Indian Heaven

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 45.93°N
  • 121.82°W

  • 1806 m
    5924 ft

  • 321070
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Indian Heaven.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Indian Heaven.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Indian Heaven.

The Pleistocene-to-Holocene Indian Heaven volcanic field, located midway between St. Helens and Adams, is an area of low overlapping shield volcanoes with flank vents primarily oriented along a N-S line. Small shield volcanoes topped by cinder and spatter cones dominate the volcanic field, which also contains subglacial vents. The shield volcanoes extend from Sawtooth Mountain on the north to Red Mountain on the south; the high point of the field is 1806-m-high Lemei Rock shield volcano. Basasltic-to-andesitic lava flows blanket much of the field; individual lava flows, many of which display extensive lava tubes, traveled up to 46 km. The youngest eruption about 8200 years ago produced the voluminous Big Lava Bed, a 0.9 cu km basaltic lava flow that traveled nearly 25 km south of its source, an unnamed cinder cone SE of Red Mountain, to within 8 km of the Columbia River.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
6250 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Big Lava Bed

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Red Mountain-Big Lava Bed

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Big Lava Bed Cone Pyroclastic cone 45° 54' 0" N 121° 45' 0" W
Bird Mountain Shield volcano 1739 m 46° 2' 0" N 121° 47' 0" W
East Crater Shield volcano 1614 m 46° 0' 0" N 121° 47' 0" W
Gifford Peak Shield volcano 1636 m
Lemei Rock Shield volcano 1806 m 46° 1' 0" N 121° 46' 0" W
Lone Butte Tuya 46° 3' 0" N 121° 52' 0" W
Red Mountain Shield volcano 1513 m 45° 56' 0" N 121° 49' 0" W
Sawtooth Mountain Shield volcano 1632 m 46° 4' 0" N 121° 47' 0" W
The youngest eruption of the Indian Heaven volcanic field, midway between Mount St. Helens and Mount Adams, produced a large cinder cone and a voluminous lava flow about 8200 years ago. The source of the flow is the cinder cone at the right, with Mt. Hood visible in the background. The Big Lava Bed flow, which forms the smooth slope in the foreground, banked against higher slopes to the north and traveled 13 km south to within 8 km of the Columbia River.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
The forested slope in the foreground is part of the Big Lava Bed, a 0.9 cu km lava flow erupted from the cinder cone in the background about 8200 years ago. The lava flow traveled 13 km from the source crater and is the youngest feature of the Indian Heaven volcanic field.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
Red Mountain (1513 m), seen here from the NE, is the southernmost of a N-S line of small shield volcanoes capped by pyroclastic cones that form the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Indian Heaven volcanic field in the southern Cascades of Washington. The field covers 600 sq km.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
Berry Mountain on the left and Gifford Peak and East Crater on the right are small Pleistocene shield volcanoes capped by pyroclastic cones. They are part of the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Indian Heaven volcanic field in the southern Cascade Range of Washington, which lies between Mount St. Helens and Mount Adams.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
Lemei Rock (1813 m), seen from the Forlorn Lakes to the SE, forms the high point of the Indian Heaven volcanic field midway between Mount St. Helens and Mount Adams. The 600 sq km field consists of overlapping small shield volcanoes with pyroclastic cones and lava flows. The field was active from about 730,000 to about 8200 years ago, and contains some volcanic features that originated beneath a glacial icecap.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
Lavas of the Big Lava Bed flow, erupted about 8200 years ago from the cinder cone in the background, dammed local drainages, forming Goose Lake. The Big Lava Bed flow is the most recent eruption of the Indian Heaven volcanic field, which lies between Mount St. Helens and Mount Adams.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Hammond P E, 1984. Indian Heaven, S. Washington Cascade Range a basaltic volcanic field supplied by a central magma system? (abs). Geol Soc Amer Abs Prog, 16: 528.

Hammond P E, Pedersen S A, Hopkins K D, Aiken D, Harle D S, Danes Z F, Konicek D L, Stricklin C R, 1976. Geology and gravimetry of the Quaternary basaltic volcanic field, southern Cascade Range, Washington. In: {Proc 2nd United Nations Symp Devel Use Geotherm Resour, San Francisco}, Washington D C: U S Government Printing Office, 1: 397-405.

Hildreth W E, 2007. Quaternary magmatism in the Cascades--geologic perpectives. U S Geol Surv Prof Pap, 1744: 1-125.

Korosec M A, 1987. Geologic map of Mount Adams. Wash Div Geol Earth Sci, 1:100,000 geol map.

Sherrod D R, Smith J G, 1990. Quaternary extrusion rates of the Cascade Range, northwestern United States and southern British Columbia. J Geophys Res, 95: 19,465-19,474.

Smith R L, Shaw H R, 1975. Igneous-related geothermal systems. U S Geol Surv Circ, 726: 58-83.

Swanson D A, Cameron K A, Evarts R C, Pringle P T, Vance J A, 1989. Excursion 1A: Cenozoic volcanism in the Cascade Range and Columbia Plateau, southern Washington. New Mexico Bur Mines Min Resour Mem, 47: 1-50.

Wise W S, 1970. Cenozoic volcanism in the Cascade Mountains of southern Washington. Wash Dept Nat Resour Bull, 60: 1-45.

Wood C A, Kienle J (eds), 1990. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ Press, 354 p.

Volcano Types

Shield(s)
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
687
687
6,911
2,019,828

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Indian Heaven Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.