Redoubt

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 60.485°N
  • 152.742°W

  • 3108 m
    10194 ft

  • 313030
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

7 April-13 April 2010

AVO reported that the rate of small earthquakes in the vicinity of Redoubt's summit approached background levels during 7-11 April. Gas measurements on 8 April were consistent with a passively degassing and cooling lava dome. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green on 12 April.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



 Available Weekly Reports


2010: January | March | April
2009: January | February | March | April | May | June | September | December
2008: October | November


7 April-13 April 2010

AVO reported that the rate of small earthquakes in the vicinity of Redoubt's summit approached background levels during 7-11 April. Gas measurements on 8 April were consistent with a passively degassing and cooling lava dome. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green on 12 April.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


31 March-6 April 2010

AVO reported that a series of small repetitive earthquakes in the vicinity of Redoubt's summit were detected on 5 April. The Volcano Alert Level was raised to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


6 January-12 January 2010

On 5 January, AVO reported that because of low levels of seismic activity from Redoubt, along with the lack of any other outward signs of progressing unrest, the Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to Normal and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


23 December-29 December 2009

AVO reported that during 27-28 December seismic activity from Redoubt changed from the pattern noted during the previous five months, and was characterized by a series of small repetitive earthquakes that occurred in the vicinity of the summit. The Volcanic Alert Level was raised to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow. Based on pilot reports and web camera views, no unusual activity or plumes were noted.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


23 September-29 September 2009

On 29 September, AVO reported that seismic activity from Redoubt, along with volcanic gas output, ground deformation, lava dome temperatures, and outward signs of lava dome instability, have been declining during the previous several months. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to Normal and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


24 June-30 June 2009

AVO reported that during 24-29 June seismicity from Redoubt was low, but remained above background levels. Web camera images showed continued steaming from the lava dome at the summit. No ash signals were observed in radar or satellite imagery. Occasional observations, the low level of seismicity, and low gas emissions suggested that the growth of the lava dome had significantly slowed. On 30 June, AVO lowered the Volcanic Alert Level to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


17 June-23 June 2009

Seismicity at Redoubt, as reported by AVO, was low during 17-23 June, but remained above background level. Seismicity was primarily comprised of small, discrete events associated with continued growth and instability of the lava dome. Webcam images on 19 and 23 June showed continued steam and gas emissions from the dome. Poor weather conditions throughout the week limited fieldwork opportunities, but one crew was able to observe the dome on 15 June. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


10 June-16 June 2009

AVO reported that during 10-15 June seismicity from Redoubt remained low, but above background levels; small discrete earthquakes in the summit region associated with dome growth and instability were recorded. Clear web camera views on 10, 11, and 16 June showed steaming from the summit region. On 12 June, the lava dome was an estimated 1 km long, 460 m wide, and 200 m high. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


3 June-9 June 2009

AVO reported that during 3-9 June seismicity from Redoubt remained low, but above background levels; small discrete earthquakes and rockfall signals in the summit region were recorded. Growth of the lava dome in the summit crater continued and by 5 June extended 950 m down the N flank. Cloudy conditions often obscured satellite and web camera views; steaming from the summit region was seen periodically. On 3 June, a minor dusting of ash was visible on the NE flank, likely related to rockfall activity. AVO warned that the unstable lava dome could fail with little or no warning, leading to significant ash emissions and possible lahars in the Drift River valley. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


27 May-2 June 2009

AVO reported that during 27 May-2 June seismicity from Redoubt remained low, but above background levels; small discrete earthquakes and rockfall signals in the summit region were recorded. Growth of the lava dome in the summit crater continued. Cloudy conditions obscured satellite and web camera views. AVO warned that the unstable lava dome could fail with little or no warning, leading to significant ash emissions and possible lahars in the Drift River valley. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


20 May-26 May 2009

AVO reported that during 20-26 May seismicity from Redoubt remained above background levels and growth of the lava dome in the summit crater continued. Steam-and-gas emissions from the lava dome were seen on the web camera during 20-21 and 26 May; clouds obscured the view during the rest of the reporting period. Occasional rockfalls originating from unstable slopes of the lava dome possibly produced minor ash clouds in the vicinity of the summit, although no ash was detected by satellite or radar. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


