Cleveland

Photo of this volcano
Google Earth icon
Google Earth Placemark
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 52.825°N
  • 169.944°W

  • 1730 m
    5674 ft

  • 311240
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

19 February-25 February 2014

AVO reported that small explosions from Cleveland were detected by infrasound and lightning alarms at 1917 on 24 February and 0135 on 25 February. Small ash clouds from the explosions were detected in satellite images several hours after the events drifting at an altitude of about 5 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



 Available Weekly Reports


2014: January | February
2013: February | March | May
2012: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | November
2011: March | July | August | September | October | November | December
2010: May | June | August | September
2009: April | June | September | October | December
2008: February | May | July | August | December
2007: July | August | September
2006: February | May | September | October
2005: June | July | August | October | November
2001: February | March | April | May


19 February-25 February 2014

AVO reported that small explosions from Cleveland were detected by infrasound and lightning alarms at 1917 on 24 February and 0135 on 25 February. Small ash clouds from the explosions were detected in satellite images several hours after the events drifting at an altitude of about 5 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


8 January-14 January 2014

AVO reported that no further activity at Cleveland had been detected after three brief explosions on 28 and 30 December, and 2 January; satellite images suggested no new lava effusion. On 10 January AVO lowered the Volcanic Alert Level to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO)


1 January-7 January 2014

AVO reported that at 1229 on 28 December 2013 an explosion at Cleveland was detected on distant seismic and infrasound instruments. Although satellite images did not detect ash it was possible the explosion generated minor ash emissions. Elevated surface temperatures following the explosion were detected. Another similar explosion was detected at 1906 on 30 December, and a third brief explosion was detected at 1900 on 1 January 2014. Following the second and third explosions, satellite images detected distinct ash plumes, detached from the summit, drifting 75-100 km N at unknown altitudes. On 2 January AVO raised the Volcanic Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange. No further activity was detected during 3-7 January.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


29 May-4 June 2013

On 4 June AVO reported that no explosions from Cleveland had been detected since 6 May, and there was no evidence of lava effusion since 13 May. Weakly elevated surface temperatures detected in recent clear-weather satellite images were consistent with cooling of a newly emplaced lava flow. AVO lowered the Volcanic Alert Level to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


22 May-28 May 2013

AVO reported that during 22-23 May elevated surface temperatures over Cleveland were observed in satellite images. Clouds obscured views during 24-26 May. Slightly elevated surface temperatures, consistent with a cooling lava flow, were observed in several satellite images during 26-28 May. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


15 May-21 May 2013

AVO reported that during 14-15 and 18-19 May elevated surface temperatures over Cleveland were observed in satellite images. Clouds obscured views during 16 and 20-21 May. Satellite image analysis revealed that a small lava flow had breached the SE rim of the summit crater and traveled as far as1.5 km down the flank. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


8 May-14 May 2013

AVO reported that during 8-9 May no further explosions had been detected at Cleveland based on regional infrasonic data. Cloud cover prevented satellite observations of the crater. Clear satellite views revealed vigorous steam plumes during 10-11 May and thermal anomalies during 10-14 May. On 14 May AVO noted that analysis of recent satellite imagery revealed a 100-m-wide lava flow, breaching the SE rim of the summit crater, and extending about 1.5 km down the SE flank. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


1 May-7 May 2013

AVO reported that on 4 May the infrasound network detected three short-duration explosions from Cleveland at 0500, 0717, and 1144. A small, low-altitude ash cloud along with high surface temperatures at the summit were observed in satellite images starting at 0717. In a report posted at 1822 AVO noted that both webcam and satellite images suggested continuous low-level emissions of gas, steam, and minor amounts of ash over the past several hours with a faint plume drifting E below 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. The Volcanic Alert Level was raised to Watch and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.

On 5 May the amplitude of the Cleveland infrasonic tremor, as measured by the ground-coupled airwaves on the Okmok seismic network, 120 km NE, decreased from its peak activity the evening before. Satellite images again detected continuous low-level emissions of gas, steam, and minor amounts of ash producing a faint plume that drifted E below 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. Explosions were detected at 1123 on 5 May and 0800 on 6 May. A thermal anomaly continued to be detected. A news article stated that some airplanes were diverted away from Cleveland.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


6 March-12 March 2013

AVO reported that during 6-7 March clouds obscured satellite views of Cleveland's lava dome. On 8 March AVO noted that the lava dome had remained unchanged since 6 February, and the last thermal anomalies were observed on 26 February. Although cloud cover often prevents observations of the dome, clear views between 1 and 5 March verified no changes. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


27 February-5 March 2013

AVO reported that during 27 February-5 March clouds obscured satellite views of Cleveland's lava dome. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


20 February-26 February 2013

AVO reported that during 20-26 February clouds obscured satellite views of Cleveland's lava dome. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


13 February-19 February 2013

AVO reported that during 12-15 February elevated surface temperatures from Cleveland's lava dome were detected in satellite images. Clouds obscured views of the dome during 16-19 February. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


6 February-12 February 2013

On 6 February AVO reported that satellite imagery acquired on 30 January indicated that a lava dome had grown in Cleveland's summit crater, prompting AVO to raise the Volcanic Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange. The dome was about 100 m in diameter and may have begun forming as early as 24 January when elevated surface temperatures were observed in satellite images. The size and shape of the dome appeared to be unchanged based on satellite data acquired on 2 February. Elevated surface temperatures from the lava dome were detected during 5-6 and 8-11 February.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


21 November-27 November 2012

On 21 November AVO noted that no explosions at Cleveland had been detected since 10 November, nor evidence of renewed lava-dome growth. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. Elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite imagery during 21-24 November. Clouds obscured satellite and web camera views during 25-27 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


14 November-20 November 2012

AVO reported that no new activity was observed in cloudy- to- mostly-cloudy satellite images and web-camera views during 14-15 November. Clouds completely obstructed views during 16-18 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


