Newberry

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 43.722°N
  • 121.229°W

  • 2434 m
    7984 ft

  • 322110
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Newberry.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Newberry.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Newberry.

Newberry volcano, situated east of the Cascade Range, is one of the largest volcanoes in the conterminous United States, covering an area of about 1600 sq km. The low-angle basaltic to basaltic-andesite shield volcano is dotted with more than 400 cinder cones; however Newberry has also produced major silicic eruptions associated with formation of a 6 x 8 km wide summit caldera containing two caldera lakes. The earliest eruptive products (<0.73 million years ago) (Ma) consist of a sequence of ash-flow and airfall tuffs. Caldera collapse is thought to be associated with major ash flows emplaced about 0.5 and 0.3-0.5 Ma. these eruptions were preceded by the emplacement of numerous mafic cones and vents and silicic lava domes and flows, many of which are aligned NNW and NNE parallel to regional fault zones. A rhyolitic magma chamber has been present throughout the Holocene. Six major eruptive episodes from the early Holocene to about 1300 years ago have included both the eruption of basaltic lava flows from flank vents and the explosive ejection of rhyolitic pumice and pyroclastic flows and the extrusion of obsidian flows within the caldera.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0690 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) S caldera wall, Big Obsidian Flow
0490 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) South caldera wall
1450 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Hydration Rind South of East Lake
4450 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Hydration Rind Center, N & S caldera, upper SE flank
4690 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (corrected) NW rift zone, Lava Cascade flow
4770 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) NW rift zone (Sugarpine Butte)
4860 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (corrected) NW rift zone, Forest Road flow
4960 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) East Lake fissure, south flank
5070 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (corrected) Lower NW rift zone (Lava Butte)
5260 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (corrected) NW rift zone (Lava Cast Forest)
9210 BCE ± 1200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) South and east caldera rim

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Bessie Butte Cone 1453 m 43° 57' 0" N 121° 16' 0" W
Big Obsidian Flow Vent 43° 41' 0" N 121° 14' 0" W
Central Pumice Cone Pumice cone 43° 43' 0" N 121° 14' 0" W
Cinder Hill Cone 1966 m 43° 45' 0" N 121° 9' 0" W
Company Butte Cone 1845 m 43° 48' 0" N 121° 9' 0" W
Crater Buttes Cone 43° 34' 0" N 121° 14' 0" W
Dome, The Cinder cone 2101 m 43° 42' 0" N 121° 11' 0" W
Finley Butte Cone 1458 m 43° 39' 0" N 121° 26' 0" W
Firestone Butte Cone 43° 39' 0" N 120° 58' 0" W
Fuzztail Butte Cone 1748 m 43° 52' 0" N 121° 12' 0" W
Green Butte Cone 1757 m 43° 35' 0" N 121° 19' 0" W
Horse Butte Cone 43° 59' 0" N 121° 14' 0" W
Indian Butte Cone 1825 m 43° 33' 0" N 121° 9' 0" W
Ipswoot Butte Cone 43° 33' 0" N 121° 21' 0" W
Kawak Butte Cone 2246 m 43° 46' 0" N 121° 16' 0" W
Kelly Butte Cone 43° 39' 0" N 121° 1' 0" W
Klawhop Butte Cinder cone 1680 m 43° 53' 0" N 121° 17' 0" W
Klone Butte Cinder cone 1860 m 43° 49' 0" N 121° 17' 0" W
Kweo Butte Cone 43° 39' 0" N 121° 12' 0" W
Kwinnum Butte Cone 1965 m 43° 48' 0" N 121° 15' 0" W
Lava Butte Cinder cone 43° 55' 0" N 121° 21' 0" W
Lava Top Butte Cone 1662 m 43° 52' 0" N 121° 12' 0" W
Lockit Butte Cone 1873 m 43° 50' 0" N 121° 14' 0" W
Lowullo Butte Cone 2060 m 43° 47' 0" N 121° 6' 0" W
Luna Butte Cone 1596 m 43° 54' 0" N 121° 16' 0" N
Mokst Butte Cinder cone 1884 m 43° 50' 0" N 121° 17' 0" W
North Paulina Peak Cone 2402 m 43° 45' 0" N 121° 15' 0" W
Orphan Butte Cone 1766 m 43° 48' 0" N 121° 8' 0" W
Pilpil Butte Cone 2090 m 43° 47' 0" N 121° 14' 0" W
Polytop Butte Cone 43° 37' 0" N 120° 59' 0" W
Sand Butte Cone 43° 41' 0" N 121° 11' 0" W
Spring Butte Cone 1665 m 43° 31' 0" N 121° 21' 0" W
Sugarpine Butte Cinder cone 1647 m 43° 50' 0" N 121° 21' 0" W
Swamp Wells Butte Cone 1796 m 43° 51' 0" N 121° 13' 0" W
Taghum Butte Cone 1875 m 43° 49' 0" N 121° 11' 0" W
Topso Butte Cone 43° 39' 0" N 121° 11' 0" W
Willow Butte Cone 43° 33' 0" N 121° 10' 0" W
Youtlkut Butte Cone 43° 36' 0" N 121° 14' 0" W


