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The Mono Craters, lying on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada between Mono Lake and Long Valley caldera, form an arcuate, 17-km-long group of 30 or more dominantly rhyolitic lava domes, lava flows, and tephra rings. The partially overlapping dike-fed domes were erupted near the margin of a pull-apart basin on the east side of the Sierra Nevada. Explosive eruptions began more than 50,000 years ago from now-buried vents, but almost all of the exposed domes and flows are of Holocene age. Activity has propagated both north and south from the center of the chain during the late Holocene. The latest eruptions occurred about 600 years ago, nearly contemporaneously with the eruptions from Inyo Craters to the south, producing a series of tephra rings and obsidian lava domes and flows at the northern end of the chain accompanied by eruption of locally extensive tephra layers.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|1350 ± 20 years||Unknown||Confirmed||4||Dendrochronology||Panum Crater and nearby vents|
|1000 ± 200 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Hydration Rind||Dome on NW edge of NW Coulee|
|0620 ± 27 years||Unknown||Confirmed||4||Radiocarbon (corrected)||South Coulee|
|0490 ± 100 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (uncorrected)||NW Coulee and Pumice Pit dome|
|0440 ± 100 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (uncorrected)||Southern Mono Craters|
|0320 ± 200 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (corrected)||South Coulee?|
|0010 ± 200 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (corrected)||South Coulee?|
|0700 BCE ± 800 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Hydration Rind||Central Mono Craters|
|3850 BCE ± 1160 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Hydration Rind||Crater north of Punchbowl|
|6750 BCE ± 1740 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Hydration Rind||Punchbowl|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|West Control Crater||Crater|
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|Crater Mountain||Dome||2796 m||37° 53' 0" N||119° 0' 0" W|
|Cratered Dome||Dome||2134 m||37° 55' 0" N||119° 2' 0" W|
|North Coulee||Dome||2583 m||37° 53' 28" N||119° 1' 0" W|
|Panum||Dome||2121 m||37° 56' 0" N||119° 3' 0" W|
|Pumice Pit Dome||Dome||2060 m||37° 55' 0" N||119° 2' 28" W|
|Punchbowl||Dome||2455 m||37° 49' 0" N||119° 2' 0" W|
|South Coulee||Dome||2691 m||37° 51' 0" N||119° 1' 0" W|
|Upper Dome||Dome||2390 m||37° 55' 0" N||119° 2' 0" W|
|The Mono Craters volcanic field, between Mono Lake in the foreground and Long Valley caldera at the upper left, is a 17-km-long chain of rhyolitic lava domes and thick, viscous lava flows. Mono Craters have been frequently active during the Holocene. Panum crater (the vent nearest to Mono Lake), is partially filled by a lava dome and was the site of the latest eruption from Mono Craters, about 600 years ago.
Photo by R. Von Huene, 1971 (U.S. Geological Survey).
|The hackly surfaced Panum lava dome, filling a tephra ring at the northern end of the Mono Craters chain, was one of five rhyolitic lava domes and flows emplaced at the end of a major eruption about 600 years ago. The eruption, which began with powerful plinian explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows and surges, occurred just a year or two prior to another major eruption at Inyo Craters to the south.
Photo by Dan Dzurisin, 1982 (U.S. Geological Survey).
|Flow-banded rhyolitic obsidian of the Panum Crater lava dome was erupted about 600 years ago at the northern end of the Mono Craters. The greenish-yellow areas are lichens on the surface of the dome.
Photo by Lee Siebert, 1973 (Smithsonian Institution).
|The Mono Craters volcanic field south of Mono Lake at the upper left, is a 17-km-long arcuate chain of rhyolitic lava domes and thick, viscous lava flows. Mono Craters has been frequently active throughout the Holocene, along with the Inyo Craters chain to the south. The Inyo Craters chain, which includes the Wilson Butte, Obsidian and Glass Creek domes, which are oriented diagonally along a N-S line from the left center to lower right of the photo. The latest eruptions of Mono Craters and Inyo Craters occurred nearly simultaneously around 600 years ago.
Photo by Roy Bailey, 1980 (U.S. Geological Survey).
|The Mono Craters volcanic field, seen here from the NW, is a 17-km-long arcuate chain of lava domes, lava flows, and tephra rings. The latest eruptions took place about 600 years ago from several vents at the northern end of the chain, producing rhyolitic lava domes and flows.
Photo by Victoria Avery, 1992 (Smithsonian Institution).
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Bailey R A, 1989. Geologic map of Long Valley caldera, Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain, and vicinity, eastern California. U S Geol Surv Map, I-1933, 11 p text.
Bailey R A, Miller C D, Sieh K, 1989. Excursion 13B: Long Valley caldera and Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain. New Mexico Bur Mines Min Resour Mem, 47: 227-254.
Bursik M, 1993. Subplinian eruption mechanisms inferred from volatile and clast dispersal data. J Volc Geotherm Res, 57: 57-70.
Bursik M, Sieh K, 1989. Range front faulting and volcanism in the Mono Basin, eastern California. J Geophys Res, 94: 15, 585-15,609.
Bursik M, Sieh K, Meltzner A, 2014. Deposits of the most recent eruption in the Southern Mono Craters, California: description, interpretation and implications for regional marker tephras. J Volc Geotherm Res, 275: 114-131.
California Div. Mines and Geology, 1958-69. Geologic atlas of California, 1:250,0000 scale.. Calif Div Mines Geol.
Green J, Short N M, 1971. Volcanic Landforms and Surface Features: a Photographic Atlas and Glossary. New York: Springer-Verlag, 519 p.
Hildreth W, 2004. Volcanological perspectives on Long Valley, Mammoth Mountain, and Mono Craters: several contiguous but discrete systems. J Volc Geotherm Res, 136: 169-198.
IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..
Kent D V, Hemming S R, Turrin B D, 2002. Laschamp excursion at Mono Lake?. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 197: 151-164.
Shaffer W, Bursik M, Renshaw C, 2010. Elastic source model of the North Mono eruption (1325-1368 A.D.) based on shoreline deformation. Bull Volc, 72: 1131-1152.
Sieh K, Bursik M, 1986. Most recent eruption of the Mono Craters, eastern central California. J Geophys Res, 91: 12,539-12,571.