7 November-13 November 2012

AVO reported that on 6 November thermal infrared satellite images of Cleveland showed elevated surface temperatures. Clouds obscure views of the lava dome during 7-9 November. A small ash cloud drifting ENE was detected in satellite imagery at 1147 on 10 November. The Volcano Alert Level was raised to Watch and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. At 1843 the ash cloud was observed almost 100 km S of Dutch Harbor (260 km ENE). No new activity was observed in mostly cloudy images during11-13 November. Post-event analysis of infrasound data suggested that a small explosion likely occurred at 1125 on 10 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


5 September-11 September 2012

On 5 September, AVO reported that satellite views of Cleveland showed no evidence of further eruptive activity since the last explosion on 20 August. Fresh lava within the summit crater was last detected in images in early May. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


29 August-4 September 2012

AVO reported that satellite images of Cleveland from 17 August showed that the summit crater was tephra-covered, funnel-shaped, and contained no lava dome. Cloud cover prevented observations during 28 August-3 September. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


22 August-28 August 2012

AVO reported that nothing unusual was observed at Cleveland in cloudy to partly cloudy satellite images during 22-26 August. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were detected at the summit during 23-24 August. Cloud cover prevented observations during 27-28 August. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


15 August-21 August 2012

AVO reported that nothing unusual was observed at Cleveland in cloudy to partly cloudy satellite images during 15-16, 18, and 20-21 August. A small explosion was detected on 17 August by seismic and infrasound instruments on neighboring volcanoes. No evidence of an ash cloud was visible in satellite images following the event. Another small explosion on 19 August produced a low-level ash cloud, observed in satellite imagery, that drifted SE. Retrospective analysis of ground-coupled airwaves in seismic data further confirmed the explosion. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


8 August-14 August 2012

AVO reported that during 8-11 August elevated surface temperatures from Cleveland were detected in partly-cloudy satellite images. Cloud cover prevented observations on 12 August. Nothing unusual was observed in images during 13-14 August. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


1 August-7 August 2012

AVO reported that cloud cover prevented satellite and web-camera observations of Cleveland during 1-3 and 5-6 August. A small explosion at 0838 on 4 August was detected based on retrospective analysis of infrasound data. Satellite images showed a brief, faint steam plume about four hours after the event and also detected elevated surface temperatures in several clear views of the volcano. On 7 August elevated surface temperatures were detected in partly-cloudy satellite images. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


25 July-31 July 2012

AVO reported that cloud cover mostly prevented satellite and web camera observations of Cleveland during 25-31 July. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite images during 25-26 and 29-30 July. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


18 July-24 July 2012

AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures from Cleveland were detected in satellite images during 18-20 July. Images revealed nothing unusual during 20-22 July. Cloud cover mostly prevented observations during 22-24 July; a steam plume rose from the crater on 23 July. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


11 July-17 July 2012

AVO reported that on 11 July a low-altitude ash cloud from Cleveland was detected in satellite imagery. During 12-15 July cloud cover prevented views of the volcano. Elevated surface temperatures were detected in images on 15 July. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


4 July-10 July 2012

AVO reported that cloudy conditions at Cleveland often prevented observations during 4-9 July. Clear views of the volcano by the web camera on the morning of 6 July revealed a distinct plume, likely containing water vapor and volcanic gas, drifting several tens of miles downwind from the summit. Elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite images on 10 July. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


27 June-3 July 2012

AVO reported that cloudy conditions at Cleveland mostly prevented observations during 26-28 June. An area of possibly elevated surface temperatures was observed in images during 27-28 June. Cloud cover prevented observations during 29 June-3 July. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


20 June-26 June 2012

AVO reported that a small amount of ash from an explosion at Cleveland on 19 June was visible in satellite imagery drifting ESE. During 20-24 June thermal anomalies were detected in satellite imagery. On 21 June a small steam-and-gas plume was visible in web camera images. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


13 June-19 June 2012

AVO reported that during 12-19 June meteorological cloud cover often prevented satellite views of Cleveland. Elevated surface temperatures at the summit were detected using infrared imagery during 12-13 and 18-19 June. A pilot report, a web camera image, and infrasound data all indicated that an ash-producing explosion occurred around 1405 on 19 June. The pilot report suggested that the cloud altitude was 10 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and the infrasound data indicated that the eruption duration was short. The Volcano Alert Level was raised to Watch and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


6 June-12 June 2012

AVO reported that during 5-6 June elevated surface temperatures at Cleveland's summit were detected in satellite imagery. A low-level plume that rose to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. was observed by a web camera on 6 June. A strong sulfur odor was reported by observers in Nikolski (75 km E). Clouds prevented views of the volcano on 7 June. Minor deposits of ash near the summit crater were observed in satellite images during 9-10 June and elevated surface temperatures were detected during 11-12 June. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


30 May-5 June 2012

On 30 May AVO reported that no explosions or renewed lava-dome growth had been detected at Cleveland since 9 May. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. On 4 June a possible small explosion was detected by infrasound. No eruption plume was observed in cloudy satellite images, but elevated surface temperatures were detected at the summit.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


23 May-29 May 2012

AVO reported that during 23-29 May satellite observations of Cleveland's summit crater revealed nothing unusual; no ash emissions or other signs of unrest were detected or reported. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


16 May-22 May 2012

AVO reported that during 16-22 May satellite observations of Cleveland's summit crater revealed nothing unusual; no ash emissions or other signs of unrest were detected or reported. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


9 May-15 May 2012

AVO reported that during 9-12 and 15 May cloudy weather conditions prevented satellite observations of Cleveland's summit crater. Elevated surface temperatures were detected in images on 13 May and possibly the next day. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


2 May-8 May 2012

Based on analyses of satellite images, AVO reported on 4 May that the small lava dome recently emplaced in Cleveland's summit crater had been destroyed late in the previous week, but the explosion was too small to be detected by distant infrasound and seismic networks. A small new dome was extruded following the explosion and was the fifth dome to be observed in this eruptive episode which began in July 2011. During 4-5 May two small explosions were detected. No ash was observed with the mostly-cloudy conditions. Satellite observations were obscured by clouds during 6-8 May.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


25 April-1 May 2012

AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures were detected over Cleveland in satellite imagery during 25-29 April and possibly on 30 April. Observations showed that a small lava dome, 25 m across, had recently been emplaced.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


