-84 E Rift Zone eruption

08/1984 (SEAN 09:08) Episode 24; high fountains; thin tephra blanket

09/1984 (SEAN 09:09) Episode 25; highest fountains of 1983-84 eruption; tephra

10/1984 (SEAN 09:10) Episode 26; shortest of 1983-84 eruption

11/1984 (SEAN 09:11) Episodes 27 and 28 of 1983-84 middle E Rift Zone eruption

12/1984 (SEAN 09:12) Episodes 28 and 29 are one-day eruptions with fountains to 450 m

01/1985 (SEAN 10:01) Episodes 29-30; fountains to 460 m; heavy tephra fall

02/1985 (SEAN 10:02) 30th episode lasts about 21 hours; tephra falls in Hilo

03/1985 (SEAN 10:03) Episode 31; lava flows into subdivision; tephra builds Pu`u `O`o

04/1985 (SEAN 10:04) Episode 32 of 1983-85 middle E Rift Zone eruption

05/1985 (SEAN 10:05) Summit inflation and low-level harmonic tremor continue; episode 33 of 1983-85 eruption

06/1985 (SEAN 10:06) Episodes 33 and 34; aa lava flows SE

07/1985 (SEAN 10:07) Continuing lava production from new fissures uprift of active vent

08/1985 (SEAN 10:08) Fissure activity ends; new episode three weeks later

09/1985 (SEAN 10:09) Episode 37 of the 1983-85 East Rift Zone eruption

10/1985 (SEAN 10:10) Episodes 37, 38, and 39 of 1983-85 eruption

11/1985 (SEAN 10:11) Episode 39 includes S-flank vent activity

12/1985 (SEAN 10:12) 40th episode marks end of 3rd year of East Rift eruption

01/1986 (SEAN 11:01) Episodes 40 and 41 of East Rift Zone eruption

02/1986 (SEAN 11:02) 42nd episode of East Rift Zone eruption

03/1986 (SEAN 11:03) Two brief episodes of high lava fountains feed short flows

04/1986 (SEAN 11:04) Episode 44 included lava production from new vent

05/1986 (SEAN 11:05) Episodes 45 and 46 of East Rift eruption

06/1986 (SEAN 11:06) Intermittent activity precedes episode 47

07/1986 (SEAN 11:07) Episode 48 from three new fissures

08/1986 (SEAN 11:08) Lava shield continues to grow

09/1986 (SEAN 11:09) Lava tubes feed flow complex; continued lava shield growth

10/1986 (SEAN 11:10) Continued lava production builds shield; flows burn forest

11/1986 (SEAN 11:11) 12-km-long lava flow destroys 11 houses, enters ocean

12/1986 (SEAN 11:12) Lava destroys more homes

01/1987 (SEAN 12:01) Activity confined to shield area, new tube system

02/1987 (SEAN 12:02) New outbreaks along lava tube system stagnate

03/1987 (SEAN 12:03) Lava flow enters ocean; more coastal destruction

04/1987 (SEAN 12:04) Lava advance continues, three more houses destroyed

05/1987 (SEAN 12:05) Lava enters ocean from underwater tubes and surface flows

06/1987 (SEAN 12:06) Lava flow builds coast, destroys house; inflation resumes

07/1987 (SEAN 12:07) Tube system blockage changes shield, lava flows

08/1987 (SEAN 12:08) Lava production continues; deep tremor

09/1987 (SEAN 12:09) Lava destroys seven more houses

10/1987 (SEAN 12:10) Lava flows into ocean

11/1987 (SEAN 12:11) Lava flows into ocean, destroys house

12/1987 (SEAN 12:12) Lava flows into sea, destroys more houses

01/1988 (SEAN 13:01) Increased lava production; activity resumes at Pu`u `O`o

02/1988 (SEAN 13:02) Lava continues to enter ocean; littoral cones and tephra

03/1988 (SEAN 13:03) Lava flows into ocean; littoral explosions

04/1988 (SEAN 13:04) Lava production resumes after a one-week hiatus

05/1988 (SEAN 13:05) Lava destroys houses, re-enters ocean

06/1988 (SEAN 13:06) Tube system feeds lava into ocean

07/1988 (SEAN 13:07) Lava bench collapse at seacoast

08/1988 (SEAN 13:08) Coastal lava benches build and collapse

09/1988 (SEAN 13:09) Littoral explosions and lava bench collapse

10/1988 (SEAN 13:10) Repeated collapse of new coastal lava benches

11/1988 (SEAN 13:11) Lava benches form and collapse at coast

12/1988 (SEAN 13:12) Continued lava flow into sea; tube breakouts upslope

01/1989 (SEAN 14:01) Lava flow remains active at seacoast and upslope

02/1989 (SEAN 14:02) Lava enters sea through tubes; surface breakouts upslope

03/1989 (SEAN 14:03) Breakouts upslope slow lava bench growth at coast

04/1989 (SEAN 14:04) Lava flows threaten houses

05/1989 (SEAN 14:05) Surface activity destroys four houses

06/1989 (SEAN 14:06) Earthquake causes bench collapse; no effect on eruption

07/1989 (SEAN 14:07) High surface activity, new flow enters ocean

08/1989 (SEAN 14:08) Lava continues to enter the ocean at several sites

09/1989 (SEAN 14:09) Coastal lava entries active; breakouts from tube system

10/1989 (SEAN 14:10) Lava flows into sea at three sites; breakouts from lava tubes

11/1989 (SEAN 14:11) Three ocean lava entries remain active; littoral explosions

12/1989 (SEAN 14:12) Two ocean entries remain active; littoral explosions

01/1990 (BGVN 15:01) Lava production stops for three days but resumes with more vigor; seismicity suggests E Rift crustal adjustment

02/1990 (BGVN 15:02) Eruption stops, then resumes with vigorous surface activity; two new ocean entries

03/1990 (BGVN 15:03) Eruption stops briefly then resumes after seismic swarm; lava destroys house

04/1990 (BGVN 15:04) E Rift lava flows destroy dozens of homes

05/1990 (BGVN 15:05) E Rift eruption pauses briefly, then lava destroys more homes

06/1990 (BGVN 15:06) Vigorous East Rift lava production resumes after brief pause; lava pond recedes

07/1990 (BGVN 15:07) Lava flow destroys two homes, re-enters ocean

08/1990 (BGVN 15:08) Continued East Rift lava production; two houses destroyed; three brief eruptive pauses

09/1990 (BGVN 15:09) Continued east rift lava production; lava extending hundreds of meters into ocean

10/1990 (BGVN 15:10) Lava continues to flow into sea; more homes destroyed

11/1990 (BGVN 15:11) E rift lava continues to flow into sea; earthquake swarm

12/1990 (BGVN 15:12) East rift lava continues to enter sea; briefly increased lava lake activity after seismic swarm

01/1991 (BGVN 16:01) Continued lava flow into sea; increased summit seismicity

02/1991 (BGVN 16:02) Lava flows build more new land at coast

03/1991 (BGVN 16:03) Lava continues to enter ocean; upper east rift magma intrusion

04/1991 (BGVN 16:04) Lava breakout from tube system feeds new ocean entry

05/1991 (BGVN 16:05) E rift lava continues to flow through tubes into the ocean

06/1991 (BGVN 16:06) E rift lava continues to enter the ocean

07/1991 (BGVN 16:07) Continued E rift lava production; summit earthquake swarm

08/1991 (BGVN 16:08) Continued lava flow into sea; lava pond overflows; magma intrusion

09/1991 (BGVN 16:09) Numerous surface flows break out from tubes, then lava stops entering ocean; lava lake active

10/1991 (BGVN 16:10) New east rift fissure vents

11/1991 (BGVN 16:11) Lava from new east rift fissure vents

12/1991 (BGVN 16:12) Small lava flows emerge from tube system; new lava covers Pu`u `O`o Crater floor

01/1992 (BGVN 17:01) Lava from new fissure; continued lava pond activity; lava production ends from shield vent

02/1992 (BGVN 17:02) Continued lava production from East rift fissure vents; magma intrusion into upper East rift

03/1992 (BGVN 17:03) Continued lava production from East rift fissure vent

04/1992 (BGVN 17:04) East rift lava production from fissure vent continues, but with brief pauses

05/1992 (BGVN 17:05) Lava production from episode-51 vent interrupted by brief pauses; lava lake in nearby crater

06/1992 (BGVN 17:06) Continued east rift lava production

07/1992 (BGVN 17:07) Lava flows south from East-rift vents

08/1992 (BGVN 17:08) Continued East-rift lava extrusion interrupted by brief pauses

09/1992 (BGVN 17:09) New vent opens after M 4.5 earthquake

10/1992 (BGVN 17:10) Lava flows into ocean

11/1992 (BGVN 17:11) Lava flows extend 350 m into the ocean

12/1992 (BGVN 17:12) Lava continues to flow into sea as East rift zone eruption enters 11th year

01/1993 (BGVN 18:01) Lava flowing through tube system continues to enter the sea

02/1993 (BGVN 18:02) Episode 53 begins; lava flows from tube breakout reach Kamoamoa delta

03/1993 (BGVN 18:03) Lava continues to flow into ocean; phreatic explosion kills one

04/1993 (BGVN 18:04) Lava continues to enter the ocean

05/1993 (BGVN 18:05) Lava continues to enter the ocean; bench collapses cause explosions

06/1993 (BGVN 18:06) Ocean entries remain active; bench collapses continue

07/1993 (BGVN 18:07) New lava breakout on the Kamoamoa delta reaches the ocean

08/1993 (BGVN 18:08) Lava enters ocean along both sides of the Kamoamoa delta

09/1993 (BGVN 18:09) Lava from tubes enters ocean; lava pond remains active

10/1993 (BGVN 18:10) Ocean entries remain active; partial collapse at episode-53 vent

11/1993 (BGVN 18:11) Lava bench collapse with vigorous explosive activity

12/1993 (BGVN 18:12) New collapse area engulfs much of the episode-53 cone

01/1994 (BGVN 19:01) New skylights open; W ocean entry remains active

02/1994 (BGVN 19:02) Three lava bench collapses, littoral cones, and a M 5.2 earthquake

03/1994 (BGVN 19:03) New lava flows, bench collapse, and postulated water entry into lava tubes

04/1994 (BGVN 19:04) Lava escaping from an active tube feeds aa flows

05/1994 (BGVN 19:05) Littoral explosions as lava continues to enter the ocean

06/1994 (BGVN 19:06) A few lava flows break out of tubes onto the surface; banded tremor continues

07/1994 (BGVN 19:07) Bench collapses and littoral explosions occur as lava flows continue to enter the ocean

08/1994 (BGVN 19:08) New lava flow advances over a fault scarp; ocean entries remain active

09/1994 (BGVN 19:09) One active ocean entry; small breakouts on E side of flow field

10/1994 (BGVN 19:10) Laeapuki ocean entries still active and new lava flow reaches ocean

12/1994 (BGVN 19:12) Lava-flow breakouts cover new land and reach the ocean

01/1995 (BGVN 20:01) Lava flows active on coastal plain and at ocean entries

02/1995 (BGVN 20:02) Lava flows on coastal plain; four active ocean entry points

04/1995 (BGVN 20:04) Lava flows, breakouts, tremor, and more

05/1995 (BGVN 20:05) Lava flows and ocean entries very active in the Highcastle area

07/1995 (BGVN 20:07) Continued collapse of the Pu`u `O`o cone; lava flows and ocean entries

09/1995 (BGVN 20:09) Numerous lava flows upslope and on the coastal plain; new ocean entry formed

12/1995 (BGVN 20:11/12) Surface lava flows, lava tubes, and ocean entries still active

01/1996 (BGVN 21:01) Eruptive pulse on 1 February almost results in a summit eruption

03/1996 (BGVN 21:03) Heightened activity on 1-4 February followed by 10-day pause; bench construction

05/1996 (BGVN 21:05) Surface flows, ocean entries, and bench collapses; summit inflation episode

07/1996 (BGVN 21:07) Surface flows, ocean entries, and bench collapses; continued eruption tremor

09/1996 (BGVN 21:09) Eruptive activity continues; ocean entry and lava bench collapses

11/1996 (BGVN 21:11) Eruptive activity continues; lava-bench collapses

01/1997 (BGVN 22:01) New, short-lived eruptive episode (54) in Napau Crater; Pu`u `O`o pauses

02/1997 (BGVN 22:02) Lava returns to Pu`u `O`o

03/1997 (BGVN 22:03) Lava flows outside of Pu`u `O`o for the first time since 31 January

04/1997 (BGVN 22:04) Lava issuing from three sites; Pu`u `O`o lava lake 20 m from W crater rim

07/1997 (BGVN 22:07) Fountaining from Pu`u `O`o vents; lava flows reach ocean again

09/1997 (BGVN 22:09) Lava effusion and overflows

11/1997 (BGVN 22:11) Bench collapse and pit formation; lava flows continue to reach the coast

12/1997 (BGVN 22:12) Surge in activity on 15 January

01/1998 (BGVN 23:01) Surface flows; 27 January earthquake swarm

02/1998 (BGVN 23:02) Steady, low activity during February

03/1998 (BGVN 23:03) Steady eruption but low seismicity, sparse surface flows

04/1998 (BGVN 23:04) Brief magma surge on 5 April, bench collapse 13-14 April

06/1998 (BGVN 23:06) Pause in lava flow during May; benches collapse during May-July

08/1998 (BGVN 23:08) Eruptive pause (No. 20) followed by a new pahoehoe flow to the sea

10/1998 (BGVN 23:10) Lava from Pu`u `O`o continues to build bench

11/1998 (BGVN 23:11) Continuing flow from Pu`u `O`o; major bench collapse

01/1999 (BGVN 24:01) Pause in eruption leads to new surface flows

03/1999 (BGVN 24:03) Large delta collapse on 8 March nearly claims victims

05/1999 (BGVN 24:05) Bench collapse on 13 April; a 33-hour eruptive pause on 5 May

09/1999 (BGVN 24:09) Abrupt changes in tilt, tremor, and extrusive output due to an inferred intrusion

01/2000 (BGVN 25:01) Ground deformation continues through June; earthquake swarms begin in December

04/2000 (BGVN 25:04) An eruptive pause occurred in September; intrusion of magma in February

06/2000 (BGVN 25:06) During May-July 2000, continued frequent surface flows and earthquakes

10/2000 (BGVN 25:10) Continued lava production during late-July to mid-November; two hikers dead

09/2001 (BGVN 26:09) Branching lava flows, ocean entries, and elevated seismicity into September 2001

12/2001 (BGVN 26:12) Low-to-moderate tremor, surface lava flows and ocean entry through early 2002

03/2002 (BGVN 27:03) Lava stops entering sea during January, tilting in late March-April 2002

05/2002 (BGVN 27:05) New lava flows during early May burn over 1,000 hectares of forest

08/2002 (BGVN 27:08) Lava flowed over land and poured over the sea cliff during parts of mid-2002

11/2002 (BGVN 27:11) Inflation-deflation episodes and lava flows through 2 December 2002

05/2003 (BGVN 28:05) Continued lava flows during December 2002-June 2003 enter the ocean

09/2003 (BGVN 28:09) Active surface lava flows from June through mid-October

11/2003 (BGVN 28:11) Moderate seismicity and minor activity on the lava-flow field

02/2004 (BGVN 29:02) Activity through April 2004 focuses in upper flow field (maps and diagrams)

06/2004 (BGVN 29:06) Surface lava flows and renewed ocean entries; lava tubes in June

09/2004 (BGVN 29:09) June-October 2004 period has lava entering ocean and ample lava flows

06/2005 (BGVN 30:06) During November 2004-January 2005 lava flows continued to enter the sea

04/2006 (BGVN 31:04) Maps of past year's surface lava flows and photos of lava entering the sea

08/2006 (BGVN 31:08) Lava entering the sea at E Lae`apuki; small bench collapse on 30 July 2006

10/2006 (BGVN 31:10) PKK lava tube active August-November 2006; 10 October collapse pit at Pu`u `O`o

05/2007 (BGVN 32:05) Lava flows entering the ocean between December 2006 and March 2007

06/2007 (BGVN 32:06) April to June 2007 activity; rift zone earthquakes and extension

03/2009 (BGVN 34:03) June to December 2007 activity; multiple fissure eruptions

01/2010 (BGVN 35:01) 2008 highlights: Thanksgiving Eve Breakout continues, Halema'uma'u Crater vent opens

02/2013 (BGVN 38:02) 2009 highlights: Waikupanaha ocean entry ceases, lava enters Halema`uma`u

05/2013 (BGVN 38:05) Summary of highlights for 2010-2012


Contents of Monthly Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.

All times are local (= UTC - 10 hours)

08/1968 (CSLP 28-68) Eruption from Hiiaka Crater produces lava fountains

Card 0014 (26 August 1968) Eruption from Hiiaka Crater produces lava fountains

The following information was reported by the Associated Press on 22 August 1968. "Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawaii erupted today with fountains up to 75 feet in height. Activity broke out in Hiiaka Crater about 0645. About four miles south of Kilauea-iki off the Chain of Craters road. Records of the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park indicate that Hiiaka Crater had not previously erupted in historical time."

Information Contact: Howard Powers, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), U.S. Geological Survey.

09/1968 (CSLP 28-68) Details of Upper East Rift Zone eruption during August

Card 0030 (03 September 1968) Details of Upper East Rift Zone eruption during August

"An eruption along the upper east rift of Kilauea started with a swarm of earthquakes at 0249, 22 August 1968. Collapse of the summit began recording on the Uwekahuna tiltmeters almost simultaneously. By daylight, 0530, clouds of fume were issuing from a line of new cracks that intercepted the Chain of Craters Road, crossed through Hiiaka pit and a half across the Old Keauhou Wagon Road at B.M. 3270. Lava vents appeared in the bottom of Hiiaka Crater about 0645 and rapidly fed a lake that deepened to about 100 feet and reached a diameter at "shore line" of about 300 feet. Drainback started conspicuously while some continued another half hour leaving only a thin plaster of new lava covering the funnel-shaped bottom walls of Talus. During the early part of the Hiiaka eruption, another small flow was erupted from one fissure a mile east of Hiiaka.

"During the next four days (through 26 August 1968) cracks opened progressively eastward as far as about 13.5 miles from Hiiaka; first at three miles, next at 12 miles, and finally at 13.5 miles, somewhat E of Kalalua Crater. Violent emission of hot gas with no outpouring of lava took place from the western set of cracks; small amounts of rampart spatter and short, stubby, listless flows issued from the more distant groups of cracks.

Collapse at the caldera totaled about 60 µrad on the rim stations during the first 36 hours, and reversed to a steady but moderate inflation Sunday and Monday. Level stations on the floor of the caldera dropped a little more than half a foot during this period.

The earthquake swarm ceased within about six hours, and strong harmonic tremor was recorded on all the near-summit seismometers for more than 24 hours. It then diminished rapidly under the caldera but remained strong under the upper east rift until there also it died out rapidly during the early hours of 25 August.

It is of especial interest that there has been no migration of small earthquakes and harmonic tremor to eastward along the rift while opening of cracks and appearance of lava has extended eastward. This absence of small local earthquakes and harmonic tremor has been checked by observations with the portable seismograph and constant observation of the seismometer installed near Pahoa."

Information Contact: Howard Powers, HVO.

10/1968 (CSLP 48-68) Lava fountaining from fissure eruption floods Napau Crater

Card 0109 (08 October 1968) Fissure eruption emits lava that covers the floor of Napau Crater

The following report was received from Dallas Peck, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, DC. Kilauea volcano erupted at 1435 HDT on 7 October after 3.5 hours of harmonic tremors and abundant earthquakes. The eruption is from a fissure between two and three miles in length crossing Napau Crater on the east rift zone, nine miles southeast of the summit. Quite a bit of lava has come out of the fissure and covered the floor of Napau Crater. Another small lava flow from the same fissure has blocked the trail into the crater. Ground crews are proceeding to investigate.

Card 0111 (08 October 1968) Lava fountaining continues along 3.5-mile fissure; longest lava flows has advanced 5.5 miles

"There was lava fountaining throughout the night all along the three-and-a-half mile fissure that opened up yesterday afternoon. The fountaining continued until 0400 this morning. At 0700, the lava fountaining is still continuing in the northeasterly section of the fissure. The fissure is located approximately four-and-a-half miles northeast of the Makaopuhi Road and the lava is disappearing in another fissure which is located approximately one mile to the northeast of the fountaining activity. The greatest advance of the lava is ~5.5 miles NE of the road and within two miles of the Puaialua Crater. Collapsed tilting has definitely slackened off and the total tilt is slightly more than we had in the August eruption. The earthquake pattern seems to have stabilized. The tremors are not moving down the rift. At the present time there is no indication of further opening down toward the east coast.

Card 0117 (10 October 1968) Activity decreasing; fumes and smog covering the entire island

"Napau Crater lava extrusion extending three miles from crater but activity decreasing. Fountains on 8 October 200 feet high, on 9 October 50-100 feet high. There are indications Napau activity may cease within few days but this is uncertain. Some flow activity but lava penetrating crevices and flow therefore not extensive. Fumes and smog covering entire island up to 7,000 feet above sea level.

Card 0119 (14 October 1968) Flooding of Napau Crater stopped midday on 10 October

"Kilauea status as of 10/0200Z. Napau Crater flooded with lava. Flooding stopped midday 10 October. Fountain activity limited to 200 yard stretches approximately one to two miles from Napau Crater rim."

Card 0127 (14 October 1968) Fountaining decreases to slight bubbling by 14 October

"As of 12 October 0200Z one area still fountaining approximately one mile from Napau Crater rim. Almost no lava flowing. Tremors weak. Eruption appears to be dying out slowly. As of 13 October 0200Z yesterday's fountaining has stopped but fuming continues. Earth tremors very weak. As of 14 October 0200Z slight bubbling in previous fountaining area one mile from Napau Crater rim.

Card 0140 (15 October 1968) Fountaining has dwindled; weak tremors

"Kilauea status as of 15 October 0200Z. Fountaining of 14 October has dwindled. Weak tremors."

Card 0151 (21 October 1968) Minor fuming and steaming; inflation resumes

"Kilauea status 20/0200Z. No activity other than minor port-eruptive fuming and steaming. No seismic activity. Instruments indicate mountain has resumed rising. The rising which had preceded the eruptions was interrupted briefly by a short period of deflation coinciding with the period of maximum flow activity. Visibility pattern clear with intermittent clouds."

Information Contacts:
Card 0109 (08 October 1968) Howard Powers, HVO.
Card 0111 (08 October 1968) Howard Powers, HVO.
Card 0117 (10 October 1968) Smithsonian Astrophysical Observing Station, Maui, HI.
Card 0119 (14 October 1968) Smithsonian Astrophysical Observing Station, Maui, HI.
Card 0127 (14 October 1968) Smithsonian Astrophysical Observing Station, Maui, HI.
Card 0140 (15 October 1968) Smithsonian Astrophysical Observing Station, Maui, HI.
Card 0151 (21 October 1968) Smithsonian Astrophysical Observing Station, Maui, HI.

11/1968 (CSLP 48-68) Minor fountaining resumes east of Napau Crater

Card 0252 (25 November 1968) Minor fountaining resumes east of Napau Crater

"On the afternoon of 21 October, it was found that minor fountaining activity, perhaps 15 feet high, had resumed, undetected, in a small area of the rift east of Napau Crater. Though fountaining activity can normally be detected immediately by the Hawaii Volcano Observatory's seismic net, in this instance, the harmonic tremor characteristic of fountaining was masked by several days of strong, wind-generated microseism activity. Though it is uncertain when the activity started, it seems likely that it began in the early morning hours of 21 October. Had it begun earlier, it would have been detected by means of glow in its smoke. By 22 October, the activity ceased."