13 May-19 May 2009

AVO reported that during 13-19 May seismicity from Redoubt had decreased from levels detected during 2-7 May, but remained above background levels. Rock avalanche events, discrete earthquakes, and minor volcanic tremor were evident in seismic data. Growth of the lava dome in the summit crater continued and vigorous steam emissions from the margins of the lava dome were seen on the web camera. Occasional rockfalls originating from unstable slopes of the lava dome produced minor ash clouds in the vicinity of the summit. Occasional incandescence was observed in nighttime images from the web camera. On 15 May, the volume of the dome was an estimated 30-60 million cubic meters. During an overflight on 16 May, scientists observed a turquoise lake along the S margin of the dome, and a hot, vigorous, and persistent fumarole on the W wall of the upper gorge. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


6 May-12 May 2009

AVO reported that during 6-12 May seismicity from Redoubt remained above background levels, indicating ongoing growth of the lava dome in the summit crater. Occasional rockfalls originating from the lava dome's flanks and steam-and-gas emissions were observed on the web camera. The emissions may have contained some ash. During 5-6 May, seismicity intensified and nearly continuous small earthquakes near the summit were recorded. Steam emissions were vigorous and minor ash was detected in emission by satellite imagery. Rockfalls also triggered ash emissions near the summit. On 6 May, tremor nearly doubled in intensity and the number of events increased. An ash emission produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismicity declined during 6-7 May but continuous small earthquakes continued to be recorded by stations near the summit. On 12 May, seismicity decreased to low levels compared to other phases of the eruption. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


29 April-5 May 2009

During 29 April-5 May, AVO reported that elevated seismicity from Redoubt and a persistent thermal anomaly over the summit lava dome detected on satellite imagery were consistent with continued lava-dome growth. Changes in the size and shape of the dome confirmed growth; the volume of the dome was an estimated 25-30 million cubic meters. Occasional small rock avalanches originating from the N side of the lava dome produced minor low-level ash emissions. The web camera showed steam-and-gas plumes rising from the lava dome. During 2-3 May, seismicity increased markedly and minor ash emissions were seen on the web camera. More frequent rockfalls were also detected. On 4 May, steam plumes with possible minor amounts of ash rose several thousand feet above the summit and drifted SE. Seismicity during 4-5 May continued to slowly increase. AVO warned that a significant explosive event was likely in the coming days.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


22 April-28 April 2009

AVO reported that during 22-28 April seismicity from Redoubt remained above background levels, indicating ongoing growth of the lava dome in the summit crater. On 22 April, the web camera showed steam-and-gas plumes that may have occasionally contained small amounts of ash rising from the lava dome. Views during 23-28 April were prevented by meteorological clouds. Pilots reported sulfur odors to the NE on 22 April and to the S on 28 April. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


15 April-21 April 2009

AVO reported that during 15-21 April seismicity from Redoubt remained above background levels, indicating ongoing growth of the lava dome in the summit crater. The web camera showed that vigorous steam-and-gas plumes that may have occasionally contained small amounts of ash rose from the vent to altitudes below 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed thermal anomalies at the summit and drifting sulfur dioxide plumes. Based on photos and thermal images obtained on 16 April, the lava dome was estimated to be about 500 x 700 m across and at least 50 m thick. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


8 April-14 April 2009

Based on seismic data and satellite imagery, AVO reported that Redoubt's lava dome continued to grow during 8-14 April. On 8 April, a small steam plume possibly containing ash was seen on satellite imagery and on the web camera, and drifted NE at low altitudes. A continuous sulfur dioxide plume seen on satellite imagery drifted 965 km. On 9 April, RADAR data showed no significant ash emissions. An M 3.3 earthquake was located about 4 km ENE of the summit. Observations showed that the lava dome grew in the same location as the previous lava dome, was circular in shape, and 400 m in diameter. A report on 10 April indicated that seismicity had remained steady since the last explosion on 4 April; small repetitive volcanic earthquakes were detected. Gas, steam, and ash emitted from the vent formed a plume that rose to an altitude less than 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. On 11 April, A vigorous steam plume that may have contained small amounts of ash was visible on the web camera. Satellite imagery showed a plume that drifted NW at altitudes below 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. Observations on 13 and 14 April were obscured by clouds. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


1 April-7 April 2009

During 1-3 April, AVO reported that Redoubt continued to emit steam, gases, and minor amounts of ash visible on the Redoubt Hut web camera. On 1 and 2 April, satellite images showed a plume containing some ash extending about 65 km ENE at altitudes of 4.6-7.6 km (15,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. Thermal anomalies detected in infrared images were most likely due to lava dome extrusion in the summit crater. On 3 April, AVO lowered the Volcanic Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange due to a decreased intensity of ash production. AVO overflights and photography confirmed that a lava dome was growing at the summit. Occasional avalanches of hot blocks from the dome traveled a short distance down the N flank.