18 April-24 April 2012

AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures were observed over Cleveland in satellite imagery during 17-18 April. An explosion on 19 April at 0438, detected by seismometers at Makushin and Okmok volcanoes, generated an ash cloud the rose 4-6 km (13,100-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. Satellite images showed block-and-ash deposits extending for up to 1 km down the S flank. A possible weak thermal anomaly was detected in images during 20-21 April.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


11 April-17 April 2012

AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures were observed over Cleveland in satellite imagery during 11-12 April. Two explosions were detected on 13 April by distant seismic stations and infrasound arrays. Neither of these explosions produced an ash cloud that could be detected in satellite images. There was no evidence of explosive activity or eruption of lava in the summit crater during 14-17 April. No seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


4 April-10 April 2012

AVO reported that a small explosion from Cleveland was detected at 0112 on 4 April by distant seismic stations and infrasound arrays. Weather conditions prevented the detection of a possible eruption cloud in satellite images or by visual observation of the summit. Observations the next day revealed a thermal anomaly and that the 70-m-diameter lava dome had been destroyed by the explosion. This was the third lava dome that was erupted and subsequently destroyed by explosive events since the eruption began in July 2011.

On 6 April two short-duration explosions occurred at about 1635 and 2126. The resulting eruption clouds were ash poor and did not rise above 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Elevated surface temperatures were observed using infrared satellite images near the times of the explosions. Satellite observations were obscured by clouds during 8-10 April. No seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


28 March-3 April 2012

AVO reported that on 28 March the Volcano Alert Level for Cleveland was raised to Watch and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange due to the formation of a new lava dome, observed in satellite imagery, which extruded in the summit crater during the previous week. During 29 March-3 April cloud cover prevented observations of the crater. Elevated surface temperatures consistent with a hot lava dome were detected in infrared satellite imagery on 4 April. No seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


21 March-27 March 2012

AVO reported on 23 March that the Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code for Cleveland were lowered to Advisory and Yellow, respectively, because no explosions had been detected since 13 March and lava-dome growth was not evident after that.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


14 March-20 March 2012

AVO reported that a small explosion from Cleveland was detected at 1455 on 13 March by distant seismic stations and infrasound arrays. Weather conditions prevented the detection of a possible eruption cloud in satellite images or by visual observation of the summit. No other activity was detected during 14-19 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


7 March-13 March 2012

AVO reported that a small explosion from Cleveland was detected at 1905 on 7 March by distant seismic stations and infrasound arrays. Weather conditions prevented the detection of a possible eruption cloud in satellite images or by visual observation of the summit. Another small explosion was detected at 1605 on 9 March and again weather conditions prevented observations. No other activity was detected during 11-13 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


29 February-6 March 2012

AVO reported that during 24 February-2 March satellite images of Cleveland revealed no unusual activity and no significant changes in the size of the lava dome. A weak thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery on 3 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


22 February-28 February 2012

AVO reported that satellite observations of Cleveland during 22-28 February revealed that the growth of the lava dome continued at a slow rate. Cloud cover over the volcano prevented views of the lava dome during 22 and 25-28 February. On 23 February a thermal anomaly was detected in partly cloudy satellite images. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


15 February-21 February 2012

AVO reported that during 15-18 and 20-21 February no observations of elevated surface temperatures or ash emissions from Cleveland were noted. On 17 February, AVO reported that partly-cloudy satellite observations over the past week revealed that the lava dome had grown to about 60 m in diameter. On 19 February an elevated surface temperature was detected in satellite images. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


8 February-14 February 2012

AVO reported that during 8-14 February there were no observations of elevated surface temperatures or ash emissions from Cleveland because of partly cloudy conditions. On 10 February satellite observations revealed that the lava dome had grown to about 50 m in diameter. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


1 February-7 February 2012

AVO reported that during 2-7 February cloud cover over Cleveland prevented views of the lava dome in the summit crater. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


25 January-31 January 2012

AVO reported that on 31 January the Volcano Alert Level for Cleveland was raised to Watch and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange due to the formation of a new 40-m-wide lava dome in the summit crater that was observed in satellite imagery on 30 January. The lava dome that formed during the past fall and winter was removed by explosive activity on 25 and 29 December 2011. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


28 December-3 January 2012

AVO reported that an ash cloud from Cleveland rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 80 km ESE on 29 December. AVO raised the Volcano Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange. During 30 December-3 January there were no new signs of explosive activity; the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow on 30 December. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


2 November-8 November 2011

AVO reported that a thermal anomaly over the lava dome surface in Cleveland's summit crater was visible on 2 November, although cloudy views mostly prevented observations. On 3 November AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow because satellite observations indicated no significant change in the size of the lava dome, and no explosive activity or ash emissions had been reported. Cloud cover continued to prevent observations during 4-6 November. Satellite imagery showed slightly elevated temperatures near the volcano's summit during 6-7 November. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


26 October-1 November 2011

AVO reported that a radar image from 23 October indicated a lowering of the lava dome surface in Cleveland's summit crater. During 26 October-1 November cloud cover prevented views of the lava dome. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


19 October-25 October 2011

AVO reported that during 19-23 October cloud cover over Cleveland prevented views of the lava dome in the summit crater. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


12 October-18 October 2011

AVO reported that during 12-13 October cloud cover over Cleveland prevented views of the lava dome in the summit crater. Partly cloudy satellite views during 14-18 October showed elevated surface temperatures from the crater indicative of continued growth of the lava dome. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


5 October-11 October 2011

AVO reported that during 5-6 and 9-11 October cloud cover over Cleveland prevented views of the lava dome in the summit crater. Partly cloudy satellite views during 7-8 October showed elevated surface temperatures at the summit. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


28 September-4 October 2011

AVO reported that during 27-28 September and 30 September-1 October thermal anomalies over Cleveland's summit lava dome were detected in satellite images and suggested that the lava dome continued to slowly grow. Clouds obscured views on 29 September and during 2-3 October. Elevated surface temperatures were detected by satellite in partly cloudy images acquired during 3-4 October. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