Information Contact: Matthew Salisbury, HVO.

02/1969 (CSLP 16-69) Fissure eruption begins on 22 February on the upper east rift

Card 0422 (24 February 1969) Fissure eruption begins on 22 February on the upper east rift

Kilauea erupted three miles of fissure in the upper east rift, 1000 HST on 22 February 1969. The swarm of short tremors burst and small earthquakes started at 0627. By 0900 tremors were constant. Earthquakes had diminished and lava appeared about 0950. The first crack extended to the base of Kane Nui O Hamo and produced two flows that rapidly moved south across the chain of crater roads.

Within the next two hours the erupting fissure extended eastward across the north flank of Kane Nui O Hamo, westward across the mezzanine ofAlae across the chain of crater roads and to a point south of west edge of Alae. Fountains from Alae Mezzanine are forming a new lava lake in Alae that is more than 150 feet deep as of the afternoon of 23 February. A sluggish aa-flow from the eastern fissure is moving down the highway and reached more than one and a half miles by the afternoon of 23 February. Action continues at Alae as of 2100 HST 23 February.

Information Contact: Howard Powers, HVO.

03/1969 (CSLP 16-69) Fountaining resumed on 25 February; lava cascades into Alae Crater

Card 0447 (05 March 1969) Fountaining resumed on 25 February; lava cascades into Alae Crater

Late afternoon of 25 February, fountaining resumed on a quarter mile fissure half way between Alae Crater and Kane Nui O Hamo. This fissure is either the same or very close to the original fissure that started the activity on the morning of 22 February. Fountaining was not too strong during 24 hours, and was localized in three main fountains. The effluent lava pooled and built a confining levee that reproduced a miniature Halemaumau lake. This localized activity built up on [the night of 26 February] and the vigor of tremor increased. On [the morning of 27 February] the three fountains in the "lake" had become one vigorous fountain, playing up to 200 feet, and the levee had burst permitting a strong lava flow to cascade into Alae Crater. A small fountain had resumed at the base of the northwest slope of Kane Nui O Hamo and sent a sluggish small flow northward into the forest. A third small fountain had resumed in Alae.

During the increase in activity starting about 2100 on 26 February, the summit tiltmeters showed a modest collapse, though they had been showing inflation during the early part of the resumed fountaining. There has been no renewal of activity on the fissure crossing Chain of Craters road between Alae and Aloi that was active for about a half mile westward south of Aloi. Puu Huluhulu is a good vantage point, and the large fountain is visible from the Aloi overlook area. Access to Alae is blocked by new lava, and new lava has covered the new highway for a mile and a half south from Makaopuhi.

Information Contact: Howard Powers, HVO.

05/1969 (CSLP 16-69) Eruption sends lava flows into Aloi and Alae craters

Card 0559 (26 May 1969) Eruption sends lava flows into Aloi and Alae craters

The following report was received by cable on 25 May 1969. "Kilauea erupted along one mile on east rift morning of 24 May local. Location of activity approximately one mile nearer to Kilauea Summit than 22 February eruption. Lava flows moved south into Aloi Crater and back into Alae Crater. Activity almost ceased as of 25/0800Z."

The following was received by cable on 26 May. "Kilauea activity ceased."

Information Contact: Smithsonian Astrophysical Observing Station, Maui, HI.

06/1969 (CSLP 16-69) Lava fountaining in mid-June

Card 0637 (30 June 1969) Lava fountaining in mid-June

"We had about eight hours of activity last week. The fountain area that had been active on 12 and 13 June revived its activity. Exactly the same fountain trough opened up again and we had very strong fountaining starting about 2100 GMT on 24 June and it stopped at 1755 GMT the next morning (25 June). It went for a little over nine hours. The fountaining was quite strong and steady. Lots of lava was produced and the flow from the fountaining followed practically the same path that the flow had taken down toward the beach, on 12 and 13 June and this flow reached within 75 yards of the beach while the fountain was still active. Then, when the fountain ceased activity, there was still lava in the system along the channel that was still hot enough to be mobile, so there was some extension of the flow at the end. . . the lava did reach the beach and a little bit of it flowed into the water at about 0835 (more than 1.5 hours after the fountain stopped). Since then, the activity ceased abruptly and there has been no resumption since then. The tilting at the summit indicated recharging - a swelling of the summit immediately after the fountain stopped."

Information Contact: Howard Powers, HVO.

07/1969 (CSLP 16-69) Eruption on 15 July

Card 0672 (16 July 1969) Eruption on 15 July

"Volcano eruption on the island of Hawaii (same area as 24-25 April 1969 eruption) at 0400 on 15 July 1969 and ceased 1228 same date."

Information Contact: Howard Powers, HVO.

08/1969 (CSLP 16-69) Alae Crater fills, then drains; lava fountaining

Card 0702 (04 August 1969) Eruption on 3 August almost fills Alae Crater

The following report was called in by D. Peck who had received a cable from H. Powers in Hawaii. "Eruption from same vent started [at 1715 on 3 August]. Stopped 0008 [on] 4 August. Flow nearly filled Alae [pit crater]. Nothing flowed toward ocean."

Card 0711 (07 August 1969) Down-dropping graben allows almost complete draining of Alae Crater

"Another phase of the current Kilauean eruption started at 2200 on 5 August when lava started pouring into Alae Crater from a nearby fountain. The last eruptive phase which took place 3 August at the same site was followed 4 August by the down dropping of a graben extending from Alae Crater to Kane Nui O Hamo and the almost complete draining of lava from Alae Crater. Alae had been almost completely filled by lava several hundred feet deep that erupted during previous phases in February, May, June, July and August. Concurrently with the draining of Alae, lava oozed from a mile long fissure on the rift zone below Napau Crater. The concurrent eruptive phase ended at 6pm 6 August, and left a new lake of lava more than a hundred feet deep in Alae Crater."

Card 0730 (22 August 1969) Lava fountaining to 1,500 feet in height

"The volcano went into a very active phase last night about midnight Hawaiian Time. In the last few weeks the volcano has been continuously active in between violent stages; the fountaining being very low, only 25-50 feet high, and the lava flowing only a short distance until flowing down a fissure.

Starting at midnight Hawaiian Time (1000 GMT 22 August) the fountaining rapidly increased and a volcanic tremor recorded on the seismograph, increased. When Dr. Powers called, the fountaining had reached 1500 feet in height. Over the last several months in a number of eruptions, there have been two fountains, one of which feeds a stream of lava flowing down due south to the shoreline and the other feeding a flow that poured into Alae Crater. During this current phase, only the eastern fountain, feeding the flow into Alae, is active."

Information Contacts:
Card 0702 (04 August 1969) Howard Powers, HVO.
Card 0711 (07 August 1969) Dallas Peck, U.S. Geological Survey, HI.
Card 0730 (22 August 1969) Howard Powers, HVO.

09/1969 (CSLP 16-69) Strong eruption from vent between Aloi and Alae craters

Card 0747 (11 September 1969) Strong eruption from vent between Aloi and Alae craters

"Kilauea staged a strong eruption again from the new vent between Aloi and Alae on the upper east rift zone. This vent had been in strong eruption between midnight and 0440 on 22 August. It then relaxed into a state of steady fuming and low grade tremor very local to the vent. On 6 September, at noon, the tremor and fuming stopped and a periodic rise and fall of the lava surface in the vent began. The surface rose nearly to the lip of the fissure and then dropped 100 feet deep in surges lasting short of an hour. This continued until sustained and strong eruption began about 2000. Fountains attained heights of 1,800 feet maximum and held steady at over 1,000 feet for several hours. Alae pit crater filled, two small flows extended southward to within a couple of miles of the coast, and the pumice and spatter cones was increased to a height of more than a hundred feet. Activity suddenly stopped at 0430, 7 September. Summit swelling resumed immediately and the strong fuming started up right after the last fountain died."

Information Contact: E.H. Roseboom, US Geological Survey, HI.

10/1969 (CSLP 16-69) Lava fountains low but continuous

Card 0795 (16 October 1969) Lava fountains low but continuous

The following information is taken from a telephone conversation with Dallas Peck. "This information was relayed to me by Donald Swanson, acting scientist-in-charge of the Hawaiian Observatory, by a note dated 11 October which reads as follows: 'Phase end, or a very vigorous episode of interphase activity, began 10 October at 0900 and is continuing as of 1930, 11 October. Fountains have been very low (50-125 feet) but they have been continuous so they have put out a fair amount of lava. Nearly all the lava has gone into Alae Crater which was refilled by 1400, 10 October, and is now overflowing along its SE side. Flows apparently fed through tubes beneath the stable crust from Alae Lake are covering a fairly extensive area south of Alae and east of the area covered previously since 24 May.'"

Information Contact: Donald Swanson, HVO.

11/1969 (CSLP 16-69) Summary of east rift zone activity since August 1968

Card 0814 (03 November 1969) Summary of east rift zone activity since August 1968

The central and western part of the east rift zone of Kilauea volcano has been the site of four eruptions, one of which is still continuing, in the past 15 months. Small eruptions in August and October, 1968, added about 7 x 106m3 of tholeiitic basalt to the surface, and an eruption from 22 to 28 February, 1969, which produced about 17 x 106m3 of lava, much of it in a lake in Alae pit crater.

A fourth flank eruption began along a fissure between Alae and Aloi craters on 24 May, 1969, and since then 11 phases (the last on 20 October) of high fountaining and significant lava output have taken place from the same vent area. The phases are spaced from two days to four weeks apart. Ten phases have each erupted about 4 x 106m3 of lava; one phase erupted about 12 x 106m3, and one, about 2 x 106m3. Fountains are 30-540 m high and issue from a 100-m-long segment of the fissure, on the downwind side of which a cone of welded spatter several tens of meters high has been built. Most eruptive phases last less than ten hours, with fountain activity building gradually but ending very abruptly (within a few minutes). The bulk of the lava of each phase is poor in olivine, but the last lava emitted is generally picritic or nearly so. Flows from the 11 phases have completely filled Alae Crater and partly filled Aloi Crater; one flow from phase four (25 June) reached the ocean, about 12 km from the vent. A thick accumulation of pumice and spatter blankets several square kilometers downwind from the vent area. Both pahoehoe and aa flows have been produced, and many rootless aa flows, fed by welded spatter gliding from the oversteepened flanks of the new cone, extend short distances downslope.

During interphase periods, the lava column can generally be seen at a depth of several tens of meters in the fissure. The column commonly rises slowly within the fissure without much gas emission. Suddenly, bubbling begins, and the column drops rapidly with violent spattering. This cyclic rise and fall, which probably operates 25 percent or more of the duration of each interphase period, normally has a period of ten to fifteen minutes, with the fall taking only two to four minutes of this time. It is safe to watch this activity from the edge of the fissure, but it can also be monitored from a distance of several hundred meters to a few kilometers on the Kilauea seismometer network, which records strong harmonic tremor during falls and only slight tremor during rises. Occasionally the rising lava column reaches a the surface where it produces a small flow, which is generally confined within the vent area. When the column is high, fountaining may take place, but at a much reduced level from that of phase activity. All lava erupted during the interphase periods has been poor in olivine.

Significant ground deformation accompanies the phase and interphase periods. The summit of Kilauea (eight km from the vent area) swells upward and outward between phases and contracts rapidly during the brief eruptive phases, whereas the east rift zone near the eruptive site generally expands during phases and contracts during interphases. Since the eruption began on May 24, there has been no significant overall change in altitude or cumulative horizontal strain at Kilauea's summit because contraction during phases equals expansion during interphase periods. It seems that the magmatic system at Kilauea has reached a state of dynamic equilibrium.

Information Contact: Donald Swanson, HVO.

02/1970 (CSLP 14-70) Summit deflation followed by moderate lava emission

Card 0867 (13 February 1970) Summit deflation followed by moderate lava emission

"At about 2100 29 January the summit recording tiltmeter showed the start of slow, steady deflation and sometime thereafter the vent between Aloi and Alae began a moderate welling of lava with very little fountaining. This mild activity continued until about 1530 to 1600 on 30 January when overflow ceased and drainback took place. The summit tiltmeter showed the resumption of inflation about 1530 that continued at least until 1000 31 January. The lava has risen again in the vent but is not overflowing at this time."

Information Contact: Howard Powers, HVO.

04/1970 (CSLP 14-70) Lava fills Aloi Crater and overflows S toward the coast

Card 0908 (10 April 1970) Lava fills Aloi Crater and overflows S toward the coast

The following was telephoned to the Center by Dallas Peck, USGS, Washington, DC on 10 April. "Kilauea volcano erupted from its east rift zone shortly before 0800, 9 April 1970, when lava began welling out of a fissure crossing the bottom of Aloi Crater. Within a few hours, the crater was filled and lava began pouring southward toward the coast. By 0500, 10 April, deflation of the summit (10-15 µrad during the eruption) had ceased and the eruption was presumed to be over. Aloi Crater is on the SW side of a new lava dome built by repeated phases of the continuing eruption that started 24 May 1969. Surprisingly, the summit crater of the dome, which has been continuously active during both quiet and violent phases of the eruption, did no more than fume during this latest activity."

Information Contact: Howard Powers, HVO.

12/1970 (CSLP 14-70) Summary of activity since May 1969 that has formed broad shield named Mauna Ulu

Card 1075 (22 December 1970) Summary of activity since May 1969 that has formed broad shield named Mauna Ulu

The eruption that began on 24 May 1969 between Aloi And Alae Craters on the upper rift zone of Kilauea is still continuing. The eruption is now the longest and probably the most voluminous of all historic Kilauea flank eruptions. Much more than 108m3 of lava have been erupted. A broad shield, more than one km in diameter and 100 km high, has been constructed over the largest and most persistent vent fissure. This fissure extends discontinuously down the northeast flank of the shield, recently named Mauna Ulu ("Growing Mountain" in Hawaii), and lava flows and spatter are commonly erupted from several vents along this extension. Two pit craters, Aloi and Alae, have been totally filled by new lava, and many flows have advanced as far as 11 km S, cascading over fault scarps of the Hilini fault system and pooling near and even entering the sea.

The main fissure atop Mauna Ulu is about 140 m long. It was largely roofed over until July, but vents in the roof were sources of many small flows that built the bulk of the shield. The roof collapsed in early July, nearly coincident with resumption of vigorous activity of Mauna Ulu's east flank. Since July, the summit fissure has been widening by the caving of its walls until it is now nearly circular in plan view. Lava can always be seen in a pool 8-30 m below the rim, and lava in the pool nearly always has a circulation pattern from west to east. The level of lava in the pool rises and falls periodically but not as regularly as described by card 814, 3 November 1969. Moderately violent spattering and degassing take place nearly constantly from one or more locations in the fissure. No overflows have spilled from the summit fissure since July, and no episodes of high fountains have occurred since 30 December 1969.

A fissure cut the SW flank of Mauna Ulu on 9 April, and it spread westward across Aloi Crater and for 800 m beyond. Lava erupted from this fissure filled the crater, but activity died out by 1 May. The fissure on the NE flank of Mauna Ulu was active periodically in the fall and winter of 1969, but it remained quiet in 1970 until 6 July, when low fountains burst from it. Since then, eruptive activity from this fissure has been more or less constant, although most erupted lava has been fed away from the fissure by underground lava tubes. Several small pit craters have developed along this fissure. These pit craters are collapse features several tens of meters in diameter which have formed over sections of the fissure that had shown rather persistent activity before becoming roofed over by spatter and small flows. The craters are elongate along the fissure when they first form, but they become more nearly circular in plan view as the sheer walls collapse. A pool of gently circulating (W to E) lava normally fills each crater to within 2-20 m of the rim. The lava in the pool commonly rises slowly upward as gases within the lava expand. Suddenly gases begin to escape with vigorous low fountaining, and the level drops several meters. Sometimes the rising lava reaches the crater rim and spills out; overflows generated by such activity last from a few minutes to several hours before ending with an episode of degassing and fountaining.

Since early August 1970, lava has almost constantly been erupting from the fissure northwest of Alae Crater at an average rate of more than 105m3 per day. This lava flows through a large tube which enters Alae beneath the solidified crust of the lava lake that fills the crater. The lava then leaves the crater in another tube and continues its subsurface flow for several kilometers toward the sea. The lava finally emerges from the tube as fluid but relatively degassed pahoehoe, not aa, doubtless because the insulation of the tube allows the lava to remain hot despite the long distance of travel and small volume of lava. Much of the lava changes to aa after flowing on the surface for some distance, however.

We have recognized no simple connection between activity at the summit of Mauna Ulu and activity on its flank. Flank activity, however, can often be correlated from one vent to the next, with the activity generally progressing from east to west. This pattern has many deviations, however, and it is clear that the entire plumbing system has unknown complications.

Lava produced throughout the eruption is olivine-poor tholeiitic basalt whose close-range optical pyrometer temperatures are normally 1160 to 1165°C. The lava has apparently undergone no significant change in chemical composition beyond that related to the amount of olivine present.

The summit of Kilauea expanded greatly from December 1969 to June 1970, a period when eruptive activity at Mauna Ulu was at a comparatively low ebb, but there has been little summit deformation since June. Very small episodes of summit subsidence can generally be correlated with increased vigor of activity at Mauna Ulu, reaffirming the ultimate connection between the summit and east rift zone of Kilauea.

Information Contact: Donald Swanson and D.W. Peterson, HVO.

04/1971 (CSLP 14-70) Divers observe underwater lava flow

Card 1179 (23 April 1971) Divers observe underwater lava flow

"A team of five divers from the US Geological Survey, the University of Hawaii, and the Lockheed Aircraft Company dived on the lava flow from Kilauea Volcano on the south coast of the Island of Hawaii on 19 April. This is the lava flow that has been going on for six weeks and is presently flowing into the sea. The flow is advancing under water as a wall of rubble which is some 300 to 500 feet seaward of the new sea cliff. The front of the rubble wall is at the angle of repose of about 45°, and the base of it is covering over the old ocean floor to a depth of about 100 feet. Tongues of lava, circular in cross section, extend down the front of the rubble of this rubble slope. Some of these are as long as 200 feet and they are three to four feet in diameter, generally. Budding off of them are typical pillows. We could approach one of these elongate lava tongues, in which lava was actually flowing inside and whose surface was too hot to touch on the outside. Generally, the surface was dark, but periodically it would crack and bright incandescence could be seen inside for a few seconds until the crack solidified and then it would crack in some other place. There was a continuous loud mixture of noises: hissing, cracking, small explosions, and rumbling noise as the lava went down through these tubes. General water temperature was slightly elevationated around the flowing lava tongue from a normal of 76°F to about 80°F, but in cracks and around behind thses lava tubes the water was boiling, and many bubbles were coming up out of cracks in the tubes. One surprising feature was the concentration of marine life including fish, lobsters, and eels which were crowded ahead of the advancing rubble flow at the base of the rubble, apparently having been displaced from their normal habitats along the coast. Underwater visibility was better than expected."

Information Contact: James Moore, USGS; Don Peterson, HVO.

08/1971 (CSLP 81-71) Summit eruption from four fissures with lava fountaining

Card 1281 (16 August 1971) Summit eruption from four fissures with lava fountaining

"A summit eruption... on 14 August 1971 lasted from 0855 to about 1900 Hawaiian Standard Time. Basaltic lava erupted from four en echelon fissures that trended from N60°E to N75°E and had a combined length of about 1.9 km. Lava fountains reached a maximum height of about 65 m. The two fissures on the floor of Kilauea caldera extended East-northeast from a point a few hundred meters east of the south rim of Halemaumau for about 1.2 km to a point NW of Keanakakoi Crater and were roughly parallel to the caldera rim. Two other fissures about 0.7 km in length extended along the upper rim of the caldera on the N side of Keanakakoi. Fountains from the upper fissure lasted for about two hours; the lava descended the caldera walls in spectacular cascades. Fountains from the lower fissure continued for about ten hours. Lava flowed E from the fissures along the S edge of the caldera floor in a counterclockwise direction, and it ultimately reached the NE part of the caldera.

"Preliminary determinations indicate that new lava has covered about 2.1 million square meters, which is about one-fifth the area of the caldera floor, and that the total volume erupted was approximately 13 million cubic meters. During the summit eruption volcanic activity continued at a low level at Mauna Ulu about 12 km distant on Kilauea's east rift zone. A measurement of ground deformation showed that the Kilauea's summit region was gradually inflating for several weeks and that the rate of inflation increased rapidly for about three days just preceding the eruption. Strong seismic harmonic tremor began about an hour before the eruption started."

Information Contact: Donald Peterson, HVO.

10/1971 (CSLP 81-71) Summary of 25-29 September eruption

Card 1302 (18 October 1971) Summary of 25-29 September eruption

"An eruption... took place from 24 to 29 September. Fountains of basaltic lava began at 1920 HST, 24 September, on the caldera floor between Halemaumau and the SW caldera wall, and reached about 80 m high. Fountains spread into Halemaumau crater, and about a quarter of its floor was covered by new lava. At the SW side of the caldera, a tongue of lava breached the low point in the rim and flowed SE for 2.5 km. At 2059 fountains began on the upper SW caldera rim, and then progressively advanced down the southwest rift zone for about 1 km. This advancing line of fountains was about 100 m long, and averaged 15-30 m high. The fountains on the rift zone and caldera floor began to decline about 2300 and ended by 2400, but light activity continued in Halemaumau until late 25 September.

"By the morning of 25 September, the floor of Halemaumau had dropped like a piston a distance of 45 m, so its depth is now about 100 m. At 0945 on 25 September new fountains broke out on southwest rift about 5 km from Halemaumau. This was the beginning of sporadic fountaining on this rift that persisted through 29 September. Fountains were active at many places along a line spanning about 8 km; they migrated both up and down the rift. As many as five localities at a time had activity, but most of the time only one or two places were fountaining. Rows of spatter cones were built, and lava flows covered many thousands of square meters. Activity ended the evening of 29 September."

Information Contact: Donald Peterson, HVO.

02/1972 (CSLP 09-72) Mauna Ulu erupts in early February; new lava lake and fountains

Card 1354 (14 February 1972) Mauna Ulu erupts in early February; new lava lake and fountains

"The Mauna Ulu vent on Kilauea's east rift is erupting again after more than three months of inactivity. A new lava lake was discovered in Mauna Ulu's summit crater about 0900, 5 February. It may be that the eruption began sometime between 2 and 4 February, as shown by a slight increase in tremor on a nearby seismograph, but a severe storm and lack of visibility prevented earlier inspection of the area. The level of the lava lake progressively rose from the bottom of the crater, formerly about 150 m deep, and when discovered it was 80 m below the crater rim. It continued to rise, and on 7 February, at a level 25 m below the rim, lava spilled over a notch at the east end of the crater and flowed into a collapsed trench about 450 m long that extends down Mauna Ulu's east flank. At the east end of the trench, lava drains into a tube, travels SSE about 250 m, and emerges at the north edge of the subsidence bowl that marks the site of old Alae crater. Thin flows have spread across about a quarter of the floor of the depression. The surface of the lava lake in Mauna Ulu crater is presently characterized by vigorous fountains that reach as much as 25 m in height. The entire surface is continually agitated by fountains and bursts of escaping gas. A prolonged period of tumescence of Kilauea's summit preceded this eruption, which is 11 km ESE of the summit. The outbreak is mild, and only slight deflation has occurred to the present. Harmonic tremor is weak, and only a few small earthquakes, none strong enough to be felt, have accompanied the eruption."

Information Contact: Donald Peterson, HVO.

