Garibaldi

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 49.85°N
  • 123°W

  • 2678 m
    8784 ft

  • 320200
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Garibaldi.

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Mount Garibaldi at the head of Howe Sound north of Vancouver is a Pleistocene dacitic stratovolcano capped by a lava dome complex. An initial period of volcanism 0.51-0.22 million years ago was followed after a period of quiescence by construction of a conical plug dome and breccia pile at the south summit, Atwell Peak. Retreat of the ice cap left the west flank unsupported, and it collapsed in a series of landslides, exposing the core of the volcano. Lava flows from Dalton Dome north of Atwell Peak subsequently flowed down the scarp. Subglacial flank centers such as Eanastick (Enostuck) Meadow, Glacier Pike and Paul Ridge were also formed during the late Pleistocene. The final activity of Mount Garibaldi formed the Opal Cone on the SE flank and the lengthy Ring Creek lava flow, which filled a glaciated valley on the south flank during the early Holocene (Mathews, 1958; Brooks and Friele, 1992).

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
8060 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SE flank (Opal Cone)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Eanastick Meadow
    Enostuck Meadow
    Eonostuck Meadow
Vent 1160 m 49° 48' 0" N 123° 55' 0" W
Opal Cone Cone 1740 m 49° 49' 0" N 122° 58' 0" W
Round Mountain Vent


Domes
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Atwell Peak Dome 2550 m 49° 51' 0" N 123° 0' 0" W
Columnar Peak Dome 1830 m 49° 48' 0" N 123° 0' 0" W
Dalton Dome Dome 2633 m 49° 51' 0" N 123° 0' 0" W
Glacier Pikes Dome 2073 m 49° 53' 0" N 122° 51' 0" W
Mount Garibaldi, rising above scenic Garibaldi Lake to the north, is a largely Pleistocene stratovolcano capped by a lava dome complex. The volcano was partially constructed over the Cordilleran ice sheet and displays many ice-contact features. Its final eruptions during the early Holocene included the emission of lava flows that mantled the west-side landside headwall and a massive lava flow from Opal Cone, a SE flank vent, that traveled 20 km to the south and west.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1983 (Smithsonian Institution).
Mount Garibaldi is a Pleistocene volcano that was partially constructed over the Cordilleran ice sheet. Its steep-sided western face, seen from near Alice Lake, exposes the interior structure of the volcano and resulted from repeated landsliding of an oversteepened slope left when the continental ice sheet retreated. The sharp summit peak to the right is the Altwell Peak plug dome; the rounded peak to the left is Dalton Dome, the source of some of Garibaldi's most recent eruptions.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1976 (Smithsonian Institution).
Mount Garibaldi rises to 2678 m above Howe Sound, 80 km north of Vancouver. The steep-sided peak on the right is the Squamish Chief, a glacially carved peak of the Coast Range batholith. Garibaldi was constructed during the Pleistocene, partially overriding the Cordilleran ice sheet. Retreat of the ice sheet left the western side of the volcano unsupported, causing many landslides into the Cheakamus River valley.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1976 (Smithsonian Institution).
The Table, the dark, flat-topped ridge in the foreground in front of Mount Garibaldi, is the southernmost vent of the Garibaldi Lake volcanic field. This unusual feature is a "tuya," formed when lava flows filled a pit melted through the continental ice sheet. A series of stacked horizontal lava flows filling the pit formed The Table; late-stage flows spilled down a gap between the earlier flows and the ice-pit wall, coating the horizontal flows like icing on a cake.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1983 (Smithsonian Institution).
Mount Garibaldi in the left background rises above the glacially dissected granitic rocks of the Coast Range Batholith that extend south to the Mount Seymour area in the foreground, immediately north of the city of Vancouver. Garibaldi's latest eruptive activity took place during the early Holocene.

Photo by Lee Siebert (Smithsonian Institution).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Brooks G R, Friele P A, 1992. Bracketing ages for the formation of the Ring Creek lava flow, Mount Garibaldi volcanic field, southwestern British Columbia. Can J Earth Sci, 29: 2425-2428.

Green N L, 1981. Geology and petrology of Quaternary volcanic rocks, Garibaldi Lake area, southwestern British Columbia summary. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 92: 697-702.

Green N L, 1990. Late Cenozoic volcanism in the Mount Garibaldi and Garibaldi Lake volcanic fields, Garibaldi volcanic belt, southwestern British Columbia. Geosci Can, 17: 171-174.

Green N L, Armstrong R L, Harakal J E, Souther J G, Read P B, 1988. Eruptive history and K-Ar geochronology of the late Cenozoic Garibaldi volcanic belt, southwestern British Columbia. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 100: 563-579.

Hickson C J, Edwards B R, 2001. Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards in Canada. In; Brooks G R (ed) {A Synthesis of Geological Hazards in Canada}, Geol Surv Can Bull, 548: 1-248.

Hickson C J, Soos A, Wright R, 1994. Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes. Geol Surv Canada Open-File Rpt.

Hildreth W E, 2007. Quaternary magmatism in the Cascades--geologic perpectives. U S Geol Surv Prof Pap, 1744: 1-125.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Mathews W H, 1958. Geology of the Mt. Garibaldi map-area, S.W. British Columbia. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 69: 186.

Wood C A, Kienle J (eds), 1990. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ Press, 354 p.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Lava dome(s)
Cinder cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Dacite
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
22
16,058
2,264,818

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Garibaldi Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.