On 4 April, a significant explosion produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 15.2 km (50,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Seismic data indicated that a lahar traveled down the Drift River valley. AVO raised the Alert Level to Warning and the Aviation Color Code to Red, the highest levels. During 5-6 April, small earthquakes and intermittent tremor continued to be detected. The web camera showed a continuously emitted plume of primarily steam and gas that rose to an altitude of 7.7 km (25,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. A small, intermittent plume rose from the NW base of the volcano, possibly from the interaction of hot debris with snow, ice, and water. On 6 April, AVO again lowered the Volcanic Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange due to seismic patterns and emissions of only very minor ash. A gas-and-steam plume rose to an altitude less than 7.7 km (25,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. On 7 April, a small steam-and-ash plume was seen on satellite imagery and drifted 16-24 km SE at altitudes of 4.6-6.1 km (15,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


25 March-31 March 2009

On 25 March, AVO reported that a small explosion from Redoubt produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N to NW. Later that day AVO lowered the Volcanic Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange because seismicity had decreased during the previous 36 hours. On 26 March, multiple explosive eruptions produced plumes to altitudes of 6.1-19.8 km (20,000-65,000 ft) a.s.l. or greater. AVO raised the Alert Level to Warning and the Aviation Color Code to Red, the highest levels. The largest eruption, at 0924, also produced a lahar in the Drift River valley that was detected by seismic instruments.

During 27-28 March, seven explosive eruptions produced ash plumes to altitudes of 7.6-15.2 km (25,000-50,000 ft) a.s.l. An ash plume on 29 March rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismic and infrasound data did not show clear evidence that the plume was generated by an explosion. On 30 March, continuously emitted ash plumes of varying intensities were observed in a web camera, on satellite and radar images, and by pilots, and rose to altitudes less than 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. Occasionally, short-lived events produced ash plumes to an altitude of 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. A thermal anomaly at the vent seen on satellite imagery was possibly due to the extrusion of a lava dome in the summit crater. On 31 March, emissions of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash were seen on Redoubt Hut web camera. Resultant plumes rose to altitudes of 4.6-7.6 km (15,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed a broad layer of volcanic haze that extended E over the Kenai Peninsula, the Anchorage Bowl, and the Matanuska-Susitna Valley.

According to news articles, 11 people were evacuated on 23 March from the Drift River Terminal, an oil storage facility about 35 km ENE of Redoubt that shut down because of the eruption. During 24-28 March, flights in and out of Anchorage and other local areas continued to be canceled or diverted; as many as 185 Alaska Airlines flights had been canceled since the beginning of the eruption. Ashfall was occasionally reported in Anchorage and areas NW.

Sources: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Associated Press, Associated Press


18 March-24 March 2009

On 18 March, AVO lowered the Alert Level for Redoubt to Advisory and Aviation Color Code to Yellow because seismicity declined to levels recorded prior to the ash emission on 15 March. Seismicity remained low the next day. Shallow earthquake activity was noted again on 20 March. On 21 March, a steam plume rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,200 ft) a.s.l. Later that day, the rate of seismic events continued to increase, prompting AVO to raise the Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange. On 22 March, an explosive eruption began at 2238, prompting AVO to raise the Alert Level to Warning and the Aviation Color Code to Red, the highest levels. Four more explosive eruptions occurred, with each lasting between 4-30 minutes. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 18.2 km (60,000 ft) a.s.l., with the bulk of the ash volume between 7.6-9.1 km (25,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in areas 190-250 km NE. The last explosion ended at 0500 on 23 March. No ash was detected afterwards utilizing radar data, suggesting that if ash emissions were occurring, plumes would be below approximately 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and/or contain particles too fine to be detected. Poor weather hindered visual observations of the volcano. The sixth explosion began on 23 March at 1941, lasted about 17 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 15.2 km (50,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and N. Pyroclastic flows were visible traveling down the N flank in web camera images. According to news articles, Alaska Airlines cancelled 19 flights on 23 March due to ash plumes.

On 23 March, AVO staff visited areas around Redoubt and saw large lahar and flood deposits in the Drift River valley. The eruptions caused melting of the Drift Glacier and greatly increased discharge down the Drift River, causing lahars that traveled more than 35 km, reaching the Cook Inlet. In the middle to upper Drift River valley, high-water marks reached 6-8 m above the valley floor. At the AVO hut (roughly 11 km NNW of the summit), a 6-cm-thick fall deposit was observed. On 24 March, AVO reported that a steam plume rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) and drifted about 65 km NW.

