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  • Canada
  • Canada
  • Stratovolcano
  • 8060 BCE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 49.85°N
  • 123°W

  • 2678 m
    8784 ft

  • 320200
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

There are no activity reports for Garibaldi.

 Available Weekly Reports

There are no Weekly Reports available for Garibaldi.

Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
8060 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SE flank (Opal Cone)

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Brooks G R, Friele P A, 1992. Bracketing ages for the formation of the Ring Creek lava flow, Mount Garibaldi volcanic field, southwestern British Columbia. Can J Earth Sci, 29: 2425-2428.

Green N L, 1981. Geology and petrology of Quaternary volcanic rocks, Garibaldi Lake area, southwestern British Columbia summary. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 92: 697-702.

Green N L, 1990. Late Cenozoic volcanism in the Mount Garibaldi and Garibaldi Lake volcanic fields, Garibaldi volcanic belt, southwestern British Columbia. Geosci Can, 17: 171-174.

Green N L, Armstrong R L, Harakal J E, Souther J G, Read P B, 1988. Eruptive history and K-Ar geochronology of the late Cenozoic Garibaldi volcanic belt, southwestern British Columbia. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 100: 563-579.

Hickson C J, Edwards B R, 2001. Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards in Canada. In; Brooks G R (ed) {A Synthesis of Geological Hazards in Canada}, Geol Surv Can Bull, 548: 1-248.

Hickson C J, Soos A, Wright R, 1994. Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes. Geol Surv Canada Open-File Rpt.

Hildreth W E, 2007. Quaternary magmatism in the Cascades--geologic perpectives. U S Geol Surv Prof Pap, 1744: 1-125.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Mathews W H, 1958. Geology of the Mt. Garibaldi map-area, S.W. British Columbia. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 69: 186.

Wood C A, Kienle J (eds), 1990. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ Press, 354 p.

Mount Garibaldi at the head of Howe Sound north of Vancouver is a Pleistocene dacitic stratovolcano capped by a lava dome complex. An initial period of volcanism 0.51-0.22 million years ago was followed after a period of quiescence by construction of a conical plug dome and breccia pile at the south summit, Atwell Peak. Retreat of the ice cap left the west flank unsupported, and it collapsed in a series of landslides, exposing the core of the volcano. Lava flows from Dalton Dome north of Atwell Peak subsequently flowed down the scarp. Subglacial flank centers such as Eanastick (Enostuck) Meadow, Glacier Pike and Paul Ridge were also formed during the late Pleistocene. The final activity of Mount Garibaldi formed the Opal Cone on the SE flank and the lengthy Ring Creek lava flow, which filled a glaciated valley on the south flank during the early Holocene (Mathews, 1958; Brooks and Friele, 1992).