Wapi Lava Field

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 42.88°N
  • 113.22°W

  • 1604 m
    5261 ft

  • 324030
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Wapi Lava Field.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Wapi Lava Field.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Wapi Lava Field.

The Wapi lava field, SE of the Craters of the Moon, covers about 325 sq km, and consists of a low shield volcano formed during an eruption about 2250 years ago that produced about 6 cu km of fluid pahoehoe lava flows. The small King's Bowl rift immediately to the north was also formed at about the same time along a central eruptive fissure flanked by two parallel non-eruptive fissures. This eruption produced a phreatic explosion that created Kings Bowl, an 80-m-long, 30-m-deep explosion crater. Eruptions of the Wapi lava field also overlapped with the last eruptive period of the Craters of the Moon lava field. The vent area lies along the Great Rift of the Craters of the Moon and consists of five major and a half dozen minor vents covering an area of 0.5 sq km. The largest of the vents contains several pit craters that truncate lava lakes that filled the crater. Pillar Butte, a mass of layered lava flows and agglutinates, forms the high point of the lava shield. The Split Butte maar to the west is partially overlapped by flows of the Wapi lava field.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0300 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology Kings Bowl Rift, Wapi Lava Field

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Pillar Butte Shield volcano 1604 m 42° 53' 0" N 113° 13' 0" W

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
King's Bowl Rift Fissure vent 1500 m 42° 56' 0" N 113° 13' 0" W
Split Butte Maar 1410 m 43° 0' 0" N 113° 18' 0" W
Dark lava flows extend from the 6-km-long Kings Bowl Rift SE of Craters of the Moon. These flows were erupted at the same time as the much more massive Wapi lava field flows immediately to the south that covered about 300 sq km, forming a broad, low shield volcano about 2250 years ago. The light-colored area overlying the lava flows at the lower center of the photo is an ash deposit produced by explosions from Kings Bowl crater.

Photo courtesy U.S. Geological Survey.
The dramatic Kings Bowl rift cutting diagonally across the top of the photo produced a small 6-sq-km lava field about 2250 years ago immediately north of the much larger Wapi lava field. Kings Bowl itself is the small elongated crater on the right-center side of the rift in this photo; it formed during a phreatic explosion that deposited lighter-colored tephra to the east (upper right). The massive Wapi lava field, located out of view south (right) of Kings Bowl, covers an area of about 325 sq km and originated from Pillar Butte, a small shield volcano.

Photo by Susan Sakimoto (NASA, courtesy of Scott Hughes, Idaho State University).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Greeley R, King J S (eds), 1977. Volcanism of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: a comparative planetary geology guidebook. NASA (Washington, DC), CR-154621: 1-308.

Green J, Short N M, 1971. Volcanic Landforms and Surface Features: a Photographic Atlas and Glossary. New York: Springer-Verlag, 519 p.

Hughes S S, Smith R P, Hackett W R, Anderson S R, 1999. Mafic volcanism and environmental geology of the eastern Snake River Plain. In: Hughes S S, Thackray G D (eds), {Guidebook to the Geology of eastern Idaho}, Pocatello, Idaho: Idaho Musuem of Nat Hist, p 143-168.

Hughes S S, Smith R P, Hackett W R, McCurry M, Anderson S R, Ferdock G C, 1997. Bimodal magmatism, basaltic volcanic styles, tectonics, and geomorphic processes of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. Brigham Young Univ Geol Studies, 42: 423-458.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Kuntz M A, Champion D E, Lefebvre R H, Covington H R, 1988. Geologic map of the Craters of the Moon, Kings Bowl, and Wapi lava fields and the Great Rift volcanic rift zone, south-central Idaho. U S Geol Surv Misc Invest Ser Map, I:1632, 1:100,000 scale geol map.

Kuntz M A, Champion D E, Spiker E C, Lefebvre R H, McBroome L A, 1982. The Great Rift and the evolution of the Craters of the Moon lava field, Idaho. In: Bonnichsen B, Breckenridge R M (eds), {The Great Rift and the Evolution of the Craters of the Moon Lava Field, Idaho}, Idaho Bur Mines Geol Bull, 26: 423-437.

Kuntz M A, Covington H R, Schorr L J, 1992. An overview of basaltic volcanism of the eastern Snake River Plain. In: Link P K, Kuntz M A, Platt L B (eds), {Regional Geology of Eastern Idaho and Western Wyoming}, Geol Soc Amer Mem, 179: 227-267.

Prinz M, 1970. Idaho rift system, Snake River Plain, Idaho. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 81: 941-948.

Volcano Types

Shield
Fissure vent(s)

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
6
6
1,394
172,539

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Wapi Lava Field Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.