Sources: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Associated Press


11 March-17 March 2009

AVO reported that during 11-15 March seismic activity at Redoubt was low but remained above background levels. On 12, 14, and 15 March clear web camera views showed steam plumes that rose just above the summit. At about 1305 on 15 March, seismic activity increased and about four hours of volcanic tremor ensued. AVO scientists aboard an overflight saw a steam-and-ash plume rise to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and produce minor ashfall on the summit crater floor and down the S flank. The emissions originated from a new vent, located just S of the 1990 lava dome and W of the prominent ice collapse feature near the N edge of the summit crater. About twenty minutes later, a sediment-laden flow occurred from a small area in the ice on the upper part of Drift glacier. Steam plumes were later noted. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Alert Level to Watch. Clear web camera views on 17 March showed no unusual activity.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


4 March-10 March 2009

AVO reported that during 4-10 March seismic activity at Redoubt was variable but remained above background levels. Clear web camera views and satellite imagery on 7 and 8 March showed no unusual activity. On 10 March, AVO reported that although abnormally high gas emission rates continued to be detected and melting of the summit glacier was still evident, the new magma beneath the volcano did not show any signs of upward movement. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Alert Level was lowered to Advisory.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


25 February-3 March 2009

AVO reported that during February 25-March 3 seismic activity at Redoubt was variable. On 25 February, a small mud flow originating from a melt hole in the Drift Glacier traveled several hundred meters. Satellite images revealed that the next day another mudflow traveled several kilometers and covered a large portion of the Drift Glacier. Web camera views and satellite imagery showed no unusual activity; steam plumes within the summit crater were seen on the web camera on 26 and 1 March.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


18 February-24 February 2009

AVO reported that during 18-24 February seismic activity at Redoubt was variable but remained elevated above background levels. Web camera views and satellite imagery showed no unusual activity; steam plumes within the summit crater were seen on the web camera on 23 and 24 February.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


11 February-17 February 2009

AVO reported that during 10-17 February seismic activity at Redoubt was variable but remained elevated above background levels. Web camera views were often obscured by snow, clouds, or ice on the camera housing. On 10 February, scientists noted that the outflow stream on the W side of Drift Glacier was frozen.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


4 February-10 February 2009

AVO reported that during 4-10 February seismic activity at Redoubt fluctuated but remained elevated well above background levels. On 7 February, aerial observers reported continued steaming from an area around the 1989-90 lava dome and water discharge along the Drift Glacier. Clear web camera views during 7-9 February showed small steam plumes.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


28 January-3 February 2009

AVO reported that during 27 January-3 February seismic activity at Redoubt remained elevated above background levels. On 27 January, observers reported continued muddy discharge from points on the Drift Glacier, below the summit crater. A diffuse steam plume was possibly identified on satellite imagery on 29 January. An overflight the next day revealed increased fumarolic activity, an enlargement of melt features in the summit glacier, and increased runoff from along the margins of the Drift Glacier. During 31 January and 1-2 February, steam plumes were intermittently seen on the web camera rising above the summit.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


21 January-27 January 2009

AVO reported that during 24-25 January seismic activity at Redoubt increased markedly. On 25 January, seismic tremor became sustained and amplitude increased notably prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Alert Level to Watch. During an overflight later that day, observers saw no evidence of an eruption. However, they also noted increased steaming through previously identified sources in the snow and ice cover, along with sulfur gas emissions. An overflight on 26 January revealed elevated sulfur dioxide emissions from the summit and new outflows of muddy debris along the glacier that is downslope of the summit. On 26 and 27 January, seismicity fluctuated but remained above background levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


5 November-11 November 2008

On 5 November, AVO raised the Aviation Color Code for Redoubt to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory because of significant changes in gas emission and heat output during the previous several months. The changes were a departure from the long-observed background activity. ASTER satellite images from 13 October detected warming near the summit craters; evidence of warming had been directly observed in July 2008. Fumarolic activity and water flowing beneath Drift Glacier on the N flank had produced a 45-m-wide melt or collapse hole at an elevation of about 1,700 m (5,600 ft) on the Drift Glacier. On 2 November, a slushy debris-flow deposit originated from about the location of the 1966-68 vent. During 6-11 November, no activity was observed on satellite imagery and seismicity remained low.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