05/1973 (CSLP 59-73) Eruption on 5 May opens 600-foot-long fissure; high lava fountains

Card 1628 (08 May 1973) Eruption on 5 May opens 600-foot-long fissure; high lava fountains

The Kilauea volcano erupted spectacularly on 5 May 1973, with lava fountains reaching a height of 100 feet. The eruption ripped open a fissure 600 feet wide, and caused several forest fires to sudden;y break out. The eruption occurred amidst hundreds of volcanic tremors, ten days after a 6.2 Richter magnitude earthquake shook the island. By 6 May the volcano was in a deflated condition. The Chain of Craters Highway and the Hilina Pali Road were damaged by the lava flow. The eruption on 5 May was only the second time in 60 years that an eruption went up a rift zone instead of down. As of 7 May the volcano had reverted to a more normal state of activity.

Information Contact: Donald Peterson, HVO.

11/1973 (CSLP 59-73) Mauna Ulu crater overflows; fountaining from fissures around Pauahi Crater

Card 1747 (19 November 1973) Mauna Ulu crater overflows; fountaining from fissures around Pauahi Crater

After sporadic sluggish activity in Mauna Ulu for several weeks, accompanied by sustained inflationof Kilauea Volcano's summit region, the lava lake in Mauna Ulu's crater filled to the brim and overflowed on 4 November. Fountains with heights of 40 m and overflows continued for four days. Activity declined on 8 November. Flows had traveled as far as 4 km S of Mauna Ulu. At 1730 HST on 10 November, strong harmonic tremor began to be recorded by Hawaiian Volcano Observatory seismographs, the lava lake in Mauna Ulu began to drain rapidly, and at 1745, deflation of Kilauea summit region began. These events suggested that a volcanic outbreak was imminent. At 2417, lava fountains began as a fissure opened in Pauahi Crater, 6 km SE of Kilauea caldera and 2 km W of Mauna Ulu. Additional fissures opened both east and west of Pauahi, trending from N65°E to N70°E, and lying en-echelon along a belt 2 km long. Lava fountains reached heights of 75 m. At about 0400, 11 November, eruptive intensity began to decline, and by 0600 all fountains outside Pauahi had stopped. Fountains 10-30 m high continued in Pauahi through 12 November, after which activity has gradually declined. Sluggish outflow continues on 16 November, and summit inflation has resumed. Approximately 100 hectares of land was covered by new lava during the Pauahi episode, and approximately three million cubic meters of lava was erupted during the eight hours of strongest activity.

Information Contact: Donald Peterson, HVO.

01/1975 (CSLP 04-75) Lava fountains from a fissure eruption send flows 12 km

Card 2065 (31 January 1975) Lava fountains from a fissure eruption send flows 12 km

Kilauea volcano erupted for six hours on 31 December 1974, after a four-month period of continuous inflation monitored by ground deformation measurements. The eruption began at 0255 HST (1255 GMT) from a fissure 2.5 km S of Halemaumau. Fissures opened progressively both to the NE and SW, and ultimately the total span of erupting fountains reached about 3 km in length. Maximum height of fountains was about 100 m. The individual eruptive fissures trend N80°E, but separate segments are en-echelon and form a zone that trends N60°E. The eruption began to decline in vigor about 0530 and stopped about 0850. Tholeiitic basaltic lava flows covered an area of ~7.5 km2, and their volume is estimated at 15 x 106m3. The flows traveled chiefly southwestward and southward, and have a total length of ~12 km. The eruption was accompanied and followed by an unusually large deflation of Kilauea's summit region and extensive ground cracking and deformation along the southwest rift zone. An intense seismic swarm along the southwest rift zone lasted from 31 December to 4 January that included about 120 earthquakes stronger than M 3 and five earthquakes exceeding M 5.

Information Contact: Donald Peterson, HVO.

11/1975 (SEAN 01:02) Lava fountains following a severe earthquake

At 0532 on 29 November, 44 minutes after a severe earthquake beneath Hawaii's SE coast (table 1), lava erupted from a N85°E-trending fissure on the floor of Kilauea caldera. Lava fountains were 50 m high for the first 15 minutes but decreased to 5-10 m heights for the next 75 minutes before stopping. Eruptive activity resumed at about 0830 in Halemaumau pit crater and continued intermittently before ceasing around 2200, after 16 hours of activity. Lava drained into the SW rift zone for days after the end of visible activity. Maximum horizontal displacement on the order of 3.5 m was involved in the seaward movement of Kilauea's S flank.

Table 1. Seismic parameters of the Kalapana earthquake that occurred at 0448 on 29 November 1975. a) Reported in SEAN 01:02. b) from HVO Annual Summary for 1975. The epicenter was 30 km ESE of Kilauea Caldera. Additional data on the important earthquake may be found in Crosson and Endo (1981).

    Source   Magnitude   Latitude   Longitude   Depth

      a      7.2 Ms      19.335°N   155.024°W   5 km
      b      7.2 Ms      19.35°N    155.02°W    8 km

The earthquake was the strongest in Hawaii since at least 1868, and extensive damage was reported. On the SE shore, at Punaluu, a 6-m tsunami was observed. At Halape, two people died when a wave in excess of 7 m high [swept inland] and reached 16 m up a fault scarp perpendicular to the coast. The coastal area at Halape, the area of maximum subsidence, was permanently lowered 3 m. The tide gauge at Hilo recorded a 2.5 m wave.

Further References. Crosson, R.S., Endo, E.T., 1981, Focal Mechanisms of Earthquakes Related to the 29 November 1975 Kalapana Hawaii Earthquake: The Effect of Structural Models, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., v. 71, p. 713-729.

Lipman, P.W., Lockwood, J.P., Okamura, R.T., et al., 1985, Ground Deformation Associated with the 1975 Magnitude 7.2 Earthquake and Resulting Changes in Activity of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii; USGS Professional Paper 1276, 45 pp.

Information Contact: R. Tilling, HVO.

01/1976 (SEAN 01:04) Slow inflation and two earthquakes

The volcano has been inflating slowly since the 29 November eruption. Two earthquakes, one of magnitude 4.0, shook Kilauea on 11 January, the largest events associated with the volcano in several months.

Information Contact: R. Tilling, HVO.

11/1976 (SEAN 01:14) Summit deflation

A [gradual] 40 µrad deflation of the summit occurred [aseismically] during late August and September. In late October, a 15 cm dilation and a several-acre area of steam-killed trees were noted N of Kalapana on the E rift zone, about 25 km from the summit of Kilauea. It is assumed that the magma that left the summit area migrated into the E rift zone, causing the effects observed near Kalapana.

[Intrusive episodes on 21 June and 14 July 1976, not reported in the original Bulletin, are described in the comprehensive summary of Dzurisin and others, 1984.]

Information Contacts: G. Eaton, HVO; D. Shackelford, CA.

04/1977 (SEAN 02:04) Monitoring data from 8-9 February magma intrusion event

A fascinating magma intrusion event at Kilauea on 8-9 February was unusually well documented. Continuously recording tiltmeters monitored a sharp summit deflation beginning 8 February at 1902, 5 hours after the start of an earthquake swarm (M 3-4) on the upper E rift zone. A local magnetic anomaly (approximately l0 gamma) also occurred in the upper E rift zone, and seismicity reached 200 events/hour with 3-7 km focal depths, but no eruption took place. Geodimeter surveys 1 day after the event showed extensions of up to 0.25 m across the upper E rift and electrical self-potential traverses add more documentation of magma migration. Similar events took place in June and July 1976, and HVO scientists suggest that magma is draining from beneath the summit area along subsurface paths created by the major earthquake of 29 November 1975. These drainage paths readily allow periodic intrusion into the E rift and are perhaps preventing major inflation of the summit reservoir.

Information Contact: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, USGS.

09/1977 (SEAN 02:09) Fissure eruption begins on the East Rift near Kalalua Crater

A substantial eruption on the E rift began from fissures near Kalalua Crater (figure 1) on 13 September, after about 24 hours of premonitory activity.

Figure 1. Sketch map outlining the September lava flows (stipple pattern) and various features of Kilauea. Open circles are craters. Courtesy of Robert Tilling.

Field observations suggest interesting changes in lava composition during the course of the eruption. Lava erupted during the first three phases and about the first 1.5 days of the fourth phase apparently consisted of differentiated material containing plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts. This was succeeded on the 27th by more typical Hawaiian tholeiite basalt containing olivine phenocrysts.

Information Contacts: R. Tilling, USGS, Reston, VA; G. Eaton, HVO; R. Fiske, SI.

10/1977 (SEAN 02:10) Eruption near the Kalalua cone ends on 1 October

The following is from Gordon Eaton. "At approximately 1930 on 13 September an eruption broke out on the central E rift, near Kalalua, a prehistoric cinder cone (see table 2 for detailed chronology). It followed a swarm of earthquakes that began on the previous day at 2130 on the upper E rift, near the young satellite shield, Mauna Ulu, and Makaopuhi crater. These earthquakes were accompanied by harmonic tremor and rapid summit deflation, indicating that magma was moving into the E rift in the subsurface. The deflation continued strongly for about a week and then tapered off gradually. A total of 90 µrad of tilt change was measured on the tiltmeters at Uwekahuna vault. Levelling later showed maximum summit subsidence of 44 cm."

Table 2. Chronology of the September-October 1977 eruption at Kilauea.

    Date    Time              Activity

    12 Sep  2130              Earthquake swarm began in the upper E rift.
            2200              Summit deflation began.
    13 Sep  mid-morning       Earthquake hypocenters began to migrate E along
                                the E rift.
            1930              Fountaining began at newly opened fissures
                                extending 3 km E from Kalalua Crater,
                                accompanied by heavy harmonic tremor. Total
                                summit deflation (as measured at Uwekahuna)
                                had reached about 42 µrad.
    14 Sep  0800              Fountaining was confined to the E one-third of
                                the new fissures, feeding a lava flow moving
                                S. Summit deflation, 3.5 µrad/hour.
    15 Sep  0200              Two areas of fountains, about 60 m high.
                                Activity along remainder of the fissure was
                                confined to low spattering. The deflation rate
                                had declined to about 1 µrad/hour; total
                                subsidence was about 75 µrad.
            late afternoon    First phase of the eruption ended, after the
                                lava flow had advanced about 2.5 km.
                                Earthquakes and harmonic tremor had declined.
                                Total summit deflation was about 85 µrad.
            2400              Harmonic tremor ended.
    16 Sep  0400              Renewed fountaining (phase 2), feeding a small
                                flow [but see 02:10] parallel to the first
                                flow. Fountains were discontinuous, rising to
                                about 50 m from a vent area about 200 m long,
                                slightly W of the earlier vents.
    18 Sep  1530              The eruption had declined to weak, intermittent
                                spattering, and the new flow had stopped less
                                than 0.5 km from the vent. Harmonic tremor was
                                still being recorded from the vent area, but
                                not from the summit, where deflation had
                                ended. Earthquakes had declined.
    20 Sep  evening           Phase 2 activity ended [but see 02:10].
    23 Sep  early afternoon   Minor fountaining (to 15 m) fed small flows, and
                                ended by nightfall (Phase 3).
    25 Sep  2350              Phase 4 began from a vent W of the earlier ones.
                                During the next 24 hours, fountains rose 100
                                m, and discharge rates briefly reached an
                                estimated 5-7 x 105 m3/hour. Lava advanced SE
                                at up to 300 m/hour.
    29 Sep  --                Kalapana, a coastal village with population
                                about 250, [but see 02:10] was evacuated. The
                                flow front, several thousand meters from the
                                village, was advancing toward it about 150
                                m/hour down a steep slope. A transition from
                                pahoehoe to aa flow types occurred at the edge
                                of the steep slope.
    30 Sep  0300              The fountains feeding the flow declined to 20-30
                                m and the flow had slowed to 60-90 m/hour
                                after reaching a gentler slope. Summit tilt
                                remained irregular, varying 2 µrad throughout
                                phase 4.
    01 Oct  1000              Flow advance had stopped 400 m from the nearest
                                house in Kalapana. The pahoehoe to aa
                                transition had retreated to the vent area. The
                                flow front had thickened from 4.5 to 12 m and
                                had widened from 300 to 900 m.
            1530              Harmonic tremor near the vent declined markedly.
            1625              Fountaining stopped, after building an irregular
                                100 m [but see 02:10] spatter cone.

"The initial active section of rift was approximately 5.5 km long, but fountaining at all times and locations was restricted to a few hundred meters of this length. The remainder of the rifted zone opened as a series of en echelon fractures and were sites of profuse steaming. Maximum fountain heights reached during the early phases of the eruption did not exceed 70-80 m. Flows at that time consisted chiefly of aa, with a maximum rate of advance of about 170 m/hour. By dawn on 15 September these flows had slowed to 65 m/hour. They came to rest about 2.5 km from their source fountains, close to a papaya field and ranch.

"On 18 September new fountaining began uprift, immediately NW of Kalalua cone, several kilometers from the initial fountains. By late afternoon on 19 September this activity had decayed and flow movement was scarcely perceptible, but by midnight fountaining resumed. By 0900 hours on 20 September this phase of the eruption had ended.

"The next phase consisted of Strombolian activity at a small, new cone downrift in the afternoon of 23 September. The lava was highly viscous and was ejected sporadically in a series of taffy-like, irregular sheets and long clots. All lava to this point in the eruption was tholeiite rich in plagioclase microphenocrysts, presumably old and highly differentiated lava.

"The period 24-25 September was free of activity at the rift. Harmonic tremor decayed to very low levels. Just before midnight on 25 September, however, tremor resumed and strong glow was visible over the rift. Heat from the eruption domed a blanket of stratus clouds over the volcano into a huge cumulus cloud. Harmonic tremor amplitude rose at the two seismometers closest to the fountaining. Except for a 2-hour lull in the early afternoon of 26 September this fountaining continued until mid-afternoon on 1 October. Fountains played from heights of 20 m to as much as 300 m, lava production was copious at all times, and the new flows ran NE, ENE, and SE, but only the ENE flow eventually threatened populated areas. In the early hours of 28 September it turned away from the rift down which it had flowed for 1.5 km and started toward the village of Kalapana. Evacuation of Kalapana began at dawn 30 September and was completed by evening.

"On 1 October at 1530 tremor levels along the central E rift dropped dramatically. Fountaining had ceased by 1615. It did not resume again, although measurable tremor continued through 12 October.

"Evacuees returned 3 October, 38 hours after cessation of fountaining. The source cone, named Pu'u Kia'i (Hill of the Guardian) is 250 m long, 140 m wide, and 35 m high."

Further Reference. Moore, R.B., Helz, R.T., et al., 1980, The 1977 Eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii; JVGR, v. 7, p. 189-210.

Information Contact: G. Eaton, HVO.

11/1979 (SEAN 04:11) Brief eruption from upper east rift zone

"Kilauea erupted on its upper E rift zone for 22 hours on 16-17 November. Seismicity since the 1977 eruption was sustained at moderate to high levels at the summit and the E rift zone until the onset of the swarm of shallow earthquakes that preceded the eruption (figure 2).

Figure 2. Plot of shallow earthquakes (1-5 km depth) associated with the 16-17 November 1979 eruption.

"The swarm began at 2100 hours on 15 November near Pauahi Crater, 7-8 km SE of the central caldera region, and within a half an hour the summit tiltmeter indicated the onset of deflation (figure 3). Simultaneously, two borehole tiltmeters detected inflation in the upper part of the E rift zone (see table 3 a for detailed chronology). Shallow volcanic tremor very local to Pauahi Crater (figures 3 and 4) became strong at about 0700 the next morning (16 November) as the number of earthquakes gradually decreased. At 0821, low fountaining (less than 10 m high) started in Pauahi Crater. Fifteen minutes later, observers arrived on the E side of the crater and found a curtain of fire 5-10 m high and 100 m long. These E vents ceased eruption less than 1 hour later. At 1130, two more vents opened in Pauahi Crater, W of the first Pauahi vent. Shortly thereafter, brief fountaining was observed N of the earlier E vents, followed by cessation of activity of the initial (eastern) Pauahi Crater vent. Over the next 1.5 hours, six more vents opened progressively to the W, one more in the crater and five W of the crater. Slightly before 1600, activity at the W vents began to wane and over the next hour fountaining ceased progressively eastward at the five W vents. Lava production in the three remaining vents in Pauahi Crater stayed relatively constant until 0100 on 17 November, gradually waned, then ceased activity at 0630, 22 hours after the eruption began.

Table 3. Chronology of the November 1979 eruption at Kilauea.

    Date    Time              Activity

    15 Nov  2100              Seismic swarm began local to Pauahi station.
            2130              Deflation at the summit and inflation at the
                                eruption site.
    16 Nov  0005              Peak earthquake rate.
            0700              Strong tremor began local to Pauahi station.
            0805              Copious steam and fume emission began E of
                                Pauahi Crater. The fissures occupied an old
                                spatter rampart and never emitted lava, but
                                the emitted gases were hot enough to ignite
                                adjacent vegetation.
            0821              A sharp cracking sound accompanied the opening
                                of a vent (P1, figure 4) on the NE wall of the
                                NW lobe of Pauahi Crater; initial fountain
                                heights were < 1 m.
            0836              Observers arriving at Road's End parking lot
                                found fissures already erupting a low (5-10 m)
                                curtain of fire (E1, figure 4) about 100 m
                                long, 230 m E of the copiously fuming area
                                noted at 0805. Fissuring migrated E,
                                eventually producing a separate lava pad (E2).
                                New fissures east of the E2 vent occupied the
                                center of an old spatter rampart.
            0925              Eruptive activity on E1 and E2 fissures ceased.
            1130              A fissure opened about 70 m W of the still
                                active P1 vent in Pauahi Crater, and almost
                                immediately began to fountain to heights of 2-
                                10 m on its W end. A few seconds later, three
                                smaller vents began activity between the new
                                fountain (P2) and P1. These vents collectively
                                are labeled P3.
            1135              Brief eruption (time uncertain) from a fissure
                                (EN) N of the main E vents.
            1140              An eruptive fissure (P4) opened 20 m W of P2.
            1149              Activity at P1 vent abruptly decreased with
                                concurrent increase of activity at P2, P3, P4.
            1150              P1 vent ceased activity.
            1155-1200         Flows produced by the now-inactive P1 began to
                                cascade down the mezzanine into the SE crater
                                of Pauahi, followed by flows from P2-4.
            1203              Fissures migrating W of Pauahi Crater cut the
                                overlook parking lot and the Chain of Craters
                                Road.
            1214              Eruption began from E to W on three fissures
                                (W1, W2, and W3) beginning just W of the Chain
                                of Craters Road; concurrently there was a
                                temporary decrease in activity of vents P2-4
                                in Pauahi. Curtains of fire to 10 m high with
                                spatter ejected to 30-40 m were soon
                                established on two of the new vents (W2 and
                                W3); weak spattering occurred at W1 vent.
            1239              Eruption began at W4 vent. Activity at W1, W2,
                                and W3 vents decreased abruptly at the onset
                                of this activity.
            1255              Eruption began from W5 vent, followed by roughly
                                constant rates of effusion (about 50,000
                                m3/hour) from all the W vents over the next
                                3.5 hours.
            1445              Tremor amplitude at seismic stations 6 km from
                                the eruption site reached a peak. The
                                earthquake rate dropped by an order of
                                magnitude from its peak values at 0005.
            1542              Abrupt brief decrease in fountain height of all
                                W vents followed by cessation of activity at
                                W5 vent and slight decrease in activity of
                                vents P2-4.
            1543-1631         Decrease and cessation of activity of W4 vent.
                                Decrease in activity of W2 and W3 vents;
                                nature of activity at W1 vent unknown, but
                                total emission from W1 was less than 15 m3.
            1547-1555         Chain of Craters road cut by small flow lobes.
            1631-1648         Activity of W2 and W3 vents declined to sporadic
                                spatter emission.
            1651              Cessation of activity at all W vents.
            1716              Increase in activity of P2, P3, and P4 vents;
                                approximately constant combined effusion rate
                                of P2-4 of 15,000-20,000 m3/hour for the next
                                6 hours.
            1845              Activity of P4 vent decreased.
            2030              Activity of P4 vent essentially ceased.
    17 Nov  0100-0409         Activity at P2 and P3 continually waned.
            0413              Continued decrease in activity of P2 and P3
                                vents; tilt at summit reversed; seismic tremor
                                subsided.
            0630              All but gas activity ceased in Pauahi crater
                                vents.
            0809              Surface movement of red lava in channels in
                                Pauahi ceased, followed over the next 2 hours
                                by collapse of crust and levees and formation
                                of slab pahoehoe.
Figure 3. Daily record of summit inflation of Kilauea, 1977-78.
Figure 4. Preliminary sketch map of the 16-17 November 1979 eruption site.

"During the eruption, tremor amplitude fluctuated with the extrusion rate, and earthquakes continued to decline to a frequency only slightly higher than a normal background rate. Earthquakes immediately preceding and accompanying the eruption occurred within a roughly triangular zone bounded by the E rift, Koae fault zone, and a N-S line 1 km W of Pauahi (figure 2).

"Unlike previous events, which presumably defined a downrift propagation of magma from the summit reservoir, epicenters during this eruption showed no downrift migration and tremor did not occur near stations uprift of the eruption. Furthermore, earthquakes migrated upward from 3 to 1 km in depth during the first 2 hours of the swarm. It therefore seems probable that the eruption was fed by magma already stored beneath the rift zone and that magma drained from the summit reservoir to replace the magma mobilized in the E rift zone near the eruption site.

"Figure 3, summarizing the pattern of inflation at the summit of Kilauea between the 1977 and 1979 eruptions, shows that throughout the month of November 1978, there was a slow deflation of the summit. Concurrently, an area approximately centered on the 1977 eruption site started to inflate. Except for the minor deflation centers along the upper E rift zone, the upper and lower parts of the E rift zone remained relatively undeformed during the period between eruptions.

"Summit SO2 emission averaged 100-200 t/d over the 13 months preceding the eruption and peaked occasionally at 350 t/d. Ten days prior to the eruption a spike of 500 t/d was recorded, followed by a return to approximately normal daily emission throughout and following the eruption. Anomalous abundances of S were observed in condensates at two sites and of CO2 at one site. The data base is too short to determine whether the observed variations of S and CO2 are indicators of magmatic activity preceding the November eruption, or were coincident fluctuations unrelated to magma movement.

"The eruption was characterized by less than 700,000 m3 erupted volume, low fountains, generally low amounts of fume, viscous lava and spatter, and low temperatures (generally 1,040-1,080°C with an infrared pyrometer). The overall pattern of the fissure system suggests that a left lateral shear couple was present during the eruption. The only obvious phenocryst observed by preliminary megascopic observation is olivine, 0.5-2 mm in diameter. The earliest samples, especially those from the easternmost vents, appear to be poor in olivine (1-3%), whereas those from the later stages contain 3-8% olivine phenocrysts. Interpretations of this variation include: 1) eruption of a single fractionated magma body; 2) eruption of several discrete, compositionally variable, possibly fractionated magma bodies, and 3) an influx, during the later stages of the eruption, of more primitive (olivine-rich) magma that drained from the summit reservoirs.

"The seismology, petrology, and surface deformation suggest that the eruption was likely the result of a disturbance of a shallow local storage chamber where the magma had resided for several months or years. The immediate area had been the site of the August 1968, May 1973, and November 1973 eruptions and lies along the geologically and seismically defined shallow conduit system leading from the summit magma chamber.

"Summit deflation suggests that the volume of magma withdrawn from the summit reservoirs was 4-6 times that erupted. Presumably this excess magma is stored in conduits and reservoirs in the upper E rift zone. Figure 3 indicates that the November eruption involved a trivial amount of the magma that has been supplied to the summit since the September 1977 eruption, and at present, the level of summit inflation is approximately that prior to the eruption."

Information Contacts: N. Banks and F. Klein, HVO.