21 September-27 September 2011

AVO reported that during 20-21 September no observations of elevated surface temperatures or ash emissions from Cleveland were visible in partly cloudy satellite images. Clouds obscured views on 22 September. Elevated surface temperatures were observed in satellite images during 23-24 September, suggesting that the lava dome eruption was continuing. On 25 September AVO noted that elevated surface temperatures were not observed in several clear views of the volcano by satellite during the previous 24-hour period. Cloud cover prevented observations on 26 September.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


14 September-20 September 2011

AVO reported that during 13-17 September no lava-dome activity in Cleveland's summit crater was observed in partly cloudy satellite images. During 17-18 September a thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images. A report on 20 September noted that recent observations revealed the lava dome had grown to about 165 m in diameter, remained contained within the crater, and was 20 m below the E crater rim.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


7 September-13 September 2011

AVO reported that although cloud cover often prevented observations of Cleveland during 7-12 September, a thermal anomaly on the lava dome was visible during 8-9 and 12 September. A possible anomaly was visible on 10 September. The anomalies suggested that lava-dome growth was continuing, although no activity was observed in partly cloudy satellite images during 12-13 September. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


31 August-6 September 2011

On 30 August, AVO reported that satellite observations during the previous two weeks indicated that lava-dome growth at Cleveland had paused. AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow. During 31 August-2 September cloud cover prevented views of the summit crater, but a thermal anomaly at the summit was observed during 3-5 September. Observations on 6 September indicated that the lava dome had resumed growth, reaching 120 m in diameter and filling the floor of the crater. AVO raised the Volcano Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


17 August-23 August 2011

AVO reported that during 17-23 August cloud cover over Cleveland prevented observations of the summit crater. On 21 August AVO noted that a weak, 1-pixel thermal anomaly was observed in a recent satellite view during a cloud break. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


10 August-16 August 2011

On 9 August AVO reported that possible thermal anomalies on Cleveland were detected in satellite imagery. Cloud cover prevented observations of the summit area during 10-12 and 15-16 August, but several thermal anomalies were visible during 13-14 August. A scientist that flew 32 km N of the volcano on 14 August observed small white "puffs" of steam rising 30-60 m above the summit, even though most of the volcano was obscured by clouds. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


3 August-9 August 2011

AVO reported that observations from 2 August of the lava dome growing in Cleveland's summit crater revealed growth from about 40 m to 50 m in diameter since 29 July. Weak thermal anomalies were observed in satellite imagery during 2-3, 5, and 7-9 August when cloud cover was limited or absent. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


27 July-2 August 2011

AVO reported that on 2 August the Volcano Alert Level for Cleveland was raised to Watch and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange due to the formation of a 40-m-wide lava dome in the summit crater that was observed on 29 July. The lava dome was extruded sometime after 7 July following the last clear view of the summit area, however thermal anomalies observed since 19 July suggested that the dome had extruded since that time.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


20 July-26 July 2011

AVO reported that on 20 July the Volcano Alert Level for Cleveland was raised to Advisory, and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow, due to thermal anomalies visible in satellite imagery during 19-20 and 22 July. Cloud cover prevented observations during 21 and 23-26 July. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


30 March-5 April 2011

On 31 March, AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level and the Aviation Color Code for Cleveland to Unassigned noting that no eruptive activity had been confirmed during the previous few months. Neither significant thermal anomalies nor ash deposits on snow were observed in recent satellite imagery.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


22 September-28 September 2010

AVO reported that during 25-26 September a weak thermal anomaly from Cleveland was detected in satellite imagery. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano during 22-24 and 27-28 September. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


15 September-21 September 2010

AVO reported that on 15 September a thermal anomaly from Cleveland was detected in satellite imagery. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano during 16-21 September. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


8 September-14 September 2010

AVO reported that during 7-8 September clear-weather satellite views of Cleveland showed no thermal anomalies or recent deposits on the flanks. The Volcano Alert Level and the Aviation Color Code were lowered to Unassigned. On 11 September, a thermal anomaly was observed in satellite imagery. The next day a possible ash plume seen in satellite imagery rose to the estimated altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. The Volcano Alert Level and the Aviation Color Code were again raised to Advisory and Yellow, respectively. A thermal anomaly was again visible during 13-14 September.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


1 September-7 September 2010

AVO reported that during 31 August-1 September thermal anomalies from Cleveland were detected in satellite imagery. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


25 August-31 August 2010

AVO reported that on 26 August the Volcano Alert Level for Cleveland was raised to Advisory, and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow, due to a persistent thermal anomaly near the summit visible in satellite imagery on most days during 16-24 August. Cloudy weather conditions prevented views of the summit during 25-29 August. A thermal anomaly was again seen in satellite imagery at night during 29-30 August. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


9 June-15 June 2010

AVO reported that on 11 June the Volcano Alert Level and the Aviation Color Code for Cleveland was lowered to Unassigned; no activity or unrest was detected during 4-11 June.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


2 June-8 June 2010

AVO reported that a weak thermal anomaly from Cleveland was detected in satellite imagery on 2 June. Cloud cover mostly prevented observations during 3-8 June. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


26 May-1 June 2010

AVO reported a small ash emission from Cleveland on 30 May. A detached plume seen in satellite imagery rose no higher than 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Satellite images the next day revealed minor (uncharacterized) flow deposits on the upper flanks. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


19 May-25 May 2010

On 25 May, AVO raised the Volcano Alert Level for Cleveland to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow because thermal anomalies from the crater were seen in satellite imagery during the previous few days.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


16 December-22 December 2009

On 18 December, AVO reported that a diffuse ash plume emitted from Cleveland on 12 December was retrospectively detected in satellite imagery. No other activity was noted.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


14 October-20 October 2009

On 19 October, AVO reported that no eruptive activity from Cleveland had been observed since the brief eruption on 2 October. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level were lowered to Unassigned. Cleveland is not monitored by a real-time seismic network, thus the levels "Green" or "Normal" do not apply because background activity is not defined.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