Craters
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
East Lake Fissure Fissure vent 43° 44' 0" N 121° 14' 0" W
Northwest Rift Zone Fissure vent 43° 51' 0" N 121° 18' 0" W


Domes
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Indian Butte Dome 43° 32' 0" N 121° 18' 0" W
McKay Butte Dome 1601 m 43° 43' 0" N 121° 22' 0" W
Paulina Peak Dome 2434 m 43° 41' 20" N 121° 15' 14" W
Paulina Lake, the westernmost of two lakes within Newberry caldera, is seen from Paulina Peak, the high point of the south caldera rim. The Interlake obsidian flow entering Paulina Lake at the upper right was erupted about 6400 years ago. The flow split into two lobes, and the other lobe traveled into East Lake, just out of view to the right. This was only one of several eruptive vents within the caldera that were active during this eruptive phase.

Photo by Willie Scott, 1974 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Massive Newberry shield volcano covers an area of about 1600 sq km about 60 km east of the crest of the Cascade Range in central Oregon. The elongated, low-angle shield volcano covers an area of 60 km in a N-S direction and 30 km E-W. More than 400 cinder cones dot the flanks of Newberry volcano, including Lava Butte cinder cone at the left center of this photo, one of many cones formed around 6100 years ago along the NW rift zone.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
The crater rim of Lava Butte cinder cone on the NW flank provides a perspective of the broad Newberry shield volcano. Many other NW flank cinder cones and associated lava flows were erupted about the same time as the Lava Butte cone and flow, a little over 6000 years ago. Newberry has erupted both basaltic-andesite lavas from flank vents and rhyolitic lavas from within the caldera.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1981 (Smithsonian Institution).
Glassy black obsidian is prominent in the Big Obsidian Flow erupted from Newberry caldera in central Oregon. The high-silica rhyolitic flow covers 20 sq km of the caldera floor. Obsidian flows are never entirely glassy, but also contain large amounts of frothy pumiceous material and devitrified spherulites, which commonly form bands alternating with layers of glass.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1981 (Smithsonian Institution).
Some the more than 400 cinder cones that dot the flanks of the massive 30 x 60 km wide Newberry shield volcano in Oregon are seen in this view from Paulina Peak on the south rim of Newberry caldera. The cinder cones at Newberry are most abundant on the north and south flanks. Many are of Pleistocene age, but cinder cones along a rift on the NW flank and some on the south flank have erupted during the Holocene.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1972 (Smithsonian Institution).
A major eruption about 6400 years ago produced the large Central Pumice Cone in the center of Newberry caldera, a pumice ring, and obsidian lava flows. The Interlake obsidian flow (on the far side of the left-hand lake, Paulina) originated from a vent on the north caldera wall and flowed onto the caldera floor and divided around Central Pumice Cone. The west lobe (seen here) flowed into Paulina Lake, while the east lobe flowed behind Central Pumice Cone into East Lake. The Game Hut obsidian flow was also erupted at this time.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1984 (Smithsonian Institution).
The Central Pumice Cone at the right was formed during a major rhyolitic eruption about 6400 years ago. Many other vents on the north and south caldera walls and the caldera floor were also active at this time, producing pumice rings and obsidian flows. Paulina Peak forms the high point on the south caldera rim at the left.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1984 (Smithsonian Institution).
The Big Obsidian Flow lava flow in the foreground covers about 20 sq km of the floor of Newberry caldera and was emplaced about 1300 years ago during the last eruption of the volcano. The eruption began from a vent at the base of the south caldera wall, out of view to the right.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1984 (Smithsonian Institution).
Lava Butte, a prominent cinder cone on the NW flank of Newberry volcano at the end of a rift zone extending from the caldera rim, erupted about 6150 years ago. Following construction of the cinder cone, a SW flank fissure at the base of the cone, seen in the foreground, fed a voluminous lava flow that traveled to the north, deflecting the course of the Deschutes River in the background.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1981 (Smithsonian Institution).
The Lava Cast Forest lava flow on the NW flank of Newberry volcano, with radiocarbon ages of 6150-6380 years, is noted for its many hollow tree molds with exposed collars of chilled lava sticking above the surface of the lava flow. These features formed when flowing lava chilled against standing tree trunks, which then burned from the heat of the lava. Horizontal tree molds formed around trees that had either previously fallen or were toppled by the advancing lava flow.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1972 (Smithsonian Institution).
The NE margin of the Big Obsidian Flow, erupted from a vent near the south caldera wall of Newberry volcano about 1300 years ago, flowed into the crater of a pumice ring, whose forested rim is seen at the left and center. The pumice ring formed during an earlier Holocene eruption about 6400 years ago.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1981 (Smithsonian Institution).