03/1980 (SEAN 05:03) Two intrusions into the upper east rift

Magma was intruded into the upper E rift zone on two occasions in March. On 2 March, a microearthquake swarm began near Pauahi Crater, 6 km downrift from the summit and site of a brief eruption in November 1979. Summit deflation, indicating draining of the magma chamber below, started within 7 minutes and a tiltmeter began to record deformation as magma was intruded downrift. About 2,000 earthquakes, including several felt events, were recorded before the swarm ended 8 hours later. Summit deflation, totaling only 8 mm, continued for another hour. Just over a week later, a second intrusion took place a few kilometers farther down the E rift beneath Mauna Ulu, active 1969-1974. Earthquakes began on 10 March at 2157, summit deflation at 2206, and volcanic tremor at 2310. Eight centimeters of deflation, representing the draining of 8 x 106 m3 of magma from the summit chamber, occurred before the end of summit deformation on 12 March at 1630. Volcanic tremor around Mauna Ulu waned slowly and had almost ceased by 13 March.

Inflation has resumed since the second intrusion. As of 2 April, the level of the summit was slightly higher than immediately prior to the November eruption.

Information Contact: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, USGS.

08/1980 (SEAN 05:08) Intrusion into the upper east rift zone

Magma was intruded into the upper E rift zone on 27 August, the first intrusive activity there since March. As in the two March intrusions, no eruption took place. An earthquake swarm began near Puhimau Crater (about 1.5 km SE of the caldera rim) at 1425 on 27 August. Within 6 minutes, the number of microearthquakes had increased to several per minute. Summit deflation started 30 minutes after the swarm, at 1455.

The earthquakes migrated generally downrift at about 1 km/hour. Several were felt nearby, with the three highest magnitudes ranging from 3.6 to 4.0. Hundreds of magnitude 1-3 events occurred at depths of 1-4 km. The seismographs closest to the swarm apparently registered some shallow volcanic tremor, but microearthquakes occurred so rapidly that tremor was obscured on the records. The number of microearthquakes per minute started to decrease at about 1830 and the swarm ended early the next morning. Summit deflation had stopped at about 1930 on 27 August, after 7.5 µrad of tilt had been recorded.

The USGS interpreted the activity as the formation of a dike estimated to be about 3 km long, 1-2 km high, and l m wide, located 1-3 km beneath the surface. About 4 x 106 m3 of magma were calculated to have been injected into the dike between 1500 and 1930 on 27 August.

SO2 emission was detected in the Puhimau thermal area (where the earthquake swarm began) on 28 August. The CO2/SO2 ratios of gases emitted by the summit fumaroles before and after the intrusion remained about the same as the previous week.

Information Contact: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, USGS.

10/1980 (SEAN 05:10) Two intrusions into the upper east rift

A minor intrusion of magma into the upper E rift zone was recorded on 22 October. At 1840, an earthquake swarm began near Pauahi Crater (6 km downrift from the summit), and summit deflation started 8 minutes later. Seismic activity declined about 2000, and deflation leveled off at about 2200, after 1.9 µrad of movement had been recorded. In the 24 hours before the intrusion, seven earthquakes with magnitudes of 3.1-4.2 had occurred at less than 5 km depth along the middle and lower E rift.

At press time, a second intrusion was recorded. An earthquake swarm began on 2 November at about 1415 and summit deflation started less than 30 minutes later. Between 1,000 and 1,500 earthquakes occurred at depths from 4 km to less than 1 km, migrating from just above Kokoolau Crater (about halfway between the caldera rim and Pauahi Crater) 2-3 km downrift to the Heake Crater area. About 4.5 µrad of deflation took place in the summit area before seismicity ended around 1700, and another 0.5 µrad of deflation were recorded in the succeeding 24 hours. In contrast to the aftermath of the smaller 22 October intrusion, inflation did not resume immediately after deflation ended, tilt remaining essentially stable. During and just after the intrusion, no changes in amount or composition of gas emission were observed at various standard sites.

Information Contact: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, USGS.

05/1981 (SEAN 06:05) Intrusion into the southwest rift

HVO has documented an intrusion into the SW rift in early 1981. This rift intrusion is the 13th since the major earthquake of November 1975, but the first since that date in the SW rift. On 20 January at about 0300 an intense earthquake swarm began just S of the caldera (figure 5). A few earthquakes migrated northward into the caldera during the next 60 hours, but most of the activity remained in the area where the swarm began, at depths of 2.5-3.5 km. Reoccupation of dry tilt stations 21 January revealed that significant inflation had taken place in the swarm area since the last tilt measurements 13 days earlier.

Figure 5. Locations of shallow (< 7 km) SW rift earthquakes during four time periods from 20 January to 18 March 1980.

During the next few days, some epicenters advanced about 3 km down the SE side of the upper SW rift, while earthquakes continued in the initial swarm area. Migration of the seismicity was initially measured in hundreds of meters per day, more than an order of magnitude slower than the 500-1,500 m/hour during previous intrusions into the E rift zone. Additional dry tilt measurements 28 January confirmed that the center of inflation had also moved SW, but to a point distinctly NW of the seismically active zone. Until early February, earthquakes remained within 3 km of the initial swarm area. Seismicity had been concentrated in the same region during the last intrusion and eruption episode in the SW rift, in December 1974.

On 6 February, seismic activity suddenly shifted to an zone about 17 km downrift from the caldera center and the rate of deflation increased sharply in the N caldera area, which had shown only minor tilt changes earlier in the episode. Intense seismicity was confined to less than 1 km of the rift for the next two days. Earthquakes propagated downrift 8-17 February, forming a narrow, tubular zone that rose (at an angle of about 40°) from depths of 7 to 2 km over about 3 km horizontal distance. These earthquakes eventually reached depths of only 1.5 km. Two clusters of less intense activity occurred uprift between this zone and the area of late January-early February activity.

Seismicity subsided considerab1y 17 February as inflation resumed in the N caldera area. By the end of the month much of the 15 µrad of deflation recorded on borehole tiltmeters since early February had been regained. The most active seismic zone continued to grow slowly (less than 100 m/day) downrift, reaching a length of 5 km by mid-March, but the number of events per day declined from a peak of 1800 in mid-February to 110-350 by late March. SW rift seismicity decreased gradually through April, reaching near-normal levels by the end of the month.

Information Contact: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, USGS.

06/1981 (SEAN 06:06) Small shallow intrusion under SE part of caldera

On 25 June, HVO recorded a small but rapid summit-area inflation episode accompanied by shallow microearthquakes and harmonic tremor. As rapid summit inflation started about 1500, a single seismic station in the SE part of the caldera began to record weak harmonic tremor. Six minutes later, tremor amplitude increased and scattered small individual earthquakes started to appear, still at only one seismic station. Tremor strengthened again and earthquakes became larger and more frequent at 1510, as instruments to a radius of 5 km began to register the individual events.

A magnitude 2.5 earthquake at 1517 was followed by relatively intense localized shallow activity, including tremor and more than 6 microearthquakes per minute between 1518 and 1530. Inflation ended about 1530, as harmonic tremor weakened and the number of microearthquakes started to decline. Between 1500 and 1530, 6 µrad of inflation had been registered by the E-W component of a continuously-recording tiltmeter on the W rim of the caldera. No tremor was detected after 1600, but microearthquake activity remained high, gradually decreasing over the next 2 days. After inflation had ended, reoccupation of dry tilt stations near the caldera showed a maximum net tilt for the episode of 20 µrad (toward the NW) at a station near the SW rim.

The USGS's preliminary interpretation of this episode is that a small shallow intrusion [took place] beneath the S or SE part of the caldera. None of the hypocenters was shallower than 2 km, indicating that magma came no closer than that to the surface.

Information Contacts: R. Koyanagi and R. Decker, HVO.

07/1981 (SEAN 06:07) Intrusion under S summit area and SW rift zone

"On 10-11 August seismographs and tiltmeters at HVO recorded a moderate intrusion at Kilauea. The event was characterized by an earthquake swarm and harmonic tremor, accompanied by summit deflation and ground cracking. As of 0800 on 11 August, an estimated 30-50 x 106 m3 of magma had intruded into the S summit and SW rift zones. The activity started with an increase of microearthquakes in the S summit area at 0330 on 10 August. Shortly before 0430 tiltmeters recorded the onset of the sharp summit deflation. By 0500 the seismic intensity increased and maintained a continuous state of activity. Micro-earthquakes and harmonic tremor less than 5 km in depth indicated that magma was migrating from the summit to the SW rift zone in the vicinity of the Kamakaia Hills nearly 20 km away. At mid-morning 11 August several thousand earthquakes of <= 4.5 Ms were detected, and monitoring instruments continued to record a diminishing pattern of seismicity and ground tilt."

Information Contact: R. Okamura, HVO.

08/1981 (SEAN 06:08) More information on SW Rift intrusion

An estimated 35 x 106 m3 of magma were intruded into Kilauea's S summit region and SW rift 10-12 August, accompanied by seismicity, substantial summit deflation, and ground cracking in the SW summit area. Microearthquake activity in the S summit region began to increase about 0330 on 10 August, followed by the onset of rapid deflation about 1 hour later (figure 6). Earthquakes began to migrate away from the summit into the SW rift (figure 7) and by evening were concentrated about 17 km downrift, in approximately the same zone that had been seismically active during the later stages of the January-February intrusion. Seismic activity peaked during the evening of 10 August and gradually declined the next day. During the intrusion, seismic instruments detected thousands of small earthquakes, most shallower than 5 km, plus several magnitude 3.5-4.5 events that were felt near the volcano. Summit deflation continued, but at a slowly decreasing rate, until the late evening of 12 August, when inflation resumed. Weak harmonic tremor accompanied the slow summit reinflation. SW rift seismicity remained slightly above average in late August, but was continuing to decline.

Figure 6. Summit tilt measured by HVO July 1978-June 1982. Tilt is recalculated to N60°W from E-W and N-S components. Each unit mark on the x axis represent 10 µrad of tilt (up = inflation).
Figure 7. Locations of shallow (< 7 km deep) summit and SW rift earthquakes recorded by HVO during various time intervals between 0330 on 10 August and 0800 on 11 August. Hypocenters < 5 km deep are indicated by + signs; those deeper than 5 km by boxes.

Information Contact: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, USGS.

03/1982 (SEAN 07:03) Small intrusions into E and SW rifts

Summit seismicity had increased to nearly normal daily counts by late December 1981. Since January, several very small intrusions (occasionally seismic but generally aseismic) have been detected by changes in tilt, gas emission, and fumarole temperatures in the E and SW rifts. By late March, tiltmeters showed that the summit area had recovered most of the roughly 100 µrad of deflation recorded during the intrusion of magma into the S summit region and SW rift 10-12 August. The inflation center was in the S caldera-upper SW rift area. A 45-minute swarm of 400-500 earthquakes that started about 1430 on 23 March indicated that magma was forcing open a new channel (or reopening an old one). The seismic swarm was not accompanied by any detectable ground deformation. Overall seismicity in the SW rift remained high in early April but seismicity in the E rift was still relatively unchanged.

Information Contact: N. Banks, HVO.

04/1982 (SEAN 07:04) Small fissure eruption in summit caldera

"A summit eruption began at 1137 on 30 April and lasted about 19 hours, preceded by a microearthquake swarm about 3 hours long. Earthquakes at 1-3 km depth and magnitudes of less than 3 occurred in the S part of the caldera (figure 8). Rapid inflation of 5.5 µrad was recorded at the Uwekahuna tiltmeter, on the NW rim of the caldera, during the earthquake swarm (figure 9).

Figure 8. Sketch map of Kilauea Caldera, showing locations of the 30 April-1 May eruption fissures (hachured lines), the area covered by the new lava flows (stippled), and the earthquakes that preceded the eruption (solid squares).
Figure 9. Tilt measured 30 April - 1 May at Uwekahuna, on the NW rim of the caldera. Increasing tilt readings correspond to summit inflation (up to E). The eruption began at 1137, just after maximum tilt.

"Lava was erupted from an ENE-trending fissure approximately 1 km long. The fissure, on the S flank of the 1954 spatter ramparts, first opened near its E end about 2 minutes before spatter appeared. Steam emission closely followed opening of the crack as it extended in length both to the E and W. Preliminary data indicate that the line of vents propagated both E and W from the initial vent. Eastward propagation occurred at about 1-2 m/second. The entire line of vents, including its westernmost part (in Halemaumau pit crater), was active within 25 minutes of the eruption's start, forming a nearly continuous and steady curtain of spatter on the order of 5-10 m high with bursts to 25-50 m. Lava flows to the N, E, and S, which eventually formed prominent lobes, were under way within minutes of the beginning of the eruption.

"A decrease in eruption rates near the ends of the line of vents was first recognized at approximately 1630, about 5 hours from the beginning of the eruption. About an hour later (at 1740) the westernmost vents, except for those in Halemaumau, had shut off, and drainback was occurring in the area of the central vents, from which the relatively extensive flows to the N and S were fed. By 2100, only the central 150-200 m of the fissure system was active. At this group of vents, activity continued steadily until about midnight, after which the rate of fountaining decreased and the length of the active fissure system gradually diminished.

"A preliminary estimate suggests that the volume of new lava is about 0.5 x 106 m3, primarily pahoehoe flows. A quick hand-lens inspection suggests that it is aphyric, or has at most rare olivine microphenocrysts. Relatively high temperatures, about 1,135-1,150°C, were measured by thermocouple and two-wavelength infrared pyrometer. Minimal fume production, relatively high density of spatter, and low fountain heights suggest that the gas content of the lava was low. However, gas bursting increased in the last hours of the eruption as the rate of fountain activity waned at the remaining centrally located vents. Frothy pumiceous lapilli were ejected during this phase."

Information Contact: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, USGS.

06/1982 (SEAN 07:06) Intrusion into the SW rift

Summit deflation and an earthquake swarm in the SW rift marked Kilauea's 16th intrusive event since the magnitude 7.2 earthquake of November 1975. A continuously recording tiltmeter high on the NW flank began to show deflation during the night of 21-22 June, and seismographs detected the gradual onset of earthquakes in the middle SW rift early 22 June. Low-level harmonic tremor began about 1800. Deflation reached its maximum rate of 1.05 µrad/hour (E-W component) between 2100 and 2200 on 23 June, then gradually decreased. By 0900 on the 24th, tremor had generally ceased. Deflation had nearly stopped by 2200 and the number of microearthquakes had dropped from a maximum of a few hundred per hour to about 1 every 2 minutes.

Early in the swarm, earthquakes were concentrated at 7-8 km depth about 10 km SW of the summit caldera (in the Koae fault system about 3 km S of Pu'u Koae). No significant downrift migration of the epicenters occurred. About 50 µrad of summit deflation (E-W and N-S tilt recalculated to N60°W) were recorded during the intrusion (figure 6). Roughly 20 x 106 m3 of magma were injected into the SW rift, about half the volume of the last SW rift intrusion in August 1981. During Kilauea's 30 April-1 May 1982 eruption, about 0.5 x 106 m3 of lava flowed onto the caldera floor.

Information Contact: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, USGS.

09/1982 (SEAN 07:09) Fissure eruption in summit caldera

"An eruption in the S part of the caldera began at 1844:40 on 25 September, following nearly 2 hours of a premonitory seismic swarm and an abrupt increase in summit tilt. The eruption continued for 15 hours. Lava erupted from a kilometer-long set of left-stepping enechelon fissures in the the southernmost part of the caldera (figure 10). The E and central parts of the vent system were oriented in the usual ENE direction, nearly parallel to the nearby caldera wall. In the W part, however, the fissure turned NW, as if to follow the arcuate circumcaldera fault system. At the NW end of this dogleg, the fissure intersected a circumcaldera fault, and a small isolated vent erupted weakly at the top of the fault scarp.

Figure 10. Preliminary map of Kilauea caldera, showing the April and September lavas (stippled areas) and eruption fissures (cross-hatched lines). An isolated vent W of the September fissures is represented by a filled circle.

"The ENE-trending vents were fully active within about 3 minutes of the onset of the eruption and fountained vigorously and steadily through the night. General fountain height was estimated at 20-40 m, with Strombolian bursts that occasionally went as high as 50-70 m. Lava, fed primarily by these vents, rapidly filled a broad graben. At about 1930 the lava spilled southward through a gap in the caldera wall and fed an actively flowing channel that eventually extended more than 1.5 km to the S. Between 2100 and 2200, NE-flowing lava spilled into the interior of the caldera.

"The NW-trending vent segment was first recognized at about 1900. It extended NW to the caldera wall, which it reached at about 1945. The northwesternmost vent, on a segment of the caldera rim, opened at about 2100, and a small graben about 7 m wide and 20-40 cm deep extended E and W from the vent. The NW part of this line of vents had largely ceased erupting by 2300, but all other vents erupted with unchanged vigor until about 0500 on 26 September. At that time, the color changed from the normal yellow to an orange cast, and by 0600 most of the vents had shut down. Diminution of fountaining closely followed a marked decrease in tremor amplitude and a change in summit tilt from slow decrease to slow increase (see below). For the remainder of the eruption the only active vent was one in the central or S part of the NW-trending vent alignment. By 0830, eruption of new lava was about over, but loud explosive gas bursts continued until 0940.

"After the eruption was over, lava from the interior of the extensive pond surrounding the main vents drained back into the vents until 1800 on 27 September. The resulting collapse of the pond surface left a bathtub `ring' on the order of 2-4 m high on the enclosing escarpments. An early estimate suggests that perhaps as much as 3-4 x 106 m3 of pahoehoe lava was erupted. Of this, possibly as much as 1-2 x 106 m3 drained back into the vent system.

"Temperatures measured during the eruption were approximately 1,140-1,145°C for flows (pahoehoe toes and lava channels), 1,130-1,160°C for the NW-trending line of vents (cooler to the NW), and 1,170°C for the main, ENE-trending, vents. The latter vents fountained more vigorously, almost certainly erupted much more lava, were hotter, and emitted far more gas than the vents on the NW alignment.

"Gases from the erupting vents had atomic C/S ratios of 0.08-0.11 indicating considerable degassing of the magma prior to eruption. The gases were different from those of the 30 April 1982 eruption, which had a higher C/S ratio and were more oxidized. Hand lens inspection shows the new basalt to be almost aphyric. Olivine microphenocrysts are rare."

Kilauea's small eruption of 30 April-1 May, also within the caldera, was from fissures roughly 1.5 km N of the September vents.

Seismic activity. "Earthquakes related to the eruption were centered in the S summit area (figure 11), initially forming a NE-trending epicentral zone 3.5 km long. Hypocenters were concentrated in a zone ranging from about 0.5 to 4.0 km in depth (figure 12). Located earthquakes ranged from 0.5 to 3.6 in magnitude. Several dozen were felt in the summit region. Nearly 100 earthquakes were located from the pre-eruption swarm, which started at 1650 when small earthquakes and weak harmonic tremor began to record on the summit seismographs. The seismic activity intensified rapidly so that within a few minutes stations 50 km away registered the signals and the number of recorded earthquakes reached 2-5/minute. For the first 3/4 hr, the onset of earthquake activity migrated from SW to NE at a rate of about 4 km/hour (figure 13). Moderate-sized earthquakes continued repeatedly along the entire epicentral zone until the eruption began, when earthquake activity in the S caldera region virtually ceased and strong harmonic tremor started. During the eruption, detectable earthquakes were smaller and less numerous than during the pre-eruption swarm. By midnight, locatable earthquakes had decreased to about 10/hour and were mainly confined to the NE part of the seismic zone.

Figure 11. Map of Kilauea caldera, with epicenters of earthquakes recorded 25-26 September. September eruption fissures are shown as cross-hatched lines and an isolated vent just to the W is represented by a filled circle.
Figure 12. Depths of 25-26 September earthquakes projected into line A-A' from figure 11. The position of the eruption fissures along A-A' is represented by a cross-hatched line above the horizontal scale.
Figure 13. Space-time diagram of earthquakes projected along line A-A' from figure 12, showing migration of epicenters from SW to NE at about 4 km/hour early in the pre-eruption swarm.

"Tremor intensity remained fairly steady through most of the eruption, but declined sharply between 0400 and 0500 on 26 September. By 0500, the tremor amplitude had declined almost to threshold level. As the eruptive activity waned during the morning of 26 September, earthquake activity renewed in the NE part of the seismic zone. Intermittent swarms accompanied minor surges of inflation indicated by summit tiltmeters. Post-eruption earthquakes occurred vigorously for much of 26 September and activity decreased slowly over the next 2 days. As of the end of September, the number of microearthquakes beneath the summit and upper E rift remained higher than average.

Deformation. "As in the April eruption, a rapid increase in summit tilt, probably related at least in part to emplacement of the feeding dike, coincided closely with the pre-eruption earthquake swarm. Uplift had reactivated old cracks by the time (1715) the first observer arrived near the site of the eventual outbreak. The recorded change in tilt on the upper NW flank was about 30 µrad, down to the NNW (figure 14). Termination of the rapid increase in tilt coincided approximately with the onset of strong harmonic tremor and the first appearance of lava. Most of the vigorous phase of the eruption was marked by gradual summit deflation. However, the tilt reversed at about 0450 on 26 September and the waning phase of the eruption was accompanied by gradual to moderate inflation that has continued intermittently since the eruption.

Figure 14. E-W, top, and N-S, bottom, water tube tiltmeter records at Uwekahuna Vault, on the NW caldera rim. Large summit deflation in late June (at left) accompanied an intrusion into the SW Rift. The prominent inflation at right occurred mainly during the pre-eruption earthquake swarm 25 September 1982.

"A distance survey line across the zone where the new eruptive fissure formed was measured on 9 September, and repeated measurements were made during and after the eruption. Widening caused by the new dike was at least 705 mm and was accomodated in large part by contraction distributed across a broad zone on the flanks of the dike."

Information Contact: E. Wolfe, HVO.

11/1982 (SEAN 07:11) Intrusion into upper E rift

A shallow earthquake swarm began in the summit region at about 1730 on 9 December. Epicenters soon migrated into the upper E rift, to the vicinity of Lua Manu and Kokoolau Craters (1.4-3.2 km from the caldera rim). Preliminary locations indicate depths from 0.5 to less than 4 km beneath the surface. The largest earthquake had a magnitude of 3.5. No harmonic tremor was recorded.

Tiltmeter records from the NW caldera rim (Uwekahuna Vault) showed slow deflation starting about 1730 and accelerating about 1830. Just before 2000, the deflation rate decreased, and by 2030 slow inflation had resumed. Total deflation was about 5 µrad, suggesting that 2 x 106 m3 of magma from the summit chamber was intruded into the E Rift.

As of early 10 December, earthquake counts were slightly elevationated in the swarm area and slow summit inflation was continuing. This event marked Kilauea's 17th intrusive event since the magnitude 7.2 earthquake of November 1975. Four eruptions have occurred since the 1975 earthquake.

Information Contact: E. Wolfe, HVO.

12/82 and 01/1983 (SEAN 07:12 and 08:01) Major eruption in middle E Rift Zone

[Much of the information in 07:12 was repeated or updated in 08:01. We have therefore combined the reports.] "An eruption in the E rift zone began at 0031 on 3 January. The outbreak began at Napau Crater (figure 15), 14 km SE of the caldera rim, and extended progressively NE. By 0740, the line of eruptive fissures was 6 km long and its E end was about 0.7 km SE of Pu'u Kahaualea. Fountaining and production of SE-moving lava flows of local extent continued until 1002. After a 4.5 hour pause, the eruption resumed at 1425 along a 100-m fissure at the NE (downrift) end of the vent system (about 600 m S of Pu'u Kahaualea). This eruption lasted until 1535. During this first day's activity, fountains up to 80 m high produced an estimated 2-3 x 106 m3 of lava.

Figure 15. Index map of the summit region and E rift (top) and map of earthquake locations, lava flows, and eruptive fissures on the middle E rift zone, January 1983 (bottom).

