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Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|0480 (?)||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Radiocarbon (corrected)||Belknap Crater|
|0800 BCE ± 300 years||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Radiocarbon (corrected)||South Belknap and Twin Craters|
|1030 BCE ± 300 years||Unknown||Confirmed||0||Radiocarbon (corrected)||Little Belknap|
The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.
Green J, Short N M, 1971. Volcanic Landforms and Surface Features: a Photographic Atlas and Glossary. New York: Springer-Verlag, 519 p.
Hildreth W E, 2007. Quaternary magmatism in the Cascades--geologic perpectives. U S Geol Surv Prof Pap, 1744: 1-125.
IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..
Peterson N V, Groh E A, 1963. Recent volcanic landforms in central Oregon. Ore Bin, 25: 1-15.
Peterson N V, Groh E A, 1966. Lunar Geological Field Conference guidebook. Oregon Dept Geol Min Ind, 51 p.
Sherrod D R, Taylor E M, Ferns M L, Scott W E, Conrey R M, Smith G A, 2004. Geologic map of the Bend 30- x 60-minute quadrangle, central Oregon. U S Geol Surv Map , I-2683, 1:100,000 scale and 48 p text.
Taylor E M, 1965. Recent volcanism between Three Fingered Jack and North Sister Oregon Cascade Range. Ore Bin, 27: 121-148.
Taylor E M, 1968. Roadside geology, Santiam and McKenzie Pass Highways, Oregon. Oregon Dept Geol Min Ind Bull, 62: 3-34.
Wood C A, Kienle J (eds), 1990. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ Press, 354 p.
The Belknap Crater area near McKenzie Pass, north of the Three Sisters volcanoes in the central Oregon Cascades, was the source of one of the largest concentrations of youthful volcanism in the Cascade Range. The basaltic to basaltic-andesite Belknap shield volcano, topped by the Belknap Crater pyroclastic cone and the Little Belknap shield volcano immediately to the east, have produced widespread late-Holocene lava flows on all sides that form an impressive panorama of youthful volcanism in the McKenzie Pass area, much of which took place between about 3000 and 1500 years ago. Late-stage eruptions from the NE base of Belknap crater produced lava flows that traveled 15 km west into the McKenzie River valley. The narrow McKenzie Pass highway provides seasonal access across the barren lava fields with spectacular views toward Mt. Jefferson and the Three Sisters.