30 September-6 October 2009

A small explosive eruption of Cleveland on 2 October prompted AVO to raise the Volcano Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange. A detached ash cloud at estimated altitudes of 4.6-6.1 km (15,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. was seen on satellite imagery; the cloud drifted about 600 km NE and dispersed over the Bering Sea. No further activity was reported. On 5 October, the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. No seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


24 June-30 June 2009

A small explosive eruption of Cleveland on 25 June prompted AVO to raise the Volcano Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange. An ash cloud that detached from the volcano was seen on satellite imagery moving S at an estimated altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. No further activity was reported. On 27 June, AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


29 April-5 May 2009

On 1 May, AVO decreased the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level for Cleveland to "Unassigned" because no volcanic activity had been detected since late January. Cleveland is not monitored by a real-time seismic network, thus the levels "Green" or "Normal" do not apply because background activity is not defined.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


31 December-6 January 2009

AVO reported that cloud cover prevented satellite observations of Cleveland during 31 December, and 1, 3, and 5 January. The brief explosive emission of ash was detected on 2 January. A resultant ash plume rose to an altitude of 6 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 240 km ESE. A thermal anomaly over the summit was detected on 4 January. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


24 December-30 December 2008

AVO reported that on 24 December the Volcano Alert Level for Cleveland was raised to Advisory, and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow, due to a persistent thermal anomaly near the summit visible on satellite imagery acquired the day before. The previous Alert Levels were listed as Unassigned. Cloud cover prevented observations during 25-27 December. The thermal anomaly was again detected on 28 December, but was absent the next two days. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


20 August-26 August 2008

AVO reported that cloud cover prevented satellite observations of Cleveland during 20-26 August, although a possible thermal anomaly was present on 24 August. On 25 August the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


13 August-19 August 2008

AVO reported that cloud cover prevented satellite observations of Cleveland during 13-18 August. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


6 August-12 August 2008

On 6 August, AVO reported that the thermal anomalies noted at Cleveland's summit and on the W, S, and SE flanks had decreased in intensity since first noted on 21 July, indicating that the lava flows slowed or stopped. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow. During 7-10 August, a weak thermal anomaly at the summit was intermittently visible when not obscured by clouds and drifting ash from the eruption of Kasatochi (about 400 km WSW). On 11 August, thermal anomalies on satellite imagery indicated that lava flowed down the flanks. The Volcano Alert Level was raised to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange. On 12 August, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100 km SW.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


30 July-5 August 2008

AVO reported that thermal anomalies at Cleveland's summit, detected on satellite imagery during 30 July-5 August, suggested the presence of an active lava flow. A diffuse plume drifted less than 20 km NE, N, and NW at an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. on 31 July. On 5 August, thermal anomalies on the W, S, and SE flanks possibly indicated the presence of pyroclastic flows or hot lahars. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


23 July-29 July 2008

AVO reported that satellite views of Cleveland were hindered on 23 July due to cloud cover. On 24 July, a low-level ash plume and a strong thermal anomaly were noted near the summit. The thermal anomaly suggested the presence of an active lava flow. The thermal anomaly continued to be detected during 26-28 July and possible ash plumes drifted SE, E, and NE at altitudes of 3-6.1 km (10,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. during 27-29 July.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


16 July-22 July 2008

On 21 July, AVO raised the Volcano Alert Level for Cleveland to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange based on reports from pilots and observers on fishing boats. Reports from fishing boats indicated that an eruption started at about 1200 and ash near sea level may have drifted NW. Pilots reported that an ash-and-steam plume rose to altitudes of 4.6-5.2 km (15,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Observations of satellite imagery on 22 July revealed a steam plume possibly containing some ash drifting more than 50 km ESE at altitudes of 3-6.1 km (10,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. A strong thermal anomaly interpreted as a possible lava flow was also present in the imagery.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


7 May-13 May 2008

On 9 May, AVO reported that an increasing number of thermal anomalies at Cleveland were visible on satellite imagery during the previous two weeks. A small ash plume rose to an altitude of below 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. on 7 May. A ship N of Nikolski (75 km ENE) reported a dusting of ash around the same time. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


27 February-4 March 2008

AVO reported that a weak thermal anomaly and an ash plume from Cleveland were visible on satellite imagery on 29 February. The ash plume rose to an altitude of below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


20 February-26 February 2008

AVO reported that a low-level ash plume from Cleveland was visible on satellite imagery and drifted about 300 km SE on 22 February. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


13 February-19 February 2008

AVO reported that a minor explosion from Cleveland on 15 February produced a small, diffuse ash plume that rose to an altitude of below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


6 February-12 February 2008

AVO reported that diffuse ash plume from Cleveland was observed on satellite imagery drifting 12 km SE at an altitude below 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. during a break in cloud cover on 8 February. Later that day AVO received pilot reports of an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and observed the plume on satellite imagery drifting NW. Due to the increased activity, the Volcanic Alert Level was raised to Watch and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. No precursory or current seismic information is available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network. During 10-11 February, a thermal anomaly was possibly visible on satellite imagery. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered back to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow on 12 February.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


5 September-11 September 2007

AVO lowered the Volcanic Alert Level for Cleveland from Watch to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code from Orange to Yellow on 6 September. AVO noted that since late July, ash and gas plumes were absent in satellite imagery and no reports of activity were received. Clouds obscured satellite and web camera views during 5-11 September.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


29 August-4 September 2007

Clouds obscured satellite and web camera views of Cleveland volcano during 29 August-4 September. A clear view of the crater on 30 August and 1 September revealed thermal anomalies at the summit. No current seismic information is available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


22 August-28 August 2007

Clouds obscured satellite and web camera views of Cleveland volcano during 22-28 August. A clear view of the crater on 23 and 28 August revealed thermal anomalies at the summit. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


15 August-21 August 2007

Clouds obscured satellite and web camera views of Cleveland volcano during 15-20 August. A clear view of the crater on 20 August revealed a thermal anomaly at the summit. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


8 August-14 August 2007

Clouds obscured satellite and web camera views of Cleveland volcano during 8-13 August. A few clear views of the crater during 13-14 August revealed multiple thermal anomalies. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


1 August-7 August 2007

A thermal anomaly in the crater of Cleveland was intermittently visible on satellite imagery during 2-6 August, though bad weather often limited observations. Photographs from 27 July and a pilot report from 2 August indicated fresh volcanic ejecta on the slopes and summit. The E portion of Chuginadak Island was dusted with ash on 3 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


25 July-31 July 2007

A thermal anomaly in the crater of Cleveland was visible on satellite imagery during 25-26 July. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange through at least 30 July. On the 27th AVO noted that low-level eruptive activity continued. Three small SO2 clouds produced by small explosions on 20 July were detected in OMI satellite data provided by the University of Maryland Baltimore County. No further explosive activity had been detected by the OMI sensor since that time. AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest.