"The volcano remained quiet for nearly 2 days. Eruptive activity resumed at 1123 on 5 January and continued with only brief interruptions until 2049 on 6 January. The eruptive activity jumped from one segment to another of a kilometer-long section of the vent system S of Pu'u Kahaualea (including, at its E end, the easternmost vent of 3 January). A large amount of the lava poured into an open crack, parallel to the eruptive vents and about 0.1 km SE of their E ends. The crack was along a bounding fault at the NW edge of a prominent older graben. Minor aditional fountaining and flow production also occurred at, and within 1.5 km SW of, Pu'u Kamoamoa, along vents established on 3 January.

"On the morning of 7 January the main eruptive center shifted temporarily still farther NE to a 1 km-long line of vents approximately 1.4 km ESE of Pu'u Kahaualea. After a brief introductory emission from 0957-0959, these vents erupted strongly from 1030-1557 on 7 January. During this period, they produced the highest fountains of the eruption; maximum sustained fountain heights of 80-100 m were estimated, with bursts sending fragmented spatter higher. This episode also fed a lava flow nearly 6 km long that extended E toward Kalalua then turned SE toward the coast. The flow, with an estimated volume of about 4 x 106 m3, converted to aa as its front passed near Kalalua and stopped nearly 5 km from the coast. A second eruption from the same vents, from 1625 on 7 January to 0430 on 8 January, produced a smaller lava flow that overrode the near end of the first flow from the vents E of Pu'u Kahaualea.

"Seven episodes of lava production ranging in duration from 8 minutes to 11 hours occurred 8-15 January from a group of vents S and SW of Pu'u Kahaualea that were active 5-6 January. The first and briefest of these (from 1446-1454 on 8 January) was from the E end of this group of vents. The remainder erupted from the W half of the kilometer-long line. Six of the seven extrusive episodes occurred 8-11 January, the latest on 15 January. One additional extrusion occurred 8 days later, during the evening of 23 January, when approximately 7000-8000 m3 of lava were erupted about 0.25 km E of Pu'u Kamoamoa following a magnitude 4.2 earthquake on the S flank.

"New lava covered an area of approximately 4.4 x 106 m3. The erupted volume is estimated to be on the order of 10 x 106 m3. Repeated measurements indicate an eruption temperature of about 1,135°C. The basalt is slightly porphyritic with scattered small plagioclase and olivine phenocrysts.

"Strong emission of sulfur-rich gases has continued since the beginning of the eruption; widespread dispersal of the gases had caused vegetation damage over large areas of E Hawaii. Between extrusive events (and continuing at the time of this report) some vents S of Pu'u Kahaualea remained at temperatures of about 1,070°C and burning gases were visible at night. These vents periodically emit spatter composed, at least in part, of incandescent and partly melted fragments eroded from the vent walls.

Seismicity. "In the weeks prior to the eruption seismographs recorded increasing rates of microearthquakes in the E rift zone. At 0030 on 2 January the seismicity developed into a swarm of small shallow (depth < 5 km) earthquakes (figure 16) and weak harmonic tremor. The swarm started in the upper E rift near Mauna Ulu, increased in the early hours and migrated downrift about 9 km to Napau Crater. Tiny earthquakes were recorded at a rate of 3-5/minute; seismic intensity peaked between 0040 and 0110, when several earthquakes, magnitude 2.5 to 3.0, were felt in the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park area. From 0300 to 1300 2 January, the seismic zone spread farther downrift to beyond Pu'u Kamoamoa (figure 17). From then until the eruptive outbreak, small earthquakes accompanied by harmonic tremor occurred at a nearly constant rate, mainly along a zone between Napau Crater and Pu'u Kamoamoa. When the eruption was sighted at Napau Crater by a ground crew at 0031 on 3 January, [instruments] started to record increasing harmonic tremor amplitudes and constant summit deflation.

Figure 16. N-S and E-W components of summit tilt measured at Uwekahuna Vault, NW caldera rim, January 1983. Periods of lava production are also shown.
Figure 17. Map of 1983 lava flows and eruptive fissures on the middle E rift zone for the periods 3-15 January (horizontal lines), 10 February-4 March (vertical lines), and 28 March-5 April (dotted pattern).

From 3 through 6 January the shallow earthquakes were broadly distributed from near Napau to beyond Pu'u Kahaualea. Harmonic tremor, although continuous, waxed and waned in consonance with the production of lava. In the early morning hours of 7 January, however, the shallow earthquake activity precursory to the opening of the vents E of Pu'u Kahaualea was concentrated in a zone that extended approximately from Pu'u Kahaualea to about 2 km downrift from Kalalua. Since then earthquake activity in the eruptive zone has been relatively low (figure 18). At the end of January, seismographs were still registering a moderate level of harmonic tremor originating from a source in the vicinity of the eruptive vents extending 2 or 3 km E of Pu'u Kamoamoa to near Pu'u Kahaualea.

Figure 18. N-S and E-W components of summit tilt measured at Uwekahuna Vault, NW caldera rim, January-April 1983. Periods of lava production are also shown.

"Throughout the month thousands of shallow earthquakes were generated in the eruption zone. Of these, nearly 500, most from depths of less than 4 km and magnitude 0.5-4.0, were processed for size and location. The vast majority of the earthquakes probably record emplacement and establishment of the feeder dike system, a process that was completed on the morning of 7 January.

"Deeper earthquakes (5 to 13 km) that occurred throughout the month beneath the S flank were more or less representative of adjustment of the S flank that continues over the long term. However, a somewhat elevationated frequency of occurrence of S flank earthquakes in the early part of the month was probably a direct response to increased stress from the magmatic activity in the rift zone.

Deformation. "Tiltmeters in the Uwekahuna Vault recorded a summit collapase of about 125 µrad (figure 16), which represents an estimated volume loss of 50 x 106 m3 from the summit region. Broken only by temporary inflation during the non-eruptive interval between 3 and 5 January, almost all of the summit deflation occurred at a high rate from early on 2 January to early on 8 January. The summit subsidence and the period of intense shallow seismic activity were coincident. Approximately 3/4 of the volume of extruded lava was erupted during the same period. Minor, very slow deflation of the summit continued until about 18 January. Gradual recovery of about 4 µrad of tilt occurred during the remainder of the month.

"Geo-electric and recorded tilt changes in the E rift zone on 3 January strongly suggest that magma was intruding the rift as far down as Kalalua at that time. However, observations of ground cracking, tilt measurements, and electronic distance measurements show that major extension (> 2 m) perpendicular to the rift zone occurred N and NE of Kalalua late on 6 January and during 7 January. An electronically measured line across the eruptive fissures S of Pu'u Kahaualea, initiated on 19 January, has shown a steady extension averaging 7 mm/day during the last part of January.

Summary. "Although no major lava production has occurred since 15 January (a minor extrusion occurred on 23 January), the continuing steady harmonic tremor, voluminous gas emission, occurrence of incandescent and flaming vents, and extension across the recently active eruptive fissure S of Pu'u Kahaualea indicate that the magmatic activity related to the January 1983 eruption has not yet ended."

Information Contacts: E. Wolfe, A. Okamura,R. Koyanagi, HVO.

02/1983 (SEAN 08:02) Renewed fountaining and lava flow production on E Rift

"The E rift zone eruption of Kilauea that began on 3 January resumed on 10 February, and lava production continued until 4 March along eruptive fissures established during the initial outbreak on 3 January (figure 17). The renewed eruption followed nearly a month in which vent activity was limited largely to incandescence and emission of burning gases along parts of a 2-km segment of the vent system that extended E from about 0.75 km NE of Pu'u Kamoamoa to the area S of Pu'u Kahaualea. During the quiet period, a little incandescant spatter was ejected sporadically from the E vents; at least some of the ejecta consisted of wallrock remelted and eroded from the vents by vigorous emission of burning gas. There was no measurable production of new lava.

"Increased spatter production was first recognized on 10 February; a small (6 m-high) spatter cone had formed at the E vents (0.7 km S of Pu'u Kahaulea). By 12 February, a second small spatter cone had formed, and a glowing crack extended tens of meters NE of the 2 cones. Subsequent intermittent production of low fountains and small lava flows through 24 February led to growth of a flat-topped shield estimated to be about 200 m long, 100 m wide, and 10 m thick. The shield was capped by a 170 m-long line of juxtaposed spatter cones ranging up to about 15 m high. Lava production during the 2-week shield-building period is estimated at 0.5 x 106 m3. In addition, a short (probably 10-minute) episode of spatter production occurred at a vent just E of Pu'u Kamoamoa at about 2220 on 19 February. Gas emission during this period was low and was characterized by extremely low atomic C/S ratios (approximately 0.05) suggesting that the near-surface magma had largely degassed during the non-eruptive interval.

"Beginning at 0145 on 25 February, fountaining and lava flow production increased in the W and central parts of the shield and a flow about a kilometer long extended NE. Gas composition also changed at this time, becoming more C-rich (C/S approximately 0.15) and generally reverting to a composition indistinguishable from that of the early January gases. Thirteen hours later, at about 1440 on 25 February, the main eruptive locus shifted about 100 m uprift and eruption from the shield vents soon terminated, at 1518. Fountains played continuously at this new locus until the end of the eruptive episode on 4 March. During this period, sporadic lava production also occurred from local vents as far uprift as 0.75 km NE of Pu'u Kamoamoa.

"During its week of sustained activity, the main fountain, about 0.75 km SSW of Pu'u Kahaualea, was commonly 40-80 m high. Estimated to be about 30 m wide at its base, the fountain arose from a lava pond about 60 m in diameter. By the evening of 25 February, the S rim of the levee containing the lava pond had developed a spillway through which 2 major flows were supplied during the ensuing week. One of these moved NE 25-26 February within the same graben that contained the upper part of the 7 January flow. Following the path of that earlier flow, the new flow turned SE about 0.5 km W of Kalalua and stopped about 3 km from its source.

"By the morning of 27 February, the active lava river leading from the pond had been diverted SE, producing a flow that eventually extended more than 7 km from the vent to its terminus, about 3.8 km from the coast. This latest flow, parallel to and a kilometer SW of the 7 January flow, advanced slowly through the rain forest until 4 March, when lava production stopped. In the half nearest the vent, where the feeding channel was largely pahoehoe, the average velocity of the advancing flow front was about 90 m/hour. In the lower half, where the flow was dominantly aa, the front advanced episodically, but at an average rate of about 30 m/hour, even on the steepest (about 7°) slopes.

"In the early evening of 2 March, the advancing aa front, locally up to 10 m thick, entered the NE part of a sparsely populated subdivision on the S flank, just E of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Two dwellings were destroyed before lava production at the vent stopped at about 1500 on 4 March. Subsequent movement in the distal part of the flow was limited to minor adjustments that led to only a few meters of additional lava advance.

"Preliminary estimates, as yet without benefit of careful mapping or methodical thickness measurements, indicate that about 10 x 106 m3 of lava were extruded 10 February-4 March. Thermocouple measurements in pahoehoe toes gave lava temperatures of about 1112°-1120°C, slightly cooler than in January. The basalt is sparsely porphyritic with scattered small phenocrysts of olivine and plagioclase.

Seismicity and deformation. "Apparently because the feeder dike system had become fully established in early January and was maintained until eruptive activity resumed in February, the renewed lava emission was not accompanied by increased numbers of shallow earthquakes in either the summit or E rift zone. Harmonic tremor had declined by 30 January to about 10% of its high amplitude in early January; originating from a source beneath February's eruptive vents, the tremor slowly doubled in amplitude 30 January-25 February. From 25 February-4 March, average tremor amplitude was about 30% of the early January level. On 4 March, when lava production terminated, the tremor amplitude dropped abruptly to a low, but constant, level that was continuing as of 10 March.

"By 25 February, the E-W component tiltmeter in Uwekahuna Vault near the summit had recorded approximately 9 µrad of gradual summit re-inflation following the major subsidence of early January. The vigorous eruptive activity 25 February-4 March in the middle E rift zone coincided with an 11 µrad E-W deflation at Uwekahuna. Rapid summit re-inflation averaging about a µrad per day has occurred 4-10 March.

"No significant extension across the E rift has occurred in the vicinity of Kalalua since the major eruption of 7 January. However, a survey line across the eruptive fissure near Pu'u Kahaualea showed extension 29 January-12 February of at least 13 mm/day. By 14 February, new lava had obstructed the line."

Information Contacts: E. Wolfe, A. Okamura,R. Koyanagi, HVO.

[With the following report, HVO scientists recognized that they were dealing with episodic eruptive behavior, which continued for the next three years. We have added numbered headers to help organize the reports. Originally referred to as "phases," the HVO staff later decided that the term "episode" was more appropiate (see SEAN 10:06). We have replaced the word "phase" throughout the text of earlier reports. Where the word "episode" was used in reports 8:3 to 10:6, we have substituted "period" to avoid confusion with the revised usage of "episode."]

EPISODE 3

03/1983 (SEAN 08:03) Eruption continues in middle east rift zone

"The 1983 eruption entered its third major episode of lava production in the early morning of 28 March. A 3.5-week quiescent period 4-28 March was interrupted only briefly by minor emission of spatter and pahoehoe lava on 21 March at vents S of Pu'u Kahaualea.

"Initially, on 28 March, the major eruptive activity occurred at a vent 700 m NE of Pu'u Kamoamoa, just inside the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park boundary. Vigorous extrusive activity at this vent produced a flow that extended nearly 5 km SE along the National Park boundary (figure 17). Eruption of this vent stopped at 2019 on 30 March.

"A vent S of Pu'u Kahaualea that was the source of the major flows of late February and early March resumed erupting 28 March, sporadically at first. Its eruptive activity became steady at approximately 1800 on 29 March. From then through 5 April, when this report was prepared, it supplied a flow that slowly extended 4 km [revised to 3 km in 8:4] NE along the rift zone to the vicinity of Kalalua. Another flow from this vent moved about 3 km SE on 4 and 5 April. The vent continued as the single locus of lava production. Its vigorous fountain, commonly 100 m high and at times estimated as high as 300 m, was visible from a number of vantage points along the highway from the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park to Hilo. Frothy scoria fragments, bombs of spatter, and thin spatter-fed flows built a prominent cone 60 m high [note growth to 80 m in 8:4], and a thin airfall pyroclastic blanket extended more than 1 km from the cone. Pele's hair fell as far as 17 km from the vent.

"The volume of basalt extruded since the eruption began on 3 January was on the order of 30 x 106 m3 [to at least 50 x 106 m3 by end of episode 3]. Flows of the present episode were dominantly aa. Lava temperatures ranging from 1112° to 1129°C were measured by thermocouple. Like the earlier 1983 lavas, those of late March-early April are slightly porphyritic, with scattered small plagioclase and olivine phenocrysts. The gas composition remained unchanged throughout the eruption, indicating that stored E rift magma remained the predominant source of the erupted lava."

Deformation and seismicity. "The water tube tiltmeter at Uwekahuna Vault in the summit region showed the correspondence of summit subsidence with major extrusion episodes in the E rift zone (figure 18). Moderate summit re-inflation followed the extrusive episodes of early January and early March. The tiltmeter data in combination with levelling results indicated a cumulative volume of at least 70 x 106 m3 [to 80 x 106 m3 by the end of episode 3; 8:4] for magma withdrawn from the shallow summit region since the beginning of the eruptive/intrusive activity in early January.

"Since cessation of the initial earthquake swarm in early January, seismicity in the eruptive zone was characterized by unceasing harmonic tremor that waxed and waned in amplitude in concert with the eruptive activity. As determined from a seismic station near Pu'u Kamoamoa and from portable seismometer traverses, the tremor originated from a source within a few kilometers of the surface in a zone between Pu'u Kamoamoa and the vents S of Pu'u Kahaualea.

"Following the major outbreak of 25 February-4 March, tremor continued at a decreased level. On 21 March, the amplitude gradually increased from 0430 to 0630, remained moderately high for most of the day, and decreased to its previous low level on the following day.

"A gradual increase in amplitude occurred again beginning in the early morning of 27 March. By 0100 on 28 March the tremor amplitude increased by about 5 times at the Pu'u Kamoamoa station. Glow from active fountains was reported shortly thereafter. Tremor remained strong as of 5 April, at times reaching an amplitude greater than 10 times background for periods of a few minutes to several hours."

Addendum: Steven Brantley reported that lava fountaining from the vent S of Pu'u Kahaualea stopped at 0257 [but revised to 0247 in 8:4] on 9 April. By 0430, harmonic tremor had decreased to low levels, and the rate of summit deflation had decreased to less than 0.05 µrad/hour. The SE flow from this vent entered the Royal Gardens subdivision on 8 April. Approximately seven [six confirmed in 8:4] structures were destroyed before the flow stopped late in the afternoon of 9 April.

Information Contacts: E. Wolfe, A. Okamura, R. Koyanagi, and S. Brantley, HVO; UPI.

04/1983 (SEAN 08:04) Lava effusion stops; low level harmonic tremor, local incandescence, and extension continue

"The third major episode of the E rift eruption ended at 0247 on 9 April. The initial activity was at a vent that erupted 28-30 March, producing an aa flow that extended nearly 5 km SE along the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park boundary. A vent about 2 km to the ENE in the same location as the source of the lava flow that entered the Royal Gardens subdivision during episode 2 erupted steadily from 29 March-9 April. Marked by two fountains that were the sources of flows that exited N and S, the vent was the locus of all April lava production. These fountains, and in particular the steadily active and more prominent N fountain that was commonly 100 m high and at times estimated to be 300 m high, were the source of tephra for construction of an 80-m-high cinder cone.

"From 29 March to the end of the eruption, a flow composed of aa locally more that 12 m thick advanced slowly about 3 km NE to the vicinity of Kalalua. Another flow moved SE between earlier flows of 7 January and 27 February-4 March. Lava production at the S fountain changed from sporadic to steady on 4 April and at least 3 lava flows were fed in succession during the remainder of episode 3. These flows were approximately 3.0, 1.5, and 7.2 km long. The advance of each of the first two apparently stopped when the lava stream feeding it was diverted to form the next. The fronts of these aa flows advanced at average rates of approximately 100 m/hour and at times faster than 200 m/hour through gently sloping rain forests. The last and longest of the 3 flows began its advance on 6 April. It entered Royal Gardens subdivision on 8 April and destroyed 6 structures before the eruption stopped early on 9 April. Near the end of the eruption the flow front reached a velocity of 6 m/minute as the narrow and elongate terminus, centered on a subdivision street, advanced down a steep slope. Decemberelerating advance of the flow front continued through at least 11 April.

"January-April lava covered about 15 km2, approximately double the 7 km2 that had been covered by the end of episode 2 on 4 March (figure 17). As a preliminary estimate, a minimum of 50 x 106 m3 of lava had been extruded since eruptive activity began on 3 January. The most recent basalt is megascopically identical to the earlier lava. It is slightly porphyritic with scattered small phenocrysts of plagioclase and olivine. This, as well as continued relatively low lava temperatures (1,112-1,129°C) and unchanged composition of eruptive gases, implied that stored E rift magma had remained as the source for all January-April 1983 lava.

"The summit (Uwekahuna) water tube tiltmeter recorded nearly 30 µrad of decreasing tilt related to subsidence during the third episode of the eruption (figure 18). Since the beginning of intrusive/eruptive activity on 2 January, the cumulative tilt decrease was nearly 200 µrad, suggesting a net volume loss in the summit area of at least 80 x 106 m3. Harmonic tremor decreased significantly when lava fountaining stopped. As of 10 May, tremor continued at a very low level in the general area of the recently active vents.

"Although hot gases of magmatic origin were becoming progressively less concentrated and more oxidized, they continued to be emitted from the recently active part of the fissure system. Local but decreasing incandescence also continued. These observations combined with the observations of persistent low tremor and minor extension across the fissure system (10 mm of extension had occurred by 29 April on a survey line established 8 days earlier) suggested that the feeder system was still active and renewal of eruptive activity was possible."

Information Contacts: E. Wolfe, A. Okamura, R. Koyanagi, and S. Brantley, HVO; UPI.

05/1983 (SEAN 08:05) Incandescent vents, harmonic tremor, and dilation across fissure system continue, then lava extrusion resumes

"Although Kilauea did not erupt during May, the fissure system for the 1983 E rift zone eruption was still active. Incandescent fissures with temperatures around 800°C were present at both vents that erupted from 28 March to 9 April (08:3-4). Steady slow dilation, averaging slightly less than 1 mm/day, was measured across the fissure system from Pu'u Kahaualea (near active vents about 17 km E of the summit caldera rim). Weak harmonic tremor continued throughout the month. These data suggest that slow intrusion was sustaining the feeder, and resumption of eruptive activity is possible."

Addendum: Eruptive activity accompanied by gradually increasing harmonic tremor resumed at about 0800 on 13 June, from the 28-30 March vent (near Pu'u Kamoamoa) about 15 km ESE of the summit caldera rim. Lava fountains 20-30 m high fed a flow that moved SE over the 28-30 March lava, along the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park boundary. The summit tiltmeter showed a deflation rate of 1 µrad per 6 hours. Moderately high and very steady harmonic tremor was recorded in the vicinity of the vent as the eruption continued 14 June.

Information Contacts: R. Decker, E. Wolfe, A. Okamura,R. Koyanagi, and J. Nakata, HVO.

EPISODE 4

06/1983 (SEAN 08:06) Lava flows and spatter cones produced by two new phases of E rift zone eruption

"The fourth and fifth major episodes of Kilauea's E rift zone eruption occurred during June and early July. The two eruptive events, each about 4 days long, produced three new major lava flows that extended SE down the S flank.

"The eruptive vent for both episodes was located just within the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park about 750 m NE of Pu'u Kamoamoa (figure 19). The same vent had been active intermittently since early January; in late March it produced a 5-km-long lava flow that extended SE along the National Park boundary.

Figure 19. Distribution of Kilauea lavas and vent deposits for phases 1-7, January-August 1983.

"Episode 4 lava fountains were first reported from a passing aircraft at 1025 on 13 June. When the first ground observers arrived at midday, a line of low fountains about 100 m long was feeding flows to both the NW and SE. The NE end of the vent quickly became the major locus of lava production, and an aa flow fed by a vigorous river of pahoehoe began extending SE, on top of and adjacent to the late March (episode 3) flow. A steep-sided spatter cone 30-40 m high was built at the source of the flow, which cascaded over a spillway one-half to two-thirds of the way up the S side of the cone. A low fountain, up to about 20 m high, played from the surface of the lava pond that filled the interior of the cone to the level of the spillway.

"Lava discharge was estimated at about 100,000 m3/hour. The main flow extended about 7.5 km SE from the vent and covered approximately 1.5 x 106 m2. Its front advanced at about 30-200 m/hour. Following the National Park boundary, the flow entered Royal Gardens subdivision only locally, and no homes were destroyed. Episode 4 ended abruptly at 1413 on 17 June, a little more than 4 days after it began.

"Like previous 1983 lavas, episode 4 basalt is slightly porphyritic, with scattered small phenocrysts of plagioclase and olivine. Lava temperatures, measured by thermocouple, ranged from 1,115 to 1,132°C.

EPISODE 5

"Episode 5 began on 29 June. At 1000, a pool of lava was seen slowly rising inside the main episode 4 vent. At about 1300 lava production became vigorous, and episode 5 lava cascaded over the earlier spillway and began flowing SE within the previously evacuated episode 4 channel. Lava production quickly reached and was maintained at a rate similar to that of episode 4, approximately 100,000 m3/hour, and an aa flow began advancing SE over episode 3 and 4 basalts. The flow was fed by a vigorous pahoehoe channel that was generally bank-full and frequently overflowing. Advancing at average rates ranging from 80-165 m/hour, the flow front entered the NW part of Royal Gardens subdivision at 1919 on 1 July. It finally stopped 8 km from the vent at about 1030 on 3 July, more than 3 hours after the vent had stopped erupting. Traversing the subdivision, it burned and crushed 7 dwellings and cut off 4 others from road access. The average velocity of the flow moving down the 4-8° slopes of the subdivision was 56 m/hour, but the actual velocity ranged from 0-30 m/min. Periods of stagnation up to a few hours long alternated with rapid surges that advanced the flow front by 100-300 m in 30 minutes.

