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The Kunlun volcano group in NW Tibet contains 70 well-preserved pyroclastic cones. The trachyandesitic Ashikule volcano group at the western end of the Kunlun Mountains is the site of at least 10 volcanoes of Pliocene-to-Holocene age, including Ashi Shan volcano, the youngest in China. This and several other young cones lie in the area around Ashi (Aqqikkol) and Wuluke (Ulugkol) lakes. China's most recent volcanic eruption was observed by a road-building crew on May 27, 1951, at Ashi Shan (also known as Ka-er-daxi or Vulkan) pyroclastic cone. The eruption began with a loud detonation and ejected large blocks, emitting "smoke" for a number of days. An unconfirmed eruption was reported in the 19th century.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|1951 May 27||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations||Ashi Shan|
|[ 1850 ± 50 years ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|Pyroclastic cone||4868 m||35° 46' 0" N||81° 35' 0" E|
|Dahei Shan||Pyroclastic cone||5102 m|
|Dahei Shan||Pyroclastic cone||5104 m|
|Dong Shan||Pyroclastic cone||4652 m|
|Heilong Shan||Pyroclastic cone||4842 m|
|Maoniu Shan||Pyroclastic cone|
|Migong Shan||Pyroclastic cone|
|Migong Shan||Pyroclastic cone|
|Wuluke Shan||Pyroclastic cone||4820 m|
|Yi Shan||Pyroclastic cone|
|Yueya Shan||Pyroclastic cone|
|The Kunlun volcano group in NW Tibet contains 70 well-preserved pyroclastic cones, many of which are located near Ashi (left-center) and Wuluke (bottom-center) lakes. The northern cone (top right-center) is the largest in the volcanic field and has many satellitic craters on its SE side. China's most recent volcanic eruption was observed by a road-building crew on May 27, 1951, at Ashi Shan, the cone located between the two lakes in this NASA Landsat image (with north to the top).
NASA Landsat7 image (worldwind.arc.nasa.gov)
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Chen S (ed), 1986. Atlas of Geo-Science, Analysis of Landsat Imagery in China. Beijing: Chinese Acad Sci Press, 228 p.
Gushchenko I I, 1979. Eruptions of Volcanoes of the World: A Catalog. Moscow: Nauka Pub, Acad Sci USSR Far Eastern Sci Center, 474 p (in Russian).
Liu J, 1986. . (pers. comm.).
Liu J, Maimaiti Y, 1989. Distribution and ages of Ashikule volcanoes on the West Kunlun Mountains, West China. Bull Glacier Res, 7: 187-190.
Liu J, Taniguchi H, 2001. Active volcanoes in China. Tohoku Asian Studies, 6: 173-189.
Tong W, Mu Z, Liu S, Zhang M, 1988. Late Cenozoic volcanoes and active geothermal systems in China. Proc Kagoshima Internatl Conf Volc, p 847-850.
Vlodavetz V I, Piip B I, 1959. Kamchatka and Continental Areas of Asia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 8: 1-110.
Wei H, Sparks R S J, Liu R, Fan Q, Wang Y, Hong H, Zhang H, Chen H, Jiang C, Dong J, Zheng Y, Pan Y, 2003. Three active volcanoes in China and their hazards. J Asian Earth Sci, 21: 515-526.
Whitford-Stark J L, 1987. . (pers. comm.).
Whitford-Stark J L, 1987. A survey of Cenozoic volcanism on mainland Asia. Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap, 213: 1-74.