Halla

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 33.37°N
  • 126.53°E

  • 1950 m
    6396 ft

  • 306040
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Halla.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Halla.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Halla.

The massive Halla shield volcano forms much of the 40 x 80 km Cheju (Jeju) Island, which lies 90 km south of the Korean Peninsula. Eruptions during the Pliocene and Pleistocene built a lava plateau above the roughly 100-m-deep continental shelf on which the basaltic-to-trachytic Halla shield volcano was constructed. A 400-m-wide crater truncates the 1950-m-high summit. About 360 late-Pleistocene and Holocene basaltic parasitic cones dotting the flanks of the low-angle volcano were erupted primarily along the long axis of the ENE-WSW-trending island. Most of these are scoria cones, but about 20 along the coast of the island or offshore are Pleistocene-to-Holocene tuff rings and tuff cones, and lava domes also occur. Flank eruptions continued into historical time, with the final two taking place during the 11th century.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1007 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1002 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
2050 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW flank (Songaksan tuff ring)
2830 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) NE flank (Ilchulbong tuff cone)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Cheju-do | Jeju

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Dangsanbong Tuff cone 148 m
Dansan Tuff cone
Guduack Cone
Huckack Cone
Ilchulbong Tuff cone 180 m
Jueockack Cone
Sangumburi Cone 308 m 33° 26' 0" N 126° 42' 0" E
Soengpanack Vent
Songaksan Tuff ring 104 m 33° 12' 0" N 126° 22' 30" E
Suwolbong Tuff ring 78 m 33° 17' 0" N 126° 10' 0" E
Udo Tuff cone 132 m
Yongmeori Tuff ring 33° 14' 0" N 126° 19' 0" E

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Backlockdam Crater

Domes

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Hodo Dome
Rimdo Dome
Sanbangsan Dome 395 m 33° 14' 0" N 126° 19' 0" E
A cluster of cinder cones on the SW rift of Halla shield volcano is part of more than 360 cones that were erupted on the flanks of the volcano during the third and last stage of activity at Halla. Most of the flank cones were erupted along the SW-NE-trending rift zone that forms the axis of the island. The basaltic scoria cones are typically 150-200 m in height and are relatively uneroded.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1980 (U.S. Geological Survey).
A waterfall plunging over a trachytic lava flow is a popular tourist destination on Cheju Island. An extensive lava plateau underlies the Halla shield volcano and extends to the coast of the 40 x 80 km island. The 1950-m-high Halla shield dominates the center of the island and has been active from the Pleistocene until historical time.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1980 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The massive Halla shield volcano, seen here from the south, forms much of the 40 x 80 km Cheju Island, which lies 90 km south of the Korean Peninsula. More than 360 late-Pleistocene and Holocene basaltic parasitic cones dotting the flanks of the low-angle volcano were erupted primarily along the long axis of the NE-SW-trending island. Most of these are scoria cones, but about 10 along the coast of the island are Pleistocene tuff rings and tuff cones. Flank eruptions continued into historical time, with the final two taking place during the 11th century.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1980 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Prominent columnar jointing is visible on the steep sides of a trachytic lava dome on the southern coast of Cheju Island. A cluster of trachytic lava domes were erupted near the end of the second stage of activity of Halla volcano, during which the 1950-m-high Halla shield volcano was formed in the center of the island.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1980 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Snow-capped Halla shield volcano is seen here from the north, near Cheju city, the largest on Cheju Island. Voluminous lava flows from Halla and an underlying lava plateau form the entire 40 x 80 km Cheju Island. The volcano is capped by the 400-m-wide Backlockdam summit crater and its flanks are dotted by hundreds of satellitic cones, some of which form small islands offshore.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1980 (U.S. Geological Survey).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Chough S K, Sohn Y K, 1990. Depostional mechanics and sequences of base surges, Songaksan tuff ring, Cheju Island, Korea. Sedimentology, 37: 1115-1135.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Lee M W, 1982. Petrology and geochemistry of Jeju volcanic island, Korea. Sci Rpt Tohoku Univ, Ser 3, 15: 177-256.

Sohn Y K, 1996. Hydrovolcanic processes forming basaltic tuff rings and cones on Cheju Island, Korea. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 108: 1199-1211.

Sohn Y K, Chough S K, 1989. Depositional processes of the Suwolbong tuff ring, Cheju Island (Korea). Sedimentology, 36: 837-855.

Sohn Y K, Park J B, Khim B K, Park K H, Koh G W , 2003. Stratigraphy, petrochemistry and Quaternary depositional record of the Songaksan tuff ring, Jeju Island, Korea. J Volc Geotherm Res, 119: 1-20.

Sohn Y K, Park K H, 2005. Composite tuff ring/cone complexes in Jeju Island, Korea: possible consequences of substrate collapse and vent migration. J Volc Geotherm Res, 141: 157-175.

Tomita T, 1969. Volcanic geology of the Cenozoic alkaline petrographic province of eastern Asia. In: Ogura T (ed) {Geology and Mineral Resources of the Far East}, Tokyo: Univ Tokyo Press, p 139-179.

Volcano Types

Shield
Pyroclastic cone(s)
Lava dome(s)

Tectonic Setting

Intraplate
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Minor
Trachyte / Trachyandesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
134
2,653
482,766
543,082

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Halla Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.