"At about 1600 on 29 June a satellite vent on the W flank of the main vent began erupting. For the next 24 hours it supplied local pahoehoe flows that extended about a kilometer N and NE of the vent. Then, in mid to late afternoon of 30 June, the satellite vent stopped feeding flows to the north and began to feed an aa flow that extended 5 km SE along the SW edge of the episode 3 and 4 flows. It, too, was fed by a pahoehoe channel; the front of this flow advanced at average rates of 70-110 m/hour.

"Fountain activity at the episode 5 vents constructed a pair of juxtaposed spatter cones about 40 m high. Lava pond surfaces within the 2 vents were 20-30 m above the bases of the cones. Fountains played from the ponds, and spatter was ejected to maximum heights of about 50 m above the pond surfaces. Fountaining was more vigorous than in episode 4, which suggested that the episode 5 magma may have been less depleted in gas. Lava production at the vents stopped at 0717 on 3 July, nearly 4 days after the eruption began.

"Thermocouple measurements gave lava temperatures of 1,127-1,129°C. Basalt collected near the end of episode 5 may be compositionally different from lavas erupted in previous episodes. Millimeter-size olivine phenocrysts are abundant, and plagioclase phenocrysts are rare. Unfortunately, no temperature measurements are specifically correlated with these samples.

Deformation and seismicity. "Water-tube tilt measurements in the summit region (at Uwekahuna) showed small but distinct periods of summit deflation that correlated with episodes 4 and 5. Minimum volume loss at the summit was estimated to be about 14 x 106 m3 for episodes 4 and 5 combined. Cumulative deflation since early January was approximately 235 µrad; a minimum volume loss at the summit of about 95 x 106 m3 is suggested.

"Very low-level harmonic tremor has characterized the periods between eruptive episodes. On 13 June, approximately coincident with the onset of episode 4, tremor increased from 0500 to about 1100. It remained constantly high until 17 June, when it declined rapidly from 1400-1600. Again, coincident with episode 5, tremor amplitude increased beginning at about 0900 on 29 June. It stayed high through the eruption, and, in concert with the end of lava production, the tremor dropped dramatically from 0713-0720 on 3 July."

Robert Symonds measured a rate of SO2 emission from Kilauea of 8000 t/d from the ground on 30 June and the same flux from the air on 1 July.

Information Contacts: E. Wolfe, A. Okamura, and R. Koyanagi, USGS HVO, HI; R. Symonds and T. Casadevall, USGS CVO, Vancouver WA.

EPISODE 6

07/1983 (SEAN 08:07) Lava flows move ENE along east rift for 4 days

"Kilauea's E rift zone eruption was in its sixth episode from 21 to 25 July. The episode 6 eruptive vent was the same spatter cone, approximately 750 m NE of Pu'u Kamoamoa, that was the major source of episode 4 and 5 lavas (figure 19). Between eruptive episodes the vent contained incandescent cracks and continued to emit magmatic gases.

"The first episode 6 eruptive activity was seen from a passing aircraft at about 0600 on 21 July. From then until midafternoon the next day, extrusive activity consisted of cyclic filling and draining of the funnel-shaped interior of the spatter cone. Fountain activity at this stage ranged from intermittent bursts of spatter to the more steady play of a 3-4-m-high dome fountain.

"At approximately 1530 on 22 July, the pond filled to a depth of about 20 m, and lava spilled over low places on the rim of the spatter cone to begin feeding flows to the N, NE, and SE. Lava production rapidly increased, and a major aa flow advanced NE, fed by a vigorous pahoehoe river issuing from the pond at spillways on the N and NE flanks of the cone. Blocked from advancing SE by flows and vent deposits of earlier episodes, this flow moved ENE through the rain forest on the N side of Pu'u Kahaualea. During the period of greatest lava discharge, estimated on 24 July at about 0.25 x 106 m3/hour, the flow advanced at more than 200 m/hour. Ultimately it extended 6 km from the vent, covering an area of about 2 x 106 m2 with a volume on the order of 10 x 106 m3.

"During the period of active lava flow production, a fountain played continuously from the surface of the pond within the vent. The fountain was at its most vigorous on 23 July, when it often reached heights ranging from 50 to 150 m. It produced flows of spatter-fed pahoehoe and a local tephra blanket that extended SW from the vent. Subsequently the fountain was less vigorous and 30-60 m high, approximately 1.5 times its height at the end of episode 5.

"Lava temperatures measured by thermocouple ranged from 1128°C on 22 and 23 July to 1138°C (a new high temperature for the 1983 eruption) on 24 July. Hand-lens inspection indicated that episode 6 basalt contains scattered small phenocrysts of plagioclase and olivine. Thus, it generally resembles, except for the more olivine-phyric basalt of episode 5, the earlier 1983 lavas.

"Harmonic tremor, which had persisted at a low level after the end of episode 5 eruptive activity on 3 July, began to fluctuate slightly and increase gradually during the period of cyclic filling and draining of the lava pond on 21 and 22 July. Shortly before 1600 on 22 July, tremor intensity increased rapidly in concert with increasing eruptive vigor. Tremor reached a high level at about 1800 and maintained it through the 3-day period of strong effusion. At about 1620 on 25 July, tremor decreased rapidly as the eruption came to an end. Low-level tremor, like that characteristic of other inter-eruptive periods, has continued in the vent area since 25 July.

"The Uwekahuna water-tube tiltmeter recorded about 17 µrad of summit deflation during episode 6. Following gradual inflation that had been underway since the end of episode 5, the summit of Kilauea began to deflate at about 1600 on 22 July, approximately coincident with the increases in tremor amplitude and lava emission. Summit deflation increased to a maximum rate of 3-4 µrad/hour on 23 and 24 July. The rate decreased thereafter until about 1800 on 25 July. Since then the summit has been gradually reinflating."

Addendum: Eruptive activity resumed at the episode 6 vent on 15 August. Harmonic tremor increased at approximately 0700; lava fountains 20-30 m high and a 1 km-long lava flow to the NE were reported by field crews that arrived at the vent at 0845. At press time on 17 August, Tina Neal reported that lava fountains had decreased to 5-10 m high, the lava flow extended about 6 km NE with lobes both N and S of the episode 6 flow, and summit deflation continued.

Information Contacts: E. Wolfe, A. Okamura, R. Koyanagi, and T. Neal, HVO.

EPISODE 7

08/1983 (SEAN 08:08) 7th, 8th, and 9th major episodes produce lava flows extending NE and S from spatter cone

"The seventh major episode of extrusive activity in Kilauea's continuing middle E rift zone eruption occurred during the 3rd week of August. Lava flows extended NE and SE from the eruptive vent, but did not threaten any developed areas (figure 19).

"After slightly more than 2 weeks of summit inflation, low-level extrusive activity was first observed on 10 August on the floor of the spatter cone (750 km NE of Pu'u Kamoamoa) that marks the vent for episodes 4-6. Sporadic production of very small lava flows through 14 August, accompanied by weak spattering, produced enough new basalt to cover the 30-m-diameter floor of the crater with thin pahoehoe. During this period, the summit continued to inflate, and harmonic tremor, which had been low but steady in the eruptive zone since the end of episode 6, was marked by intermittent bursts of higher amplitude.

"Starting at about 0709 on 15 August, tremor intensity increased rapidly. Within an hour, the seismograph at Pu'u Kamoamoa registered a 10-fold increase in tremor amplitude. By the time the first observers reached the eruptive zone at 0850, fountains 50 m high were playing from the surface of a 20-m-deep pond within the crater. A rapidly moving lava flow had advanced 1 km NE on top of the voluminous episode 6 flow, and a smaller flow was moving slowly S. Steady lava production continued for about 57 hours, ending abruptly at about 1600 on 17 August. An aa flow that had been fed by a vigorous pahoehoe river extended 6.4 km NE and buried a large portion of the episode 6 flow. A second aa flow that advanced less rapidly extended 2.9 km SE. Basalt samples contain scattered small olivine phenocrysts. Lava temperatures measured by thermocouple ranged from 1,132 to 1,141°C.

"Strong harmonic tremor persisted throughout the period of vigorous effusion. At about 1602 on 17 August, tremor decayed rapidly and within an hour assumed a fluctuating low level. Tremor amplitude slowly decreased even further over the next few days, then remained constant and low for the rest of the month.

"Summit deflation recorded by the Uwekahuna tiltmeter began at 1000 on 15 August, several hours after the onset of intense lava production. Nearly 20 µrad of summit collapse, which ended at 1900 on 17 August, suggests that a volume decrease of at least 8 x 106 m3 occurred at the summit during the eruption. For the remainder of the month, the summit reinflated at an average rate of about 1 µrad/day. At least 110 x 106 m3 of magma is estimated to have been lost from the summit reservoir since the E rift eruptive activity began in January 1983.

"On 2 September, field observations of the vent area indicated that small amounts of lava had been intermittently erupted within the main vent crater since the last field check on 29 August. There was some increase in the amplitude of low-level tremor during the night of 1-2 September, probably associated with the new lava emission.

"On the morning of 6 September the eighth major episode of the eruption began. At 0503, an increase in volcanic tremor was recorded on seismographs at HVO. By 0514 the tremor had increased to about 20 times its background level of the previous day. At 0530 a major fume cloud was visible from HVO and the roar of fountains was audible. At 0730 a field crew reported a large single fountain reaching approximately 50 m above the top of the spatter cone built in earlier episodes. A major flow was advancing NE on top of flows from the last 2 major eruptive episodes.

"The eruption was steady and vigorous throughout 6 September. Fountains reached heights of 140 m above the cone. Abruptly at 0525 on 7 September, fountaining ceased and tremor amplitude dropped to slightly above inter-eruptive background levels. Significant lava production during episode 8 lasted for approximately 24 hours. Ten µrad of summit collapse were recorded."

Addendum: On 9 September at 0631 a magnitude 5.5 earthquake occurred at 9 km depth in the S flank, between the eruption vent and the sea coast. Low-level activity resumed at the episode 6-8 vent around midday on 15 September [episode 9]. Vigorous fountaining to approximately 100 m above the spatter cone began between 1700 and 1730 on 15 September, and produced a lava flow that extended 5 km NE on the N and W sides of the episode 6-8 flows. Fountaining ceased between 1900 and 1930 on 17 September.

Information Contacts: E. Wolfe, A. Okamura, R. Koyanagi, and T. Neal, HVO.

EPISODES 8 and 9

09/1983 (SEAN 08:09) 8th-10th major phases of E Rift Zone eruption

"Episodes 8 and 9 of Kilauea's long-lived middle E rift zone eruption occurred during September. All lava issued from the same vent, 750 m NE of Pu'u Kamoamoa, that has been the dominant locus of eruptive activity starting with episode 4 in mid-June. The major episode 8 and 9 flows extended NE along the NW edge of the episode 6 and 7 flows.

Low-level activity, 2-5 September. "In the pre-dawn hours of 2 September, following about 2 weeks of low but constant harmonic tremor in the eruptive zone and steady inflation of the shallow summit reservoir, approximately 4 days of low-level, intra-crater eruptive activity began at the vent. Harmonic tremor during this 4-day period, although still low, was characterized by intermittent episodes of slightly higher intensity. Prior to the renewal of activity, the crater floor was dominated by a steep-walled deep hole; an incandescent crack issued fume at the W base of the interior crater wall. By 0900 on 2 September, the deep central depression had been filled, and a 4 m-high mound of spatter surrounded a fuming and sporadically spattering conduit near the center of what had become a nearly flat, 30 m-diameter crater floor. At the W edge of the floor, several very small lava flows had been extruded from the area of the incandescent crack. Intermittent extrusion from this area continued through 4 September, producing about 300 m3 of small solidified flows. On 5 September, a lava pond 5 m deep covered the crater floor, and a lava stream carrying an estimated 1,000-2,000 m3/hour issued from the vent at the pond's W edge, disappearing downward near the pond's center. Although a 'bathtub ring' showed that the pond had earlier been as deep as 15 m, no significant change in the pond's volume was seen during 6 hours of observation on 5 September. Minimal spatter production implied that the lava of this intra-crater activity was relatively degassed.

EPISODE 8, 6-7 September 1983

"Beginning at 0503 on 6 September, harmonic tremor rapidly increased. Within 15 minutes, tremor amplitude was an order of magnitude higher, and remained intense throughout the eruption. By about 0530 the roar from the fountaining vent could be heard and the eruption plume seen from the summit region.

"Although brief, the eruption was vigorous. Fountains rose 100-200 m from the surface of the pond within the crater. As in episodes 6 and 7, lava issued from a breach in the NE rim of the crater, producing an aa flow that extended NE for more than 4 km. A subordinate aa flow extended about 2 km SE.

"Harmonic tremor decreased rapidly from about 0520 on 7 September, and fountaining stopped at about 0525, approximately 24 hours after it had begun. Steady low tremor continued until 14 September. Two open conduits were left extending steeply downward from the W edge and the center of the crater floor.

EPISODE 9, 14-17 September 1983

"After a week of quiescence, sporadic spattering began in the crater shortly after midnight on 14 September, and harmonic tremor gradually increased to mark the onset of episode 9. Lava began to cover the crater floor at about 1030 on 15 September. After an hour, when the pond was about 5 m deep, a few hundred m3 of lava spilled through the deep breach in the NE crater rim. The remainder, about 3,000 m3, drained back into the central conduit and disappeared at about 1300, 2.5 hours after the pond began to form. Two hours later, a second pond, not deep enough to overflow the breach, formed and drained within 30 minutes. Refilling of the pond began again about 5 minutes later, and within 15 minutes (by about 1540) lava had overtopped the spillway from the crater. A flow supplied at a rate of about 10,000 m3/hour began advancing NE along the evacuated episode-8 channel. A small dome fountain 3-8 m high played on the pond surface above the central conduit, and there was almost no spatter. Beginning about 1700, harmonic tremor increased gradually. At about 1711, the first spatter was visible above the approximately 50 m-high W rim of the crater, and by 1730 the tremor had increased to the large amplitude typical of vigorous lava production. By 2130 the fountain was visible from the Wahaula Visitor Center near the coast (approximately 11 km SE of the active vent), which suggests a fountain height on the order of 300 m.

"Vigorous eruption continued for just over 2 days, ending at about 1915 on 17 September. The major flow of this episode, aa supplied during vigorous eruption at about 1-2 x105 m3/hour, advanced more than 5 km NE through the rain forest along the NW edge of the episode-8 flow. Fountains were initially very high, but became erratic in height and direction, ranging up to about 200 m high. Rapidly changing in inclination and azimuth of trajectory, they heavily armored the growing spatter cone (about 60 m high) with spatter-fed flows.

"At the eruption's end, 2 apparent conduits much like those seen before the eruption were visible in the crater floor. Near the center of the floor was a nearly cylindrical, vertical, fuming hole approximately 4 m in diameter. At the W edge of the floor was a fuming, glowing, elongated hole 1 m wide and 2-3 m long.

"Harmonic tremor in the eruption zone diminished rapidly at the end of the eruption. By 1930 on 17 September it had dropped to the low level characteristic of repose periods. Since then tremor has remained continuous and low.

"The volume of new basalt, mostly aa, produced during episodes 8 and 9 is approximately 16 x 106 m3, and the total volume of basalt produced since the beginning of episode 1 on 3 January is about 106 x 106 m3. The episode 8 and 9 basalts are slightly porphyritic, with scattered small olivine phenocrysts.

"Summit reservoir deflation and inflation associated with episodes 8 and 9 extended the strongly cyclic pattern that has been established in recent months. Deflation approximately coincident with the eruptions was recorded at Uwekahuna vault by rapid inward tilt changes of 14.8 µrad for episode 8 and 16.2 µrad for episode 9. These correspond approximately to summit volume losses of 6 and 6.5 x 106 m3, respectively. The total deflationary volume loss at Kilauea's summit since the beginning of January is about 122 x 106 m3."

Addendum: The 10th major episode of eruptive activity began early 5 October following 3 days of minor and intermittent lava emission and drainback in the episode 4-9 vent. Tremor amplitude increased at 0327, and lava fountaining started by about 0430. Fountains rose to maximum heights of about 300 m, producing a substantial volume of airfall pumice, and fed two lava flows that extended 4 km NE and SE of the vent. Fountaining ceased at about 1700 on 7 October, and inflation of the summit region resumed. Extremely low-level harmonic tremor continued as of 11 October.

Information Contacts: E. Wolfe, A. Okamura, R. Koyanagi, and T. Neal, HVO.

EPISODE 10

10/1983 (SEAN 08:10) 10th and 11th major phases of E Rift Zone eruption

"The 10th major episode of Kilauea's prolonged E rift zone eruption occurred in early October. As in episodes 4-9, the active vent was at the growing spatter cone, now tentatively named Pu'u O [later Pu`u `O`o, see 10:4], approximately 750 m NE of Pu'u Kamoamoa (figure 20).

Figure 20. Distribution of Kilauea lavas and vent deposits of episodes 8, 9, and 10. Courtesy of HVO.

"Low-level eruptive activity marking the onset of episode 10 began at about 0800 on 2 October when a small lava flow, about 300-500 m3 in volume, was extruded onto the floor of the crater within Pu'u O. Some of the lava drained back into the open, glowing, 4-m-diameter conduit, which had been preserved near the center of the crater floor at the end of episode 9. No further activity was observed until 4 October when small bursts of spatter were intermittently emitted, most of which fell back into the conduit.

"Beginning at about 0100 on 5 October, harmonic tremor increased above the low repose-period background level, and lava began to spill through a deep breach in the NE wall of the spatter cone. Intensity of both harmonic tremor and eruptive activity increased over the next several hours. By 0330, tremor amplitude had increased by an order of magnitude, and by 0400 the glow was visible and the roar of the vent was audible 20 km away at HVO. Near dawn, the 300-m-high fountain was visible from the coast at the Wahaula Visitor Center (approximately 11 km S of the active vent). Late on 5 October, tremor amplitude increased to a maximum exceeding that of the previous eruptive episode, consistent with a trend of progressively increasing tremor that began with episode 4. High tremor occurred throughout vigorous episode 10 lava emission.

"After initially high activity, the fountains became erratic, changing rapidly in height from a few tens of meters to a maximum of about 250 m. At times, 3-4 distinct fountains were observed within the crater; sometimes high jetting fountains and a relatively low dome fountain played simultaneously from different parts of the lava pond surface.

"On 5-6 October, a thick slow-moving aa flow advanced 3.7 km ESE from Pu'u O, and rapidly moving pahoehoe formed superimposed sheets over an elongated area that extended about 2 km from the vent. By 7 October, the aa flow had stagnated, and the pahoehoe issuing to the NE had become confined to a channel in which a vigorously flowing lava river supplied a flow of pahoehoe and aa that eventually extended 4 km NE (figure 21).

Figure 21. Lava flows and vent deposits of Kilauea episodes 11 and 12. Courtesy of HVO.

"Eruptive activity waned between about 1630 and 1700 on 7 October; harmonic tremor amplitude decreased rapidly at about 1650, and, after 1700, assumed the low level typical of repose-period activity. Such low-level tremor continued in the E rift zone for the remainder of October.

"As in the previous several episodes, episodes 10 basalt is characterized by the occurrence of scattered small olivine phenocrysts. Lava temperatures measured by thermocouple ranged from 1134° to 1142°C; the latter is the highest lava temperature measured since the beginning of eruptive activity on 3 January.

"Episode 10 produced nearly 14 x 106 m3 of lava for a total erupted volume since 3 January of approximately 120 x 106 m3 distributed over about 23 x 106 m2 of the rift zone. At the end of episode 10, Pu'u O was approximately 600 m in diameter and 80 m high. A chaotic jumble of disrupted blocks of agglutinated spatter covered the crater floor and the spillway through which the NE flow exited. The blocks, which were apparently transported as the last lava drained back into the eruptive conduit, choked the central conduit, which had stood open after episode 9. Oxidized fume issued from the margins of the crater floor and from the nearby parts of the interior walls of the crater but not from the rubble-covered floor.

"During episode 10, summit subsidence was recorded by nearly 19 µrad of ESE tilt change at the Uwekahuna vault on the NW rim of the caldera. This corresponds to a summit volume decrease of about 7.5 x 106 m3, bringing the total deflationary volume loss since January to about 130 x 106 m3. Summit inflation from the end of episode 10 to the end of October was sufficient for the Uwekahuna tiltmeter to more than recover the deflationary tilt change of episode 10."

Addendum: Episode 11 began with an increase in harmonic tremor amplitude at 2314 on 5 November and the onset of eruptive activity around midnight. Summit deflation began at about 0200 on 6 November. An overflight at 0730 revealed a discontinuous line of fountains up to 40 m high extending approximately 200 m up and down rift from the spatter cone (Pu'u O) active in previous eruptive episodes. Vents high on the W flank of the spatter cone fed 2 lava flows which that 4 and 1.5 km S before activity ceased there late on 6 November. The main vent, on the E summit and flank of the spatter cone, produced lava fountains 10-40 m high and fed the main lava flow that extended 8 km NE [it reached 9.5 km length; 8:11]. At 1840 on 7 November, the amplitude of harmonic tremor decreased sharply; lava fountaining from the main vent ceased later on 7 November, and inflation of the summit region resumed.

Information Contacts: E. Wolfe, A. Okamura, and R. Koyanagi, HVO.

11/1983 (SEAN 08:11) 11th and 12 major phases of East Rift Zone eruption

"The 11th and 12th eruptive episodes occurred on 6-7 November and 29 November-1 December. As in episodes 4-10, the growing spatter cone, Pu'u O, located just within Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, was the major eruptive locus.

EPISODE 11

"Unlike most of the previous eruptive episodes at Pu'u O, when vigorous lava production was preceded by several hours to several days of low-level activity within the crater, episode 11 began quickly. Harmonic tremor in the eruptive zone began to increase above normal repose-period background levels at 2314 on 5 November and reached a maximum amplitude at 0025 on 6 November. An electric trip wire, installed within the crater of Pu'u O to monitor the first appearance of lava, was broken between 2350 on 5 November, and 0000 on 6 November. By 0010, glow from the eruption was visible 20 km away at HVO. Between midnight and dawn on 6 November, low fountains were seen from Mountain View, 18 km to the N and from Kalapana, on the coast 14 km to the SE.

"When the first observers arrived at 0730, discontinuous low fountains played along a 700-m line approximately centered on Pu'u O. All of the fountains were relatively low. Those NE and SW of Pu'u O were about 10-20 m high. The most voluminous fountains rose about 40 m from the surface of a pond within the crater at Pu'u O; throughout the eruption they were barely visible above the 80 m-high crater rim.

"Pu'u O was the major locus of lava production. As in episodes 6-10, its lava pond overflowed through a breach in the NE crater wall, forming a vigorous lava river that eventually extended about 6 km before turning from pahoehoe to aa. By the end of episode 11, the river had fed a 9.5 km-long aa flow, the longest in the 1983 eruption, that advanced NE on top of earlier flows from Pu'u O, then extended an additional 4 km through dense rain forest. Vents 100-200 m SW of Pu'u O, in combination with a vent high on the W flank of the cone, produced pahoehoe flows that spread an estimated 1.2 x 106 m3 of new basalt W and S of Pu'u O until the early morning of 7 November, when the W vents stopped erupting.