1 October-7 October 2008

AVO reported that on 16 September, a pilot flying downwind of Redoubt reported smelling a strong sulfur dioxide odor. A week later, residents of a cabin near Wadell Lake (25 km NE) reported loud noises coming from the direction of Redoubt. During an overflight on 27 September, scientists observed several fractures and circular openings in the upper Drift glacier that had not been seen before. They also noted that fumaroles atop the 1968 and 1990 lava domes were more vigorous than when last observed in mid-August. A distinct hydrogen sulfide odor was also evident, though no sulfur dioxide was detected by onboard instrumentation. The seismic network at Redoubt did not detect any abnormal earthquake activity. The Volcano Alert Level remained Normal and the Aviation Color Code remained Green.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2009 Mar 15 2009 Jul 1 ± 30 days Confirmed 3 Historical Observations South of 1990 dome
1989 Dec 14 1990 Jun 20 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations North end of summit crater (2470 m)
1967 Dec 6 1968 Apr 28 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations North end of summit crater (2300 m)
1966 Oct 7 1967 Jan 15 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations North end of summit crater (2300 m)
1966 Jan 24 1966 Feb 20 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations North end of summit crater (2300 m)
[ 1965 Jan 29 ] [ 1965 Feb ] Discredited    
[ 1933 May 25 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1902 Jan 18 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
[ 1819 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1778 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1650 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1530 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1510 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1400 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1360 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1200 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1160 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1120 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1030 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0720 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0640 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0580 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0520 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0440 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0290 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0190 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0110 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0070 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0090 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0100 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0160 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0210 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
0220 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0270 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0350 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0380 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0390 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0400 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0420 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0450 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0470 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0600 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0610 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0620 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0670 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0770 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0790 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0830 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0870 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1040 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1080 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
1100 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1150 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1210 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1310 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1350 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1510 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1540 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1550 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1560 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1690 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1700 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1810 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1870 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
2040 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
2230 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
2350 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
2830 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
2860 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
2920 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
3030 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
3150 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
3180 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
3600 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
3650 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
3690 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
3730 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
3890 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
4010 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
4360 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
4510 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
4810 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
4900 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
4960 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
5240 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
5580 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
5820 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
5910 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
5940 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
5950 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
6050 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
6150 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
6190 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
6280 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
7210 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
7270 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
7380 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
7430 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
7800 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
9310 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Beget J E, Nye C J, 1994. Postglacial eruption history of Mt. Redoubt, Alaska. J Volc Geotherm Res, 62: 31-54.

Beget J, Gardner C, Davis K, 2008. Volcanic tsunamis and prehistorical cultural transitions in Cook Inlet, Alaska. J Volc Geotherm Res, 176: 377-386.

Brantley S R (ed), 1990. The eruptions of Redoubt volcano, Alaska December 14, 1989 - August 31, 1990. U S Geol Surv Circ, 1061: 1-33.

Coats R R, 1950. Volcanic activity in the Aleutian Arc. U S Geol Surv Bull, 974-B: 35-47.

Gardner C A, Neal C A, Waitt R B, Janda R J, 1994. Proximal pyroclastic deposits from the 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt volcano Alaska--stratigraphy, distribution, and physical characteristics. J Volc Geotherm Res, 62: 213-250.

Henning R A, Rosenthal C H, Olds B, Reading E (eds), 1976. Alaska's volcanoes, northern link in the ring of fire. Alaska Geog, 4: 1-88.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Miller T P, 1994. Dome growth and destruction during the 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt volcano. J Volc Geotherm Res, 62: 197-212.

Miller T P, Chouet B A, 1994. The 1989-1990 eruptions of Redoubt volcano: an introduction. J Volc Geotherm Res, 61: 1-10.

Miller T P, McGimsey R G, Richter D H, Riehle J R, Nye C J, Yount M E, Dumoulin J A, 1998. Catalogue of the historically active volcanoes of Alaska. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 98-582: 1-104.

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Riehle J R, 1985. A reconnaissance of the major Holocene tephra deposits in the Upper Cook Inlet Region, Alaska. J Volc Geotherm Res, 26: 37-74.

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Redoubt is a 3108-m-high glacier-covered stratovolcano with a breached summit crater in Lake Clark National Park about 170 km SW of Anchorage. Next to Mount Spurr, Redoubt has been the most active Holocene volcano in the upper Cook Inlet. The volcano was constructed beginning about 890,000 years ago over Mesozoic granitic rocks of the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith. Collapse of the summit of Redoubt 10,500-13,000 years ago produced a major debris avalanche that reached Cook Inlet. Holocene activity has included the emplacement of a large debris avalanche and clay-rich lahars that dammed Lake Crescent on the south side and reached Cook Inlet about 3500 years ago. Eruptions during the past few centuries have affected only the Drift River drainage on the north. Historical eruptions have originated from a vent at the north end of the 1.8-km-wide breached summit crater. The 1989-90 eruption of Redoubt had severe economic impact on the Cook Inlet region and affected air traffic far beyond the volcano.