Sources: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), OMI Sulfur Dioxide Group


18 July-24 July 2007

AVO raised the Volcanic Alert Level for Cleveland from Advisory to Watch and the Aviation Color Code from Yellow to Orange on 20 July. The change in Alert Level was based on the presence of an intense thermal anomaly in the crater and associated steam-and-gas plume observed on satellite imagery. The thermal anomaly continued to be detected on satellite imagery during 22-23 July.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


25 October-31 October 2006

AVO raised the Alert Level for Cleveland from Advisory to Watch on 28 October based on pilot reports of an ash plume. Satellite imagery confirmed the presence of a plume drifting ENE at an altitude estimated at 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. A pilot reported that the altitude of the plume was in excess of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. On 30 October, the Alert Level was lowered back to Advisory because of no further evidence of activity.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


6 September-12 September 2006

On 7 September, AVO raised the level of Concern Color Code for Cleveland from unassigned to Yellow after a short-lived explosion on 24 August was verified by video footage. The resultant ash plume reached an altitude of about 3 km (~10,000 ft) a.s.l. and produced ash fall. An hour later, only minor steaming from the summit was noted. A weak thermal anomaly in the summit crater was present in subsequent satellite images.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


24 May-30 May 2006

The ash plume from Cleveland observed from the International Space Station on 23 May, drifted SW and had mostly dissipated by 24 May. No further activity was recorded. On 26 May AVO downgraded the Concern Color Code from Yellow to "Not Assigned".

Sources: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 May-23 May 2006

On 23 May, AVO reported that an astronaut aboard the International Space Station observed an ash plume from Cleveland at 1500. A plume was visible on satellite imagery at 1507 that drifted SW and reached a height of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. At 1700, an image showed the detached ash plume 130 km SW of Cleveland. The Concern Color Code was raised to Yellow. No precursory or current seismic information is available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


3 May-9 May 2006

On the morning of 2 May beginning at 0101, a thermal anomaly and continuous plume from Cleveland were seen on satellite imagery. The plume extended ~50 km SW of the volcano and was visible on satellite imagery for about 6 hours. Satellite data suggested a maximum cloud height of ~1 km (3,500 ft) a.s.l. There was no indication of ash in the observed cloud. No further activity was detected at Cleveland after 2 May. Cleveland was not assigned a Concern Color Code because there is no real-time seismic network at the volcano to monitor seismic changes.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


8 February-14 February 2006

AVO decreased the Concern Color Code at Cleveland from Orange to Yellow on 11 February. They received no information about further eruptive activity or ash emissions after 6 February, and no ash clouds were detected on satellite imagery. Clouds obscured the volcano during 6-11 February, therefore, AVO could not verify that eruptive activity ended and it is possible that the volcano remains in a state of low-level unrest.

Sources: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 February-7 February 2006

An ash cloud emitted from Cleveland was detected on satellite imagery beginning at 0757 on 6 February, leading AVO to increase the Concern Color Code to Red from an unassigned code (Cleveland does not normally have a Concern Color Code because it is not seismically monitored, therefore no definitive information about background activity is available). An image at 0900 on the same day showed a small ash cloud ~130 km ESE of the volcano. Initial data suggested that the cloud was at a height of ~6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. The ash cloud detached from the volcano and there was no indication of continuous ash emission. Ash had largely dissipated on satellite imagery by 1341. AVO received no information about additional ash emissions, so they decreased the Concern Color Code to Orange around 1655 on 6 February.

Sources: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 November-29 November 2005

Activity at Cleveland further decreased during 18-25 November. Following a brief ash burst on 7 October, no further ash emissions were noted. AVO did not detect a temperature anomaly in the vicinity of the volcano after 6 November. Based on this information, AVO concluded that the likelihood of significant ash-producing events decreased, so they terminated Concern Color Code Yellow. Cleveland is not monitored with seismic equipment, therefore AVO did not assign Color Concern Code Green.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


12 October-18 October 2005

After a brief ash burst at Cleveland on 7 October, no further eruptive activity was recorded at the volcano. On 10 October, AVO reduced the Concern Color Code from Orange to Yellow. AVO warned that although there were no additional ash bursts noted, they consider the volcano restless. Explosive ash-producing events could occur at any time and without warning (owing to the lack of local seismic monitoring). AVO continued to monitor the volcano using satellite imagery.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


5 October-11 October 2005

AVO staff recorded a small ash cloud emitted from Cleveland on satellite imagery on the morning of 7 October. Based on satellite data, a small eruption occurred at Cleveland sometime before 0300. The ash cloud was located E of the volcano and ~150 km ESE of Dutch Harbor at 0900. AVO, in consultation with the National Weather Service, estimated that the top of the ash cloud reached no more than 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. The ash cloud dissipated and was not detected on satellite imagery after 1000. The Concern Color Code at Cleveland was Orange on 7 October. During 7-10 October, there were no new observations of eruptive activity at Cleveland on satellite imagery, by pilots, or ground-based observers, so the Concern Color Code was reduced to Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


31 August-6 September 2005

A thermal feature at Cleveland was detected on several satellite images obtained on 31 August, but there was no evidence of eruptive activity at the volcano. Cleveland is not seismically monitored, so AVO did not assign it a Concern Color Code.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