"During the 43 hours of eruption, approximately 12.1 x 106 m3 of lava was extruded, 85% in the long flow to the NE. In hand-lens view, the basalt is sparsely porphyritic with scattered olivine phenocrysts up to about 2 mm in diameter. Lava temperatures, measured by thermocouple in pahoehoe toes in flows from the W vents and in sustained overflows from the lava river, ranged from 1,141 to 1,144°C. Lower temperatures, 1,133-1,135°C, were measured at the river's edge.

"Harmonic tremor amplitude, sustained during the eruption at a level comparable to that of recent previous episodes, dropped rapidly between 1840 and 1850 on 7 November, at the end of the eruption.

"Summit subsidence began at about 0200 on 6 November, approximately 2 hours after the onset of eruption, and continued until about half an hour after the eruption's end on 7 November. The deflationary tilt change of about 19 µrad at Uwekahuna corresponds with a summit volume loss of about 8 x 106 m3.

16 November earthquake - repose period activity. "At 061301 on 16 November, a magnitude 6.7 earthquake occurred in the Kaoiki region (figure 22) between Mauna Loa and Kilauea, an area of persistently high seismicity. Several tens of earthquakes are commonly recorded daily by nearby seismic stations of HVO's 48-station island-wide network. Over the past 3 decades, about 35 earthquakes of magnitude >= 4 have occurred in the Kaoiki region, two of the largest on 27 June 1962 (M 6.1), and on 30 November 1974 (M 5.5). The 16 November 1983 earthquake was highest in magnitude, ground breakage, and structural damage. Ground breakage related to shaking and gravitational adjustments on 16 November occurred along Kaoiki fault scarps and along Kilauea caldera faults. Landslides and rockfalls occurred on the steep caldera and crater walls, and on the (Hilina) escarpments on Kilauea's S flank. A 4.7 km-long zone of E-W-trending tension fissures has been identified as the possible main surface rupture. A N50°E line from the epicenter of the main shock intersects the fissure zone 5 km to the N. The fissure zone, approximately 50-100 m wide, is recognized as a series of en echelon offsets to the left. Thus far, 15-20 cm of southward extension has been measured on some E-W-trending extension cracks.

Figure 22. Location of the M 6.7 Kaoiki earthquake and the initial 10 hours of aftershocks. Local seismic data indicate strike-slip faulting with an E-W orientation of the pressure axis, and a N-S orientation of the tension axis. Darkened circles represent seismic stations that continuously telemeter signals to HVO.

"The earthquake was 12 km deep, and a preliminary first motion analysis from local seismic data indicates a strike-slip mechanism. The faulting was a probable result of compressional stresses within the crust induced by magmatic activity generating lateral tensions from Mauna Loa and Kilauea. The NE-trending nodal plane with a right lateral strike-slip motion is preferred on the basis of aftershock distribution of past events.

"In 8 days following the main shock, more than 9,000 earthquakes have been detected on stations a few kilometers from the aftershock zone. Over 800 of these, ranging in magnitude from about 1.0-4.3, were selected for processing by computer for location and magnitude. About 50 aftershocks were greater than magnitude 3.0, and 3 were over magnitude 4.0. Preliminary determinations of hypocenters during the initial 10 hours of aftershock activity indicate an epicentral zone about 20 km in diameter centered between the summit areas of Mauna Loa and Kilauea. Focal depths are concentrated at about 10 km.

"Between episodes 11 and 12, low-level harmonic tremor typical of repose periods persisted in the eruption zone. Copious hot oxidized fume issued continuously from Pu'u O, maintaining incandescence in numerous openings. Neither the tremor nor the fume production changed recognizably in response to the 16 November earthquake. The earthquake, however, produced a major perturbation in the record of Kilauea summit tilt (figure 23).

Figure 23. Kilauea summit tilt, periods of lava production, and amplitude of harmonic tremor for phases 1-12.

EPISODE 12

"Episode 12 began in earnest at 0447 on 30 November, and continued until 1545 on 1 December. Lava flows to the N, NE, and E originated from Pu'u O, where low fountains played on the S and N rims of the cone and within the breach on its NE flank. The main flow issued through the NE breach, which has been the principal spillway since late July. Advancing 8 km during the eruption, the front covered 1977 lavas S of the main episode 11 flow. Less voluminous flows issued from the S part of the vent and advanced about half the distance to the Royal Gardens subdivision.

"Lava apparently first reached the surface within the crater of Pu'u O at 1600 on 29 November, when an electric trip wire within the crater was cut. Faint glow in the eruptive zone was first reported at 2300. Intermittent low-level tremor near Pu'u O started to increase gradually at about that time (2300). The increase accelerated in the next few hours, and at 0447 on 30 November, a sharp increase was recorded, apparently marking the start of major lava emission. Visible fountains and audible roar from the vent were first reported at about 0450. Tremor peaked between 0530 and 0730 on 30 November with an amplitude more than an order of magnitude above background level. Tremor started to decrease rapidly at about 1545 on 1 December, marking the end of the eruptive episode. As of 5 December, the level of harmonic tremor in the E rift zone was very low but frequent microearthquakes were associated with near-surface activity at the vent."

Information Contacts: E. Wolfe, A. Okamura, and R. Koyanagi, HVO.

12/1983 (SEAN 08:12) Episode 12 described; tremor and inflation continue; new ground cracks

The 12th major episode ended on 1 December after 35 hours of sustained lava production. Approximately 8.1 x 106 m3 of lava was erupted, making episode 12 the second smallest of 1983, and bringing the total volume of lava erupted to about 140 x 106 m3.

"Residents of Hilo (about 35 km NNE of the vent) first sighted visible fountains at about 0450 on 30 November, suggesting that fountains may have been higher during the early morning hours of 30 November than during the remainder of the eruption. When an HVO crew reached the vent at 0830, multiple low (10-60 m-high) fountains were playing within the crater of Pu`u O as well as on its N and S rims and in the breach in its NE rim. These changed little throughout the rest of episode 12. However, beginning shortly after midnight on 1 December, a vent just inside the N rim of Pu'u O produced a 50-m-high steam jet that distributed tephra about 1 km W and SW. The steam jet persisted until the end of episode 12 and was the first of its kind observed on Kilauea in 1983.

"A vigorous flow was fed by a lava river that issued steadily through the eruption from a major breach of the cone's NE flank, the dominant exit from the crater since the beginning of episode 6. Like the major flows of episodes 6-11, the main episode-12 flow advanced 2.5 km NE, then turned ENE along the S edge of episode 6-11 lavas, veered directly E, and eventually halted on top of 1977 lava 8.2 km from the vent. Smaller flows comprising about 1/3 of the erupted volume extended N, S, and ESE of the cone (figure 22).

"As the eruption stopped abruptly at 1545 on 1 December, harmonic tremor amplitude decreased (figure 23). For the remainder of December, low harmonic tremor and shallow microearthquake activity persisted in the vicinity of Pu'u O. In early January, the interior of Pu'u O was a complex of craters separated by low septa. The cone was gradually cooling; incandescence that was conspicuous in numerous cracks and holes immediately after episode 12 had almost completely disappeared. A small amount of oxidized fume issued from the cone.

"As in previous recent episodes, hand samples of episode 12 are slightly porphyritic with scattered small olivine phenocrysts. Temperatures measured in actively advancing pahoehoe sheets near the vent ranged from 1,135° to at least 1,141°C.

"Minor summit subsidence as recorded by the Uwekahuna tiltmeter (figure 23) began at 0200 on 30 November; vigorous subsidence began at about 0700, approximately 2 hours after the onset of vigorous effusion at the vent. Summit deflation continued until about 1900 on 1 December. Total subsidence, measured E-W, was 13.9 µrad, suggesting a summit volume loss of about 6 x 106 m3. By the end of December the E-W tiltmeter at Uwekahuna showed a net recovery of approximately 12 µrad, including a small deflationary episode, late in the month.

"A 2-km-long zone of new steaming cracks parallel to the axis of the E rift was first observed on 17 December in the rain forest 7 km NE of Pu'u O. Ground observation suggested that at least 1 m of very recent extension perpendicular to the rift had occurred in the zone. The new cracks disappeared at their uprift end under episode 12 lava 1 km NE of Pu'u Kiai, and the evidence suggests that the lava flow may have been broken locally by propagation of the cracks. However, the lava was also emplaced against fresh fault scarps that apparently had not moved subsequently. The cracks were within a narrow (approximately 25-m-wide) graben that has apparently been the locus of such extensional movements since prehistoric time. The zone of cracking was approximately on strike with the January 1983 eruptive fissure, but it was entirely downrift of the shallow earthquake swarm that recorded emplacement of the January 1983 eruptive dike."

Tom Casadevall and Barry Stokes made airborne measurements of SO2 and CO2 with a COSPEC and a Moran Infrared Spectrometer. On 2 December, about 16 hours after the end of episode 12 lava production, SO2 was being emitted at about 260 t/d from Pu`u O. On 9 December, the rate of SO2 emission had dropped to 20 t/d. On both days, CO2 production was below the 800-1,000 t/d detection limit. Successive traverses through the plume in the south half of the summit crater yielded values of 3,600 t/d of CO2 and 300 ± 30 t/d SO2 on 9 December.

Information Contacts: E. Wolfe, A. Okamura,R. Koyanagi, T. Neal, and B. Stokes, HVO; T. Casadevall, USGS CVO, Vancouver WA.

01/1984 (SEAN 09:01) 13th-15th major episodes of East Rift Zone eruption include lava fountains to 300 m and temperatures to 1,147°C

"Kilauea's episodic E rift zone eruption resumed in late January after 7 weeks of repose characterized by a desultory pattern of summit inflation, vanishingly weak harmonic tremor, and the virtual disappearance of magmatic gas at the vent. Episode 13 occurred 20-22 January, and episode 14 on 30-31 January. As in episodes 4-12, the eruptive vent for episodes 13 and 14 was at Pu'u O (figure 24).

Figure 24. Kilauea lava flows from episodes 13, 14, and 15. Courtesy of HVO.

EPISODE 13

"Episode 12, which ended on 1 December 1983, left a complex of craters separated by low septa in the interior of Pu'u O. The largest and most central of the craters narrowed downward into a nearly vertical pipe about 20 m in diameter and at least 90 m long.

"On 20 January, harmonic tremor in the eruption zone increased gradually beginning at about 1030, and at 1117 HVO personnel first sighted moving lava about 50 m down in the pipe; by mid-afternoon the lava column could be seen slowly rising within the pipe. At 1724, the lava, which had by then filled the pipe and spread across the 30-40 m-wide floor of the crater, began to flow through the deep breach in the crater's NE rim. Supplied at a rate of approximately 10,000 m3/hour (an order of magnitude less than normal minimum rates for vigorous eruption at Pu'u O), the lava began advancing NE in the channel evacuated at the end of episode 12. By this time, tremor amplitude had increased tenfold.

"As the lava rising within Pu'u O approached and overflowed the spillway, the lava surface, from which a low dome fountain repeatedly rose and fell, was agitated, resembling a rolling boil in a saucepan. Over the next few hours, the vigor of lava emission and fountain activity gradually increased, accompanied by increasingly intense harmonic tremor.

"Unlike some of the recent previous episodes, in which a complex of fountains formed within Pu'u O as well as on its rim and flanks, episode 13 developed a single fountain over the large central conduit. The production of lava, normally steady in previous episodes, pulsed strongly. At intervals on the order of 0.5-1 minute the flux of lava in the channel and the height of the fountain waxed and waned. Hence, the fountain alternated rapidly from about the height of the crater rim (30-40 m above the pond surface within the crater) to as much as 40 or 50 m above the crater rim. The repeated increases in discharge of lava caused surges that advanced at about 10 m/s down the first 100 m or so of the lava channel.

"Episode 13 effusion stopped temporarily on 22 January at about 0030. During this first 31-hour period the lava river debouching from Pu'u O fed a 7 km-long flow that advanced NE. It split into 2 lobes (at Pu'u Kahauale'a) that rejoined farther NE. Continuous eruptive activity resumed at about 0530; it was preceded by an hour of intermittent, low fountain activity. The fountain was visible above the rim of Pu'u O by 0550, and effusion accompanied by renewed intense harmonic tremor continued until the eruptive activity waned sporadically from 1115 to its termination at 1123. This 6-hour period produced a second flow that advanced directly on top of the first; it followed the fork N of Pu'u Kahauale'a and stopped about 3 km NE of Pu'u O. The two effusive periods each terminated with [discontinuous] lava emission such that the fountain disappeared and reappeared repeatedly for a period of several minutes. Simultaneously, harmonic tremor decayed with marked alternations in amplitude.

Repose-period activity. "After episode 13, the interior of Pu'u O was a single bowl-like crater with a narrowing conduit, about 25 m wide at its mouth, extending downward from the crater floor. Throughout the entire repose period between episodes 13 and 14, the surface of a lava column was visible at depths of 0-25 m in the conduit. Sometimes fresh to barely crusted lava was exposed at the pond surface; at other times the pond surface was a solid frozen crust through which a small (0.5-3 m) orifice accommodated intermittent venting of magmatic gas, spatter, and small flows. At times, emission of spatter and gas through the small vent in the crust or alternating rise and fall of the fluid pond surface through a vertical interval of 10-15 m became strongly rhythmic with cycles about 4-6 minutes long. The activity closely resembled the gas-piston activity noted in Mauna Ulu lava ponds (1969-1974). In a typical cycle at Pu'u O, the pond surface appeared deep in the conduit and slowly rose for about 4 minutes. It remained poised momentarily, became agitated, and the lava then drained rapidly out of sight in about 1/2 minute. Draining was accompanied by emission of a plume of magmatic gas and a brief increase in tremor amplitude. After 1.5 minutes, lava would reappear deep in the conduit. When last visited in the early afternoon of 30 January, the lava pond had filled the steep-walled conduit and had begun to spread across the more gently sloping floor of the crater. About 30 m in diameter, the pond surface was about 5 m below the low point in the breach of the crater's NE rim. The surface was solid, and gas under pressure along with minor spatter issued intermittently with a deafening roar from a 0.5 m-diameter vent in the crust. Gas samples from this vent showed that there had been no change in gas composition during more than a year of eruptive activity.

EPISODE 14

"At about 1030 on 30 January, the amplitude of harmonic tremor began a gradual and persistent increase that reached a high level by about 1830, when glow and visible fountains of episode 14 were first reported. Observations from a vantage point in the upper E rift zone as well as from the S coast of Kilauea indicate that in the evening hours the sustained height of the fountain at Pu'u O was 150-200 m above the rim of the cone, and bursts of spatter were rising as high as 300 m. By morning, when observers arrived at the vent, the single fountain, again centered over the large central conduit, was lower; through the remainder of episode 14 the fountain height fluctuated at intervals of 10-20 seconds from low (commonly 10-20 m above the rim of the cone) to high levels (up to about 80-100 m above the rim of the cone). The high bursts produced tephra plumes and short-lived spatter-fed flows on the flanks of Pu'u O.

"Flows to the N and E (figure 24) were fed by distributary channels branching from the lava river that poured through the breached NE crater rim. The longest flow extended about 4 km from the vent. It turned SE and extended about halfway to Royal Gardens subdivision. A thick aa flow, fed entirely by spatter that cascaded over the S rim of the cone, advanced about 1.5 km S.

"Between 1315 and 1318 on 31 January lava emission declined, once again in spasmodic fits and starts. Harmonic tremor also decreased rapidly beginning at 1315, marking the eruption's end. In early February, the level of tremor, like that between episodes 13 and 14, was considerably higher than the background level during many of the previous repose periods.

"Following episode 14, the crater of Pu'u O was again a broad, steep-walled bowl from which a 20 m-diameter conduit extended nearly vertically downward. A 30-40 m-deep cleft in the NE crater rim marked the breach through which lava exited the crater.

Petrology. "Basalt of episodes 13 and 14 is sparsely porphyritic with scattered small olivine phenocrysts visible in hand-lens view. Lava temperatures measured by thermocouple were 1,129-1,131°C in the first few hours of episode 13. Subsequent episode 13 temperatures were 1,140-1,147°C, and include the highest temperature measured so far in this series of eruptions. During episode 14, temperatures, measured only at the edges of the widespread pahoehoe flow N of Pu'u O, were 1,136-1,137°C.

Deformation. Rapid summit subsidence, as recorded by the Uwekahuna tiltmeter, began at 2100 on 20 January and again at 1930 on 30 January-in each case a short time after vigorous eruption was under way. Resumption of inflationary tilt followed the end of each eruption by several hours. E-W deflationary changes measured at Uwekahuna were 11 µrad for episode 13 and 10 µrad for episode 14. This suggests that a minimum of 8 x 106 m3 of magma was withdrawn from the summit reservoir system during episodes 13 and 14."

Addendum: Episode 15 began at about 1945 on 14 February with a sharp increase in harmonic tremor. Summit deflation began about 2 hours later. During the evening, lava fountains rose as high as 300 m from the previously active vent at Pu'u O. Vigorous lava fountaining continued the next morning and lava flowed E and NE from Pu'u O. Eruptive activity ceased at about 1500 on 15 February.

Information Contacts: E. Wolfe, A. Okamura, R. Koyanagi, T. Duggan, R. Okamura, HVO.

02/1984 (SEAN 09:02) 15th and 16th major episodes; lava fountains to 320 m; large tephra fall

The following report was received before the start of the 16th episode (see addendum).

EPISODE 15

"The 15th major episode of Kilauea's protracted series of middle E rift zone eruptions occurred on 14-15 February. As in recent previous eruptive episodes, the vent was at Pu'u O (figure 24).

"Following episode 14, the more gently sloping floor of Pu'u O steepened downward near the crater's center to a nearly vertical 20-m-diameter conduit. Lava was not visible in the conduit on 1 February but was seen during aerial reconnaissance on 3 and 5 February. On 7 February, the partly crusted surface of a magma column in the conduit was 45 m below the crest of the spillway through the crater's breached NE rim. The column rose steadily at a rate of 4-5 m/day. On the morning of 13 February its upper surface was an actively roiled lava pond 18 m below the spillway. By the next morning, the lava column had risen enough for a 100-m flow to have spilled through the breach, after which it subsided to a level about 10-20 m below the spillway. A vigorous 19-hour eruption began during the evening of 14 February.

"Time-lapse film shows that steady low fountain activity within the crater began at about 1940 on 14 February. By 2000, the fountain height began to increase dramatically, and a vigorous lava flow issued NE through the breach. The fountain reached a maximum height of about 320 m at approximately 2100. It remained high for about 6 more hours and was easily visible from the coast S of Royal Gardens. The high fountain produced a thick tephra blanket on the SW side of the vent, and heavy tephra fall was reported by campers on the uprift side of Napau, about 5 km from the vent. The fountain height declined abruptly (by approximately 50%) at about 0330 on 15 February.

"When HVO observers arrived at about 0700 on 15 February, the fountain typically rose about 100 m above the rim of the cone. However, pulsations in its height ranged 20-200 m above the rim. The major lava flow, debouching through the long-lived breach in the crater's NE rim, extended 2 km to the NE. A stagnating aa flow, which had apparently been fed during the night by spatter falling over the S rim of Pu'u O during the more vigorous fountain activity, extended E about 3 km.

"By the end of episode 15 at 1501 on 15 February, the main flow had extended about 5 km NE along the NW edge of flows erupted July-December 1983. Approximately 8 x 106 m3 of new basalt was extruded; the total volume emplaced at the surface since the beginning of January 1983 is about 165 x 106 m3. As in recent previous episodes, the basalt is slightly porphyritic with scattered olivine phenocrysts of about 1 mm size. Lava temperatures measured by thermocouple (in thin pahoehoe overflows from the lava river that supplied the NE flow) were 1,136-1,140°C.

"Steady, low harmonic tremor originating in the vent area was continuous after the end of episode 14. A slight increase in tremor amplitude related to the onset of episode 15 occurred from about 1939 to 1945 on 14 February. After a 1-minute decrease, increase in tremor amplitude resumed at 1946. The amplitude increased rapidly to the maxima reached in previous eruptive episodes, and high tremor continued until the end of eruptive activity. After episode 15, low harmonic tremor continued steadily through the remainder of the month.

"Approximately 7 µrad of inflationary E-W tilt change was recorded in the NW part of Kilauea's summit region between the end of episode 14 and the onset of episode 15. Deflationary tilt change of 11 µrad, related to the extrusive activity, was recorded from 2030 on 14 February to 2100 on 15 February. Summit reinflation (of nearly 10 µrad) continued from 15 February through the end of the month.

"The morphology of Pu'u O's crater and vertical conduit was essentially unchanged by episode 15 eruptive activity. A partly crusted lava surface deep within the conduit was sighted from the air on 22 February. It was not visible again until 28 February, when it had risen to about 30 m below the surface of the spillway.

"Unlike many of the earlier repose periods, during which magmatic gases at the vent were highly oxidized or so dilute as to be practically undetectable, the repose periods preceding and following episode 15 have been characterized by the continuous emission of fresh, reduced, SO2-rich magmatic gas. This may reflect the uninterrupted exposure of the active top of the magma column within the conduit (no plug of rubble or solidified lava above the column). Repose-period flux rates of such reduced gas are less than 1% of eruption-related flux rates."

Addendum: Episode 16 began at approximately 1500 on 3 March and ended at about 2230 on 4 March. Lava fountains rose as high as 200 m above the top of Pu'u O and produced a large amount of tephra. The main lava flow, fed by a vigorous pahoehoe river, extended 8 km ESE, reaching the NE corner of Royal Gardens subdivision atop episode 2 lava. Spatter-fed lava flows extended W and N of the vent.

Information Contacts: E. Wolfe, A. Okamura, and R. Koyanagi, HVO.

03/1984 (SEAN 09:03) Episodes 16 and 17 include strong fountaining, tephra, and the longest flow of the 1983-84 eruption

"The 16th and 17th major episodes of the eruption occurred 3-4 and 30-31 March. Pu'u O was the eruptive locus for both episodes. Simultaneous eruptions on 30 March at Mauna Loa, Mt. St. Helens, Veniaminof, and Kilauea make this the first date known on which four U.S. volcanoes were erupting at the same time.

"Beginning on 28 February, lava was visible continuously within the upper 30 m of the vertical 20 m-diameter pipe that extended downward from the bowl-like crater within Pu'u O. Sometimes completely open and sometimes partly crusted, the surface of the magma column rose slowly over the next 4 days to the level of the spillway in the deep breach in the NE rim of Pu'u O. Minor amounts of spatter and small volumes of SO2-rich gas issued from the lava surface.

EPISODE 16

"Time-lapse camera data indicate that the lava ponded within Pu'u O first overflowed the spillway on 3 March at about 1450. The vigor of fountain activity increased from that time, and the fountain became visible above the rim of Pu'u O at about 1520. By 1700, when HVO personnel arrived, the fountain rose 200-250 m above the lava pond (the crater rim was about 40 m above the pond). Glowing tephra was at times wafted to twice the height of the fountain by convective air currents rising over the cone. Erratic winds distributed tephra on all sides of the vent and at times during the night, intense tephra falls, including incandescent bombs up to 20 cm in diameter, rained on observers 750 m uprift of the vent. At about 0400 on 4 March, fountain activity diminished greatly and became sporadic. During the remainder of the eruption the fountain played to heights ranging from about 20-150 m above the pond.

