Makushin

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 53.891°N
  • 166.923°W

  • 1800 m
    5904 ft

  • 311310
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

30 May-5 June 2001

Since July 2000 AVO has detected a slight increase in the number of small earthquakes beneath Makushin. The earthquakes generally ranged in depth between 0 and 8 km and were too small to be felt by humans (M0-1.5). The seismic activity was not considered to be an immediate precursor to eruptive activity. Similar fluctuations in earthquake activity have been observed at a number of Aleutian volcanoes that did not result in an eruption. The Concern Color Code remained at Green.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



 Available Weekly Reports


2001: May


30 May-5 June 2001

Since July 2000 AVO has detected a slight increase in the number of small earthquakes beneath Makushin. The earthquakes generally ranged in depth between 0 and 8 km and were too small to be felt by humans (M0-1.5). The seismic activity was not considered to be an immediate precursor to eruptive activity. Similar fluctuations in earthquake activity have been observed at a number of Aleutian volcanoes that did not result in an eruption. The Concern Color Code remained at Green.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1995 Jan 30 1995 Jan 30 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1993 Aug 1994 Jan 19 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1987 Mar 2 1987 Mar 2 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 1986 Apr 28 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1980 May 1 ± 75 days Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations SE side of summit
[ 1952 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1951 Dec 20 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1938 Oct Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1926 Dec 30 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1912 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1907 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1883 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1867 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1865 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
[ 1844 ± 1 years ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1827 ] [ 1838 ] Uncertain 2  
1826 Jun Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
[ 1818 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1802 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
[ 1792 Feb 14 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1790 Jun 7 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1768 1769 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1150 ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
0550 BCE ± 900 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
1750 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
3650 BCE ± 1850 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology
6100 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
6650 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Beget J E, Nye C J, Bean K W, 2000. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Makushin volcano, Alaska. Alaska Div Geol Geophys Surv, Rpt Invest, 2000-4: 1-22.

Coats R R, 1950. Volcanic activity in the Aleutian Arc. U S Geol Surv Bull, 974-B: 35-47.

Drewes H, Fraser G D, Snyder G L, Barnett H F, 1961. Geology of Unalaska Island and adjacent insular shelf, Aleutian Islands, Alaska. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1028-S: 583-676.

Henning R A, Rosenthal C H, Olds B, Reading E (eds), 1976. Alaska's volcanoes, northern link in the ring of fire. Alaska Geog, 4: 1-88.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Miller T P, McGimsey R G, Richter D H, Riehle J R, Nye C J, Yount M E, Dumoulin J A, 1998. Catalogue of the historically active volcanoes of Alaska. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 98-582: 1-104.

Motyka R J, Liss S A, Nye C J, Moorman M A, 1993. Geothermal resources of the Aleutian arc. Alaska Div Geol Geophys Surv, Prof Rpt, no 114, 17 p and 4 map sheets.

Myers J D, 1994. The Geology, Geochemistry and Petrology of the recent Magmatic Phase of the Central and Western Aleutian Arc. Unpublished manuscript, unpaginated.

Smith R L, Shaw H R, Luedke R G, Russell S L, 1978. Comprehensive tables giving physical data and thermal energy estimates for young igneous systems of the United States. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 78-925: 1-25.

The ice-covered, 1800-m-high Makushin volcano on northern Unalaska Island west of the town of Dutch Harbor is capped by a 2.5-km-wide caldera. The broad, domical structure of Makushin contrasts with the steep-sided profiles of most other Aleutian stratovolcanoes. Much of the volcano was formed during the Pleistocene, but the caldera (which formed about 8000 years ago), Sugarloaf cone on the ENE flank, and a cluster of about a dozen explosion pits and cinder cones at Point Kadin on the WNW flank, are of Holocene age. A broad band of NE-SW-trending satellitic vents cuts across the volcano. The composite Pakushin cone, with multiple summit craters, lies 8 km to the SW of Makushin. Frequent explosive eruptions have occurred during the past 4000 years, sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and surges. Geothermal areas are found in the summit caldera of Makushin and on the SE and eastern flanks of the volcano. They represent the largest and most investigated high-temperature geothermal resources in Alaska. Small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Makushin since 1786.