24 August-30 August 2005

AVO reduced the Concern Color Code at Cleveland from Yellow to "Not Assigned" on 27 August because there had been no evidence of activity at the volcano since a thermal feature was observed on satellite imagery on 11 August. Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network; volcanoes without seismic networks are not assigned a color code of Green because without the seismic data, AVO has no definitive information that the level of activity of the volcano is at background.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


3 August-9 August 2005

Satellite imagery of Cleveland volcano on 4 August showed a thermal anomaly, indicating that activity continued. Cleveland remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


27 July-2 August 2005

Satellite imagery of Cleveland during 22-29 July showed minor steaming from the volcano's summit, possible fresh localized ash deposits, and a weak thermal anomaly. According to AVO, these observations suggested that low-level volcanic unrest continued. Cleveland remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


20 July-26 July 2005

Satellite imagery taken on 18 July showed steam emanating from Cleveland's summit and evidence of minor ash emissions. Satellite imagery from the rest of 15-22 July was obscured by meteorological clouds. Cleveland remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


6 July-12 July 2005

Satellite imagery of Cleveland taken during 1-8 July revealed increased activity at the volcano, so AVO assigned a Concern Color Code of Yellow on 7 July. The images showed increased heat flow, thin ash deposits, and possible debris flows extending ~1 km down the volcano's flanks from the summit crater. AVO reported that based on historical eruptions at Cleveland, it is possible that explosive, ash-producing events could occur at any time without warning (due to a lack of seismic monitoring).

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


29 June-5 July 2005

Satellite imagery of Cleveland taken during 24 June to 1 July showed increased heat flow from the volcano and a possible debris flow. AVO stated that although observations were inhibited by cloudy weather, they indicated the possibility of increased volcanic activity. AVO did not assign a Concern Color Code to Cleveland due to the lack of seismic monitoring at the volcano and limited satellite observations. The last eruption at Cleveland began in February 2001 when three explosive events produced ash clouds as high as 12 km (39,400 ft) a.s.l.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


23 May-29 May 2001

Neither eruptive activity nor thermal anomalies have been observed at Cleveland during the previous 6 weeks.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


16 May-22 May 2001

Cleveland was observed on satellite images numerous times during the week and no thermal anomalies were detected. AVO had received no reports of significant volcanic activity from pilots, residents, or satellite remote-sensors since the last eruption on 19 March.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


9 May-15 May 2001

Cleveland was obscured by clouds during most of the week and no thermal anomalies were observed. AVO had received no reports of significant volcanic activity from pilots, residents, or satellite remote-sensors since the last eruption on 19 March.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


2 May-8 May 2001

Volcanic unrest continued at Cleveland through 4 May. The volcano was obscured by clouds during the report period and no thermal anomalies were observed. Pulses of volcanic tremor continued to be detected by an AVO seismic network 230 km to the E of the volcano. AVO personnel installed a temporary seismic-recording instrument at Nikolski, ~70 km to the E of the volcano, in an attempt to verify that the source of the tremor is Cleveland. AVO had received no reports of significant volcanic activity from either pilots, residents, or satellite remote-sensors since the last eruption on 19 March.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


25 April-1 May 2001

Volcanic unrest continued at Cleveland through 27 April. During this time a thermal anomaly was observed on satellite imagery when weather permitted. Low pulses of volcanic tremor continued to be detected by an AVO seismic network 230 km to the E of the volcano. AVO had received no reports of significant volcanic activity from either pilots, residents, or satellite remote-sensors since the last eruption on 19 March.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


18 April-24 April 2001

Volcanic unrest continued at Cleveland through 20 April. A thermal anomaly was persistently detected in satellite imagery on days when the weather was clear to partly cloudy. Low-level pulses of volcanic tremor were detected several times during the week by an AVO seismic network 230 km to the E of the volcano. AVO received no reports of significant volcanic activity from either pilots, residents, or satellite remote sensors.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


11 April-17 April 2001

Volcanic unrest continued at Cleveland through 13 April. A thermal anomaly was last detected on satellite imagery on 8 April, but cloudy conditions in the area may have hidden the anomaly from the satellite's view during the rest of the week. Low-level pulses of volcanic tremor were detected several times during the week by an AVO seismic network 230 km to the E of the volcano. AVO received no reports of significant volcanic activity from either pilots, residents, or satellite remote sensors.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


4 April-10 April 2001

The AVO reported that unrest continued at Cleveland. This was based on data from a seismic network 230 km E of the volcano that intermittently recorded low-level volcanic tremor over the last several weeks. Since the 19 March eruption there have been no reports of significant activity from either pilots, residents, or satellite remote sensors. The thermal anomaly previously observed in the vicinity of the volcano has been absent since 23 March. Based on current data and the volcano's historical activity, the AVO warned that additional ash-producing eruptions are possible at any time.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


28 March-3 April 2001

The AVO reported that after 24 March, satellite imagery has not shown the thermal anomaly that had been visible since the 19 March eruption of Cleveland. No further explosive activity has been reported. Occasional avalanching of material from the steep flanks of Cleveland may produce small, localized plumes.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


21 March-27 March 2001

On 20 March AVO could no longer detect the ash cloud resulting from the 19 March eruption of Cleveland. Based on satellite data, AVO estimates that the explosive eruption started at 1430 on 19 March and may have lasted as long as 6 hours. The National Weather Service estimated the top of the ash cloud was as high as 9.1 km a.s.l. No ashfall was reported in Nikolski, 75 km E of the volcano. A thermal anomaly detected in satellite imagery following the explosive activity was still visible as of 23 March. The elevated temperature indicated by the anomaly is most likely the result of continued unrest at the volcano and the cooling of recently erupted material.