"The intense fountain activity produced a thick spatter-fed aa flow that advanced about 1 km N; smaller spatter-fed flows extended E, SE, and W. The major flow, dominantly aa, was fed by a vigorous lava river debouching through the breach in the NE rim of Pu'u O at an average of about 0.25 x 106 m3/hour. It advanced E and ESE, mostly on top of flows from earlier episodes. Approximately 6.4 km from the vent, it split into 2 lobes, the longer of which extended another 1.6 km SE across the NE corner of Royal Gardens subdivision. This lobe, however, was contained within the evacuated channel of the episode 2 flow that invaded the subdivision in March 1983, and caused no new damage. After a momentary pause at 2228, the eruption stopped abruptly at 2231 on 4 March. Occasional small bursts of spatter issued from the vent over the next 10 or 15 minutes.

"Basalt produced during episode 16, as in previous episodes, is sparsely porphyritic. In hand specimen, scattered, small (millimeter-size) olivine phenocrysts are visible. Lava temperatures, measured by thermocouple, were 1,139-1,142°C in pahoehoe within 1.5 km of the vent and 1,135-1,138°C at the advancing distal end of the main flow in aa and local breakouts of viscous pahoehoe.

"The volume of lava erupted during episode 16 was approximately 12 x 106 m3. The corresponding summit collapse caused almost 15 µrad of deflationary tilt change at Uwekahuna. As in previous episodes, the beginning and end of measurable summit deflation lagged slightly behind the onset and termination of lava production at the vent.

"Harmonic tremor associated with episode 16 began to increase gradually in amplitude on 3 March at 1435, and rapid increase began at 1504. Sustained, high-level tremor continued in the eruption area until 4 March at 2229 when the intensity began to pulsate and gradually decrease. Rapid decrease in tremor amplitude began at 2231, coincident with the end of lava production.

Repose-period activity. "The repose period between episodes 16 and 17 was marked by an unusually gradual reinflation of the summit, slightly over 9 µrad of inflationary tilt change in 3½ weeks. The upper surface of the gradually rising magma column was first seen at the vent on 20 March, when it was approximately 50 m deep inside the pipe that extends downward from the crater floor, and 60 m below the spillway through the NE crater rim. Intermittent observations showed that the column rose slowly until the onset of vigorous lava production on 30 March.

EPISODE 17

"Harmonic tremor related to episode 17 began to increase 30 March at 0510, and glow from the eruptive area was visible from Kilauea's summit at 0515. A photographer camped near the vent reported seeing a low dome fountain in the crater and a short NE-moving lava flow at about 0520-0530. He estimated that the flow was about 0.5 km long by 0545, and that by about 0610 the fountain top was at the level of the rim of Pu'u O (about 40 m above the surface of the overflowing lava pond).

"HVO personnel arrived at about 1000. From then on, they observed the fountain playing in a rapidly pulsating fashion (up to 20 pulses per minute); the fountain height ranged about 40-160 m above the surface of the lava pond. A narrow lava flow, fed by a voluminous lava river discharging through the breach in the NE crater rim, was more than 1.5 km long at 1000. It extended ENE (to the spatter/cinder cone south of Pu'u Kahaualea) then, following the episode 16 flow, turned ESE. During the day the flow continued advancing ESE on top of the episode 16 flow at 0.5 km/hour. During the night it followed the northern episode 16 lobe N of Royal Gardens. Near the terminus of that episode 16 lobe, the episode 17 flow turned SE and followed a gully parallel to and 1 km NE of the subdivision's E boundary. When seen the next morning, 3.5 hours after the eruption's end, the still-advancing aa flow front was about 3 km from the ocean. A preliminary estimate suggests that this flow is more than 10 km long, the longest of the 1983-84 eruptive series. Episode 17 stopped on 31 March at 0324. The sustained high-amplitude tremor characteristic of Pu'u O eruptions began to diminish in intensity at 0316 and by 0324, when lava production stopped, the tremor amplitude had nearly reached the repose-period background level.

"The episode 17 basalt, like the episode 16 basalt, is slightly porphyritic with scattered millimeter-size olivine phenocrysts. However, thermocouple temperatures measured in overflows at the edge of the lava river range from 1,131 to 1,137°C, distinctly lower than the episode 16 temperatures.

"Measurable summit deflation began about 2.5 hours after the onset of lava production and ended nearly 4 hours after the termination of lava production. Deflationary tilt change at Uwekahuna was about 10 µrad. A preliminary guess is that the volume of episode 17 lava is significantly 1ess than the episode 16 volume."

Information Contacts: E. Wolfe, A. Okamura, R. Koyanagi, HVO.

04/1984 (SEAN 09:04) 18th episode; four lava flows, longest flow of 1983-84 eruption

"After 19 days of repose, the eruption resumed at Pu'u O at approximately 1800 on 18 April. Following nearly 60 hours of continuous lava emission, vigorous lava production stopped at 0533 on 21 April. Episode 18 was the longest eruptive episode of 1984 on Kilauea, and undoubtedly was one of the more voluminous of the 1983-84 series. About 200 x 106 m3 of basalt has been produced since the eruption began on 3 January 1983.

EPISODE 18

Eruption narrative. "After episode 17 ended on 31 March, the crater of Pu'u O was again a steep-walled, nearly flat-floored bowl about 50 m deep and 120 m across at the crater rim. As before, a nearly vertical 20-m-diameter pipe descended from near the center of the crater floor. Visibility down the pipe was obscured by fume in the days immediately following episode 17; exposed lava was first seen tens of meters down the pipe on 5 April. The lava surface, largely crusted much of the time, rose higher in the pipe over the following days; on 17 April, when last observed prior to episode 18, the crusted lava surface was less than 10 m below the top of the pipe.

"A time-lapse camera set at a 1-minute interval recorded the first low fountain activity within Pu'u O at 1751 on 18 April. At about 1800, lava was first recorded passing through the deep breach in the crater's NE rim. Intensity of activity increased, and by approximately 1900 the fountain crest was about 40 m above the surface of the lava pond within Pu'u O. Bad weather obscured visibility through much of the night, but frames exposed during brief clear periods suggest that the fountain was variable and at times was at least 200 m high. During the night, 10-20 cm of lapilli were deposited near Pu'u Kamoamoa (less than 1 km W of the vent), and Pele's hair fell at HVO, 20 km W of the vent. In the early morning the fountain height decreased, and for the rest of the eruption it was about 40-80 m above the pond. Major fountain activity and lava production stopped at 0533 on 21 April; emission of minor spatter continued for another hour.

"Episode 18 produced four major aa flows (figure 25), all fed by distributaries of the lava river that debouched vigorously and steadily through the breach in the NE crater wall. Three flows were active when the first observers arrived at 0700 on 19 April. Flows A and B were receiving the bulk of the lava, and their active fronts were 3 and 4 km from the vent. A small flow (C), extending SE along the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park boundary, was about 1.5 km long.

Figure 25. Kilauea lava flow from episodes 17 and 18. Courtesy of HVO.

"By 1800 on 19 April, flow A, 5 km long, had stopped, its supply cut off. Most of the lava was being channeled into flow B, which had become the main flow. It was about 8 km long and had advanced at an average rate of more than 300 m/hour to a point N of Royal Gardens subdivision. Flow C, along the park boundary, was about 3 km long and advancing slowly.

"During the night of 19-20 April, the rate of advance of the main flow (B) decreased, although the supply from the vent was apparently steady. By 0730 on 20 April, the flow front was advancing through the rain forest at the E edge of the episode 17 flow; the terminus was about 10 km from the vent. Flow C had advanced to about 4.5 km from the vent, and its distal end had stagnated. The relatively small volume of lava supplied to this flow over the next several hours ponded and spread laterally about 1.5 km SE of the vent.

"At 1730 on 20 April, when the day's last aerial reconnaissance was made, the main flow had extended nearly 14 km from the vent and was threatening three houses at the end of a road E of Royal Gardens. Supply to the flow along the park boundary had been completely cut off. However, just to the NE, a pahoehoe overflow from the main channel was about 1 km long and was extending SE. This was to become the 4th major flow (D) of episode 18.

"During the night of 20-21 April, the main flow slowly advanced more than 300 m and overran two of the three threatened houses before the eruption stopped at 0533. Creeping slowly after the eruption ended, the flow overran the 3rd house the following afternoon. This is the longest flow of the 18 eruptive episodes, extending more than 14 km to within just over a kilometer from the ocean.

"The 4th flow (D), which had originated as a pahoehoe overflow in the late afternoon of 20 April, apparently captured a greater part of the supply during the night. Advancing at an average rate of between 400 and 500 m/hour, it extended more than 7 km and entered the N part of the Royal Gardens subdivision. Observed in Royal Gardens in the early morning hours, it was thin and fluid, moving more like pahoehoe than like aa.

"The episode 18 basalt is similar to that of other recent episodes in hand-lens view and in lava temperature. Scattered small olivine phenocrysts comprise less than 1% of the rock, which is otherwise aphyric. The maximum temperature measured by thermocouple in pahoehoe was 1,144°C.

"At the eruption's end, debris from the crater walls plugged the opening of the pipe. However, by 23 April the pipe was once again open and vertical, and lava was seen deep (tens of meters) within it. Intermittent sightings of lava deep within the pipe have continued. Exact determinations of the depth to the lava are prevented by fume and by excessively hazardous access to the crater floor.

Seismicity and deformation. "Harmonic tremor, centered near Pu'u O, remained at a low level from 1-18 April. During this time, periods (up to several days long) of constant low amplitude alternated with periods of variable amplitude that fluctuated on a time scale of a few minutes to several hours. Starting from about 0245 on 18 April, 1-2-minute bursts of stronger tremor occurred at intervals of 15-30 minutes. By 1200, these bursts were longer, and eventually the activity became constant. Tremor amplitude increased sharply from 1810. At 1848 the seismic alarm was triggered, and shortly thereafter the tremor had increased to levels comparable to earlier major episodes of the eruption. High tremor was sustained throughout the period of vigorous eruption. At 0535 on 21 April, tremor decreased abruptly, following about 15 minutes of spasmodic decay in amplitude. The seismicity resumed its typical low interphase level characterized by fluctuating weak tremor and tiny shocks, associated with near surface events at Pu'u O. From 0520 to 0545 on 22 April, a flurry of seismic events resembling rockfall signatures, and increased tremor were recorded at Pu'u Kamoamoa seismograph. The episode may record collapse of the rubble that plugged the pipe inside Pu'u O. This burst of activity occurred about 3 hours after 2 S flank earthquakes centered about 10 km SW of Pu'u O: at 0223, magnitude 3.8, depth 10 km; and at 0226, magnitude 3.9, depth 8 km. Harmonic tremor continued at low level near Pu'u O through the remainder of the month.

"Summit subsidence during episode 18, measured in the E-W direction by the Uwekahuna tiltmeter, was between 19 and 20 µrad. This is the largest subsidence since episode 3, 28 March-9 April 1983. Again, onset of summit deflation and resumption of inflation as recorded by the tiltmeter followed slightly behind the beginning and end of lava emission."

Information Contacts: E. Wolfe, A. Okamura, and R. Koyanagi, HVO.

05/1984 (SEAN 09:05) 19th and 20th episodes; gas-piston activity

"A small, relatively low-level eruption at Pu'u O on 16-17 May comprised an effusive episode in the eruption that began on 3 January 1983. Unlike the preceding eruptive episodes, which have been characterized by generally steady, voluminous lava emission and continuous vigorous fountaining, episode 19 was characterized by intermittent low-volume overflows from a lava pond in the crater of Pu'u O and a few brief periods of increased lava emission and high fountaining.

"After episode 18, and continuing through late April and the first half of May, the top of a magma column, partly crusted much of the time, remained tens of meters deep in the 20-m-diameter pipe that descends from the floor of the Pu'u O crater. At times, low-level spattering could be seen within the pipe from passing aircraft.

Episode 19

Eruption narrative. An observer on the ground in the eruption area saw intermittent spatter at Pu'u O beginning shortly after 0200 on 16 May. At about 0500, the first of many small pahoehoe flows of episode 19 (figure 26) spilled through the deep breach in the NE part of the crater rim. The flows typically lasted about 3-30 minutes and carried lava at about 103-105 m3/hour. Intervals ranging from 4 minutes to several hours separated these small effusive events.

Figure 26. Lava flows erupted from Kilauea between 3 January 1983 and 8 June 1984 on the E rift zone. Flows from phases 18-20 are shown separately. Courtesy of HVO.

"During episode 19 an active lava lake was maintained within Pu'u O. At times the lake was confined to the upper part of the pipe; at other times it rose and spread across the crater floor. Flows issued quietly from the crater whenever the pond rose high enough to overflow the breach. A dome fountain played intermittently on the pond surface above the pipe, particularly during times of more rapid lava supply.

"In addition to the numerous, relatively quiet overflows of the pond, there were 4 periods, 1-3 hours long, of high fountaining with more vigorous lava production estimated at 1-2 x 105 m3/hour. A fountain 30-100 m high played on the pond surface during these episodes on 16 May at about 0940-1226, 1510-1608, 1840-2020, and 2355-0125 on 17 May. The first high fountain event was marked by rapid 2- to 3-fold changes, about a minute apart, in fountain height. These were followed within seconds by similar changes in lava discharge through the breach. In addition, this nearly 3-hour episode stopped and restarted 14 times. The pauses ranged in duration from a few seconds to 4 minutes. Vigorous lava emission and high fountaining would stop and start almost instantaneously at those times.

"During the evening of 17 May, the overflows from Pu'u O were smaller and more uniform in duration and spacing than previously. Several observations suggested that regular gas-piston activity had become established. During 3 hours of careful timing, the overflows averaged about 5 minutes in duration and occurred in cycles with an average length of 12 minutes. In each a [brief gas] burst was recognized immediately before the overflow stopped. Vigorous drainback into the pipe at the termination of overflow was seen within the crater in the late afternoon; presumably such drainback events, initiated by gas bursts, terminated each of the evening overflows. In addition, the distinctive bursts of tremor that we have come to associate with the drainback episode of gas-piston events were occurring with the same regularity as the overflows. At about 0030 on 18 May, the tremor bursts diminished in amplitude and became exceedingly regular, suggesting that the overflows probably stopped at that time.

"The repeated overflows from the crater built a relatively smooth apron of dense pahoehoe within a kilometer of the E base of Pu'u O. The higher lava emission associated with the periods of strong fountaining produced narrow, thin flows of pahoehoe and some aa that extended 2-3 km E and SE of the vent. Total estimated volume of new basalt is about 106 m3.

"The lithology and lava temperature resembled those of previous episodes. The basalt is nearly aphyric with scattered small olivine phenocrysts. Temperatures measured by thermocouple in overflows were 1,138-1,141°C.

"Measurements of SO2 flux during episode 19 gave surprising results. Even during the periods of high fountaining, it was comparable to that measured during repose periods when the magma column was visible within the pipe. That value was about two orders of magnitude less than the SO2 flux measured during previous eruptive episodes.

Seismicity and deformation. "After episode 18, harmonic tremor centered at Pu'u O remained low and continuous. Intermittent high tremor was associated with renewed fountaining during episode 19. On 16 May at 0640, background tremor began to increase rapidly, initiating a series of alternating [periods of] high- and low-amplitude tremor episodes at intervals of several minutes to several hours. Periods of relatively high and sustained tremor (0940-1255, 1423-1625, and 1857-2025 on 16 May; and 2351-0135 on 16-17 May) coincided closely with the intermittent high-fountain events seen at Pu'u O. After the high-fountain events, tremor of intermediate amplitude continued at irregular intervals, coincident with overflows at Pu'u O, until 1600 on 17 May.

"Tremor amplitude shown in figure 27 is misleadingly low. Amplitudes during the high-fountain events were comparable to those of previous episodes. However, the events were intermittent and of short duration, and they occurred between the programmed sampling intervals on which the tremor-amplitude plot was based.

Figure 27. Kilauea summit tilt (measured at Uwekahuna), amplitude of harmonic tremor, and periods of lava production for episodes 1-23. Tall bars represent periods of high fountaining and vigorous flow production; short bars represent periods of low-level activity including the visible presence of magma in the conduit. During episode 19, the brief periods of high tremor did not coincide with the programmed sampling intervals.

"The Uwekahuna E-W tiltmeter, above the NW flank of Kilauea's summit reservoir, showed that slow deflation of the summit began at about 1100 on 15 May, 18 hours before the first lava overflowed from the crater. Following a gradual 1.5-µrad deflationary tilt change, the rate of summit deflation increased, after high fountain activity had begun. By 0600 on 17 May, when deflation stopped, an additional 4 µrad of deflationary tilt change had been recorded. Gradual reinflation began at about 1100 on May 17, half a day before the overflows at the vent stopped.

Post-Episode 19 activity. "From 17 May until the end of the month, the tremor pattern was dominated by cyclic low-level tremor. Half-minute bursts of higher amplitude alternated with 8-12-minute intervals at lower amplitude. Repeated observation at the vent showed that the short bursts of higher tremor occurred during the gas burst and the accompanying vigorous drainback in gas-piston events.

"The pattern of periodic half-minute tremor bursts was temporarily interrupted by more continuous intermediate-level tremor from 1020 on 28 May to 2330 on 30 May. Observation at the vent on 29 and 30 May showed that the top of the magma column was open and smoothly boiling at the top of the pipe. Slowly rising and falling over a 2-m range, it occasionally spilled a minor flow onto the flat crater floor. There was no gas-piston activity.

"By 31 May, the top of the magma column was several meters down the pipe, and gas-pistoning had been re-established. Occasionally, the rise of the gas volume through the magma column caused a small pahoehoe flow to well out of the pipe and spread over the nearby part of the nearly flat 100 m-diameter crater floor. When the gas accumulation broke through the magma column surface, a flare of burning hydrogen could be seen during the drainback.

"Just under 2 µrad of deflation were associated with the period of increased harmonic tremor on 28-30 May. As in episode 19, the onset and termination of deflation preceded by several hours the onset and termination of increased tremor."

Addendum: Episode 20 began at approximately 2115 on 7 June and ended at about 0625 on 8 June. Very vigorous lava fountains, visible for a short time from HVO, fed 2 lava flows that extended about 4 km NE of Pu'u O.

Information Contacts: E. Wolfe, A. Okamura, and R. Koyanagi, HVO.

06/1984 (SEAN 09:06) Episodes 20-22; highest lava fountains of 1983-84 eruption

"Two eruptive episodes occurred on the E rift zone in June [and one in early July]. Both produced relatively small volumes of lava (less than 6 x 106 m3 each) and unusually high fountains (in excess of 300 m) seen from HVO for the first time since the eruption began in January 1983. Episode 20 (7-8 June) and episode 21 (30 June) produced lava flows as long as 4.5 km, all on or NW of the E rift zone. Following episode 21, Pu'u O, the steep-sided spatter cone that has been the locus of eruptions for more than a year, stood about 140 m above the pre-1983 surface and was mantled by an extensive blanket of tephra. Between episodes, an active column of magma was visible in an open conduit several tens of meters below the floor of Pu'u O's summit crater. It periodically emitted gas and small particles of spatter in bursts of less than a minute, separated by intervals of 5-12 minutes. This gas-pistoning was reflected in the tremor record from the seismic station near the eruption site.

EPISODE 20

"Low-level repose-period activity preceded Episode 20. The time-lapse film shows that intermittent spatter was visible above the spillway as early as 6 June at 2328 but was confined to the crater; it continued until 0448 on 7 June. For the next 11.5 hours only heavy fume was recorded.

"Episode 20 occurred largely at night, so the record consists primarily of time-lapse photography and the tiltmeter and seismic data described below. At 1911 on 7 June continuous low-level spatter activity commenced and sporadic fountaining began 65 minutes later. Lava first poured over the spillway at 2104, and from 2200 until 0624 on 8 June high fountaining was continuous. Maximum fountain heights were estimated at 300 m, because they were visible above the horizon from HVO. The last fountains recorded on film were at 0627; they were followed by intense fuming that decreased over the next several hours. During the period of vigorous eruption, 4 lava flows moved N and NE of Pu'u O, the longest reaching about 4 km from the vent (figure 13-30).

EPISODE 21

"On 30 June, observers reached the eruption site at 1045, a few minutes after episode 21 lava topped the spillway and just before vigorous fountaining began. A maximum fountain height of approximately 390 m was measured by theodolite at 1115. This high level was maintained for about 4 hours after which fountaining decreased as flow apparently increased down the spillway. Early in the eruption, a fissure vent opened on the SW flank of Pu'u O, producing a line of low fountains and a pahoehoe flow that ponded on the S side of Pu'u Kamoamoa (about 0.5 km to the W). A large lava flow that divided into several tongues extended 3-4.5 km NE of the vent, generally on top of episode 20 flows. A third flow of spatter-fed aa from the N rim of the crater overran a similar episode 20 flow for about 1 km N of Pu'u O. A thin blanket of tephra, including an early deposit of reticulite, was deposited SW of the vent. The eruption ended abruptly at 1827 with a simultaneous termination of fountaining and lava flow at the spillway. Heavy fuming and sporadic burning of hydrogen gas followed the eruption for several hours.

"Approximately 3.7 x 106 m3 of new basalt was produced in episode 20 and a similar amount (mapping still in progress) was produced in episode 21.

EPISODE 22

"At the time of this writing, episode 22 has just ended, having produced 5 additional flows and another tephra blanket during activity that lasted from about 1930 on 8 July to 1017 on the 9th."

Deformation and Seismicity. "The E-W tilt measured at Uwekahuna increased irregularly after the brief episode 19 eruption of 16-17 May. On 7 June at about noon, deflation of the summit region began slowly, increasing to a rapid rate after 2100 when eruptive activity of episode 20 began. Subsidence continued through the eruption and for nearly 10 hours after fountaining activity had ceased. The post-eruptive deflation accounted for 30% of the total tilt change.

"Following episode 20, the return to summit inflation was unusually slow. For the first week, summit tilt increased by less than 2 µrad. During the next 10 days there was a 5-µrad increase in tilt followed by 5 days of little change. On 28 June, slow inflationary tilt resumed for about a day until the summit began to subside slowly. Rapid deflation commenced on 30 June at about 1100, shortly after the start of episode 21 lava production at Pu'u O. Deflation continued through the eruption and for nearly 9 hours afterwards. Post-eruption deflation accounted for nearly 40% of the total tilt change.

"Harmonic tremor at the Kamoamoa seismic station continued at low levels during the repose periods between brief eruptive stages. As in previous episodes, tremor increased to high amplitudes shortly before high fountaining began and returned to background levels when fountaining ended. High tremor of episode 20 began on 7 June at 2120 and ended on 8 June at 0627. Episode 21 tremor began on 30 June at 1028 and ended the same day at 1827. Small bursts of increased tremor during the repose periods coincided with brief intervals of gas-pistoning (09:5). This phenomenon of gas-pistoning (restricted to the vent conduit) has occurred regularly since episode 19. It became erratic several hours prior to the onset of episode 21, coincident with a slight increase in background tremor, and resumed its periodic pattern soon after episodes 20-21 ended.

Gas measurements. "COSPEC measurements of SO2 emissions during the repose period between episodes 20 and 21 averaged 1.4 metric tons per hour, rising to nearly 6 metric tons per hour during gas bursts. Measured SO2 emission during episode 21 was about 1,000 metric tons per hour."

Further Reference. Wolfe, E.W. (ed.), 1988, The Pu`u `O`o Eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Episodes 1-20, January 3, 1983 Through June 8, 1984; USGS Professional Paper 1463, 8 papers.

Information Contacts: G. Ulrich, A. Okamura, andR. Koyanagi, HVO.

07/1984 (SEAN 09:07) Episodes 22-23 of 1983-84 E Rift Zone eruption

"Two eruptive episodes occurred on the E rift zone in July. Episode 22 began about 1930 on 8 July, stopped abruptly at 1017 on the 9th, and produced approximately 7.7 x 106 m3 of basalt (figure 28).

Figure 28. Lava flows erupted at Kilauea between 3 January 1983 and 20 August 1984. Flows from episodes 22-24 are shown separately. Courtesy o