The East Lake fissure (center) cutting the north rim of Newberry caldera produced the North Summit lava flow about 6000 years ago. The basaltic lava flow (the unvegetated area in the center of the photo) can be seen descending into the NE corner of East Lake. The East Lake fissure marks the southern end of the lengthy Northwest Rift Zone, which extends down the outer flank of the volcano. Another flow, the basaltic Surveyor lava flow, was erupted on the southern flank of Newberry at about the same time.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1997 (Smithsonian Institution).
The East Lake obsidian flows and associated pumice deposits were erupted from fissures parallel to the inner caldera wall about 3500 years ago. The westernmost of the two rhyolitic East Lake obsidian flows is seen here. It traveled to the north towards East Lake, part of which can be seen beyond the the forested area in the center of the photo, below the eastern caldera wall. This marked the second youngest eruption of obsidian lava flows in Newberry caldera.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1997 (Smithsonian Institution).
The easternmost of the two East Lake obsidian flows forms the sparsely vegetated area in the center of the photo near the SE shore of East Lake. This rholitic flow, another one to the west, and associated pumice deposits were erupted from fissures parallel to the inner caldera wall about 3500 years ago. These were the second youngest eruptions of obsidian lava flows in Newberry caldera.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1997 (Smithsonian Institution).
Three lava flows erupted from fissure vents on the NW rift zone of Newberry volcano about 6200 years ago can be seen in this photo. The Forest Road flow in the foreground was the smallest. Behind it are the Lava Cast Forest and Lava Cascades flows. The latter was the longest of the upper NW rift flows, traveling about 8 km from its vent. The northern rim of Newberry caldera forms the ridge on the horizon.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1997 (Smithsonian Institution).
The Lava Cascade lava flow, erupted from the NW rift zone about 6200 years ago, cascaded down the ramp that cuts across the center of the photo. The Lava Cascades flow was the longest flow on the upper NW rift and traveled about 8 km to the NW from its vent. The forested area at the extreme right is one of three large kipukas of older lavas that were surrounded by the flow. The flow in the foreground, called the Lava Cast Forest flow, originated from another fissure vent at about the same time. The NW rim of Newberry caldera rises in the distance.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1977 (Smithsonian Institution).
The Lava Cast Forest flow was one of several lava flows erupted from the upper NW rift zone of Newberry volcano about 6200 years ago. The flow is named for its abundant casts of trees formed when the flow chilled and cooled around standing or fallen tree trunks.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1997 (Smithsonian Institution).
The small Forest Road lava flow that was erupted from fissures on the central NW rift zone was radiocarbon dated at about 5960 years before present. This lava flow, one of the smallest from the NW rift zone of Newberry volcano, originated from a fissure vent immediately NW of the Lava Cast Forest flow.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1997 (Smithsonian Institution).
Newberry caldera is one of the largest volcanoes in the conterminous United States, covering an area of about 1600 sq km. Two lakes, Paulina Lake (top) and East Lake (bottom) partially fill the 6 x 8 km wide caldera, which formed following the eruption of major ash flows during the Pleistocene. Subsequent eruptions have taken place from vents within the caldera, near its rim, and from fissure vents on its flanks. The light-colored lobate lava flow south (left) of Paulina Lake is one of several obsidian flows erupted during the Holocene.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1998 (Smithsonian Institution).
The Big Obsidian Flow lava flow, covering 20 sq km of the floor of Newberry caldera, was emplaced about 1300 years ago during the last eruption of the volcano. The eruption began from a vent at the base of the south caldera wall. A large pumice fall was followed by an ashflow into Paulina Lake, and finally with emplacement of the obsidian flow. East Lake lies in the background in this view from the south caldera rim.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2002 (Smithsonian Institution).
Newberry volcano, one of the largest Quaternary volcanoes in the conterminous United States, lies 60 km east of the crest of the Cascade Range in central Oregon. The massive shield volcano is truncated by a 5 x 7 km caldera containing two caldera lakes, Paulina Lake (left) and East Lake (right). Newberry has been active during the Holocene from vents both within the caldera that have produced pumice cones and obsidian lava flows (such as the one seen at the lower right) and outside the caldera from cinder cones on its broad flanks.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2002 (Smithsonian Institution).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Castro J, Cashman K, Joslin N, Olmsted B, 2002. Structural origin of large gas cavities in the Big Obsidian Flow, Newberry volcano. J Volc Geotherm Res, 114: 313-330.