Sources: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 March-20 March 2001

The AVO reported that at 1430 on 19 March an explosive eruption at Cleveland was detected on satellite imagery. The National Weather Service estimated the top of the cloud to be at ~ 9 km a.s.l. An observer in the town of Nikolski reported that at about 1900 a strong haze resulting from the eruption extended SE from the volcano, but there was no ashfall. The Washington VAAC concluded that the ash cloud had dissipated by 0230 on 20 March because it was no longer visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 March-13 March 2001

The AVO reported that an explosive eruption at Cleveland began at 0500 on 11 March. The resultant ash cloud was visible on satellite imagery from the onset of the eruption and after it ended 3 hours later. Wind-data analysis suggested that the ash cloud reached a height of 6-7.6 km a.s.l. By 1400 the main part of the ash cloud was detached from the volcano and drifting to the E. Satellite imagery from 2030 showed that the ash cloud was located in two main regions; one region was centered ~80 km S of Dutch Harbor and was ~80 km in diameter, and the other was centered ~160 km SE of Dutch Harbor and extended ~160 km E to W and ~65 km N to S. Both areas of ash were visible on satellite imagery through 1315 on 12 March. In addition, a thermal anomaly on the volcano, which was first detected shortly after the eruption began, persisted. AVO interpreted the thermal anomaly to indicate that unrest was continuing at Cleveland and that further explosive activity could occur at anytime. By 0930 on 13 March the ash cloud was no longer visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 February-6 March 2001

The AVO reported that no further eruptive activity was observed or detected at Cleveland since the 19 February eruption. During 19 February to 2 March, GOES-10 imagery showed a weak thermal anomaly that was probably related to hot material deposited on the flanks of the volcano on the 19th. Photographs taken a few days after the eruption showed significant accumulation of spatter and lava blocks high on the steep flanks of the volcano; occasional avalanching of this debris may produce small, localized ash plumes.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


21 February-27 February 2001

The ash cloud produced from the 19 February eruption of Cleveland volcano was visible on GOES-10 imagery through 1700 on 21 February. The AVO reported that a thermal anomaly was detected on satellite imagery during 21-26 February. On 22 February a pilot reported that steam was observed rising from near the SE shoreline of the volcano where an apparently fresh deposit entered the sea. The deposit may have been an active lava flow fan or hot debris, and was probably the source of the satellite thermal anomaly. On 23 February an active lava flow or hot lahar was observed on the volcano's SW flank. Avalanches of hot, rubbly debris from this flow reached the sea and produced steam clouds at the shoreline.

Sources: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 February-20 February 2001

The AVO reported that Cleveland volcano erupted explosively at 0600 on 19 February, producing an ash-and-steam cloud that was detected from the beginning of the eruption on GOES imagery and confirmed by pilot reports at 1310. Satellite imagery at 0945 showed that the cloud was in two sections; the lower section reached ~5.2 km a.s.l. and drifted SE of Cleveland, and the higher section reached 9.1-10.7 km a.s.l. and drifted to the N. By 1900 the cloud had extended at least 120 km to the N and drifted E towards Dutch Harbor, Akutan, and beyond. The National Weather Service via the Anchorage VAAC, and the Federal Aviation Administration, issued a volcanic ash advisory to divert aircraft away from the ash cloud. During 1200 to about 1600, light ash fell in the closest inhabited town to the volcano, Nikolski (~30 residents), 45 miles E of the volcano. The Anchorage VAAC reported that additional eruptions occurred through 1800. According to the AVO, explosive activity ended in the late afternoon and at 2130 a thermal anomaly was still visible on satellite imagery. Prior to the eruption the AVO had received pilot reports and photos of increased emissions on 2 February, but the reports could not be confirmed without ground-based monitoring instrumentation. The AVO warned that further eruptive activity could occur with little warning. Because Cleveland is not seismically monitored, the AVO did not assign a level of concern color code.

GOES images and animation of the 19 February ash cloud

Sources: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Reuters, Anchorage Daily News


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 Dec 28 2014 Feb 27 Confirmed   Historical Observations
2011 Jul 20 2013 May 13 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit crater
[ 2010 Sep 12 ± 1 days ] [ 2010 Sep 26 ] Uncertain 2  
2010 May 30 2010 Jun 2 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2009 Oct 2 2009 Dec 12 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2009 Jun 25 2009 Jun 25 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2009 Jan 2 2009 Jan 21 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2007 Jun 17 (?) 2008 Aug 12 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2006 Feb 6 2006 Oct 28 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
2005 Mar 13 (?) 2005 Nov 27 ± 1 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2001 Feb 2 (in or before) 2001 Apr 15 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1997 May 5 1997 May 5 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1994 Oct 20 1994 Oct 20 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1994 May 25 1994 May 25 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
[ 1989 Oct 25 ± 3 days ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 0  
1987 Jun 19 1987 Aug 28 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1986 Apr 28 1986 May 27 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1985 Dec 10 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1  
1984 Jul 12 1984 Jul 12 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 1975 Sep ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1953 Jun 25 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1951 Nov 1 ] [ 1951 Dec ] Uncertain    
1944 Jun 10 1944 Jun 12 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1938 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1932 Jan 1 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
[ 1929 Mar ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1897 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1893 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Coats R R, 1950. Volcanic activity in the Aleutian Arc. U S Geol Surv Bull, 974-B: 35-47.

Dean K G, Dehn J, Papp K R, Smith S, Izbekov P, Peterson R, Kearney C, Steffke A, 2004. Integrated satellite observations of the 2001 eruption of Mt. Cleveland, Alaska. J Volc Geotherm Res, 135: 51-73.

Henning R A, Rosenthal C H, Olds B, Reading E (eds), 1976. Alaska's volcanoes, northern link in the ring of fire. Alaska Geog, 4: 1-88.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Miller T P, McGimsey R G, Richter D H, Riehle J R, Nye C J, Yount M E, Dumoulin J A, 1998. Catalogue of the historically active volcanoes of Alaska. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 98-582: 1-104.

Motyka R J, Liss S A, Nye C J, Moorman M A, 1993. Geothermal resources of the Aleutian arc. Alaska Div Geol Geophys Surv, Prof Rpt, no 114, 17 p and 4 map sheets.

Smith R L, Shaw H R, Luedke R G, Russell S L, 1978. Comprehensive tables giving physical data and thermal energy estimates for young igneous systems of the United States. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 78-925: 1-25.

Wood C A, Kienle J (eds), 1990. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ Press, 354 p.

Beautifully symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited, dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Cleveland is joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus. The 1730-m-high Mount Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mount Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks of the volcano. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mount Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.