Gardner J E, Carey S, Sigurdsson H, 1998. Plinian eruptions at Glacier Peak and Newberry volcanoes, United States: implications for volcanic hazards in the Cascade Range. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 110: 173-187.

Green J, Short N M, 1971. Volcanic Landforms and Surface Features: a Photographic Atlas and Glossary. New York: Springer-Verlag, 519 p.

Higgins M W, 1973. Petrology of Newberry volcano, central Oregon. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 84: 455-488.

Hildreth W E, 2007. Quaternary magmatism in the Cascades--geologic perpectives. U S Geol Surv Prof Pap, 1744: 1-125.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Jensen R A, 1995. Roadside Guide to the Geology of Newberry volcano. Bend, Oregon: The Press Pro's, 155 p.

Kuehn S C, Foit F F Jr, 2006. Correlation of widespread Holocene and Pleistocene tephra layers from Newberry volcano, Oregon, USA, using glass compositions and numerical analysis. Quat Internatl, 148: 113-137.

MacLeod N S, Sherrod D R, 1988. Geologic evidence for a magma chamber beneath Newberry volcano, Oregon. J Geophys Res, 93: 10,067-10,079.

MacLeod N S, Sherrod D R, Chitwood L A, 1982. Geologic map of Newberry volcano, Deschutes, Klamath, and Lake Counties, Oregon. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 82-847: map and 27 p text.

MacLeod N S, Sherrod D R, Chitwood L A, McKee E H, 1981. Newberry volcano, Oregon. U S Geol Surv Circ, 838: 85-91.

Peterson N V, Groh E A, 1966. Lunar Geological Field Conference guidebook. Oregon Dept Geol Min Ind, 51 p.

Sherrod D R, Smith J G, 1990. Quaternary extrusion rates of the Cascade Range, northwestern United States and southern British Columbia. J Geophys Res, 95: 19,465-19,474.

Volcano Types

Shield
Caldera
Cinder cone(s)
Lava dome(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Dacite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Rhyolite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
0
16,437
180,091

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Newberry Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.