Kliuchevskoi

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  • Subregion Name
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  • Last Known Eruption
  • 56.057°N
  • 160.638°E

  • 4835 m
    15859 ft

  • 300260
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
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1 January-7 January 2014

On 2 January KVERT reported that the explosive eruption at Kliuchevskoi had finished on 20 December 2013; the last strong explosion was detected on 17 December 2013. Video images showed gas-and-steam plumes continuing to rise from the volcano. Satellite images detected thermal anomalies over the summit and the lava flow on the SW flank; both areas were cooling. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



 Available Weekly Reports


2014: January
2013: January | March | August | September | October | November | December
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2006: December
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2004: January | February | March | September | November
2003: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2002: February | May | June | November | December
2001: February | March | November


1 January-7 January 2014

On 2 January KVERT reported that the explosive eruption at Kliuchevskoi had finished on 20 December 2013; the last strong explosion was detected on 17 December 2013. Video images showed gas-and-steam plumes continuing to rise from the volcano. Satellite images detected thermal anomalies over the summit and the lava flow on the SW flank; both areas were cooling. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


25 December-31 December 2013

On 27 December KVERT reported that the explosive eruption at Kliuchevskoi had finished; the last strong explosion was detected on 17 December. Video images showed gas-and-steam plumes rising from the volcano during the previous weeks. Satellite images continued to detect thermal anomalies over the summit and the lava flow on the SW flank. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


18 December-24 December 2013

KVERT reported weak seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi during 13-20 December, and video images showed moderate gas-and-steam activity. Satellite images detected daily weak thermal anomalies over the summit and the SW flank. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 December-17 December 2013

KVERT reported that the explosive eruption at Kliuchevskoi continued during 6-13 December. Seismicity increased on 6 December but then declined on 10 December; during this period video images showed ash plumes rising to altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images detected a weak thermal anomaly daily, and ash plumes that drifted 1,200 km E during 6-8 December, NW during 9-10 December, and E and SE during 10-11 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


4 December-10 December 2013

On 7 December activity at Kliuchevskoi significantly increased, prompting KVERT to raise the Alert Level to Red. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5.5-6 km (18,000-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 212 km NE and over 1,000 km E. According to a news article, a warning to aircraft was issued for the area around the volcano. The next day KVERT lowered the Alert Level to Orange. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5-5.5 km (16,400-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), United Press International (UPI)


27 November-3 December 2013

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity continued at Kliuchevskoi during 22-29 November. Video data showed Strombolian activity during that period. Satellite images recorded a daily thermal anomaly on the volcano; gas-and-steam plumes containing small amounts of ash were visible drifting 90 km SE on 25 November. On 3 December KVERT noted that since 19 November ash-plume altitudes had been decreasing. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


20 November-26 November 2013

KVERT reported that at 1235 on 17 November an ash plume from Kliuchevskoi, detected in satellite images, rose to an altitude of 6.5 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 160 km NE. At 1322 an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 130 km NE. Video data then showed a high-intensity explosion and Strombolian activity prompting KVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange.

At 1416 on 19 November seismicity indicated a strong explosion, and observers reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 10-12 km (32,800-39,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red. Later that day the altitudes of the ash plumes were lower; video images showed ash plumes rising to altitudes of 5-5.5 km(16,400-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting NE. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


30 October-5 November 2013

The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow on 30 October. There was ongoing activity during the past week, including moderate seismicity. Video recordings captured Strombolian activity and strong gas-and-steam events. Satellite remote sensing detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano caused by the continuation of the flank eruption; lava flows effused on the SW and SE flanks.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


23 October-29 October 2013

KVERT reported that at 0100 on 21 October a sharp decrease in seismicity was detected at Kliuchevskoi and only fumarolic activity was observed. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. Strombolian activity and the effusion of several lava flows continued through 25 October. Satellite images showed aerosol plumes over Canada during 20-23 October.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


16 October-22 October 2013

KVERT reported that a strong explosion from a new cinder cone low on Kliuchevskoi’s SW flank occurred between 2020 and 2030 on 11 October. An ash plume rose to altitudes of 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Activity increased on 15 October, prompting KVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code to Red at 1311. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7-8 km (23,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 140 km SSW. Phreatic explosions on the SW flank generated ash plumes that rose 3-4 km (9,800-13,100 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 7.5 km (24,600 ft) a.s.l. at 1419 and drifting 103 km SSW. Activity increased again; ash plumes rose to altitudes of 9 km (29,500 ft) a.s.l. at 1655 and 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. afterwards. Ash plumes drifted SSW and S. At 2056 KVERT lowered the Aviation Color Code to Orange and noted that although activity had slightly decreased it still remained high. Ash plumes rose 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE. Phreatic explosions at the SW flank continued, as well as lava flows on the SW, W, and SE flanks.

At 0815 on 16 October satellite images detected ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2-3 km (6,600-9,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 480 km NNW. Activity again increased and at 1143 KVERT issued a notice stating that the Aviation Color Code was again being raised to Red. Seismic data indicated that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. Clouds prevented direct observations but satellite images showed ash plumes drifting NW. At 1624 satellite images showed ash plumes drifting WSW at altitudes of 7-7.5 km (23,000-24,600 ft) a.s.l. Strombolian and Vulcanian explosions continued. Activity again slightly decreased; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. Minor ashfall was reported in Mayskoe Village.

During 16-17 October the melting of the Bogdanovich glacier due to the volcanic activity caused increased water flow in the Studenaya River, which destroyed part of a road near Kozyrevsk village (about 50 km W).

On 18 October the Aviation Color Code was again raised to Red but lowered to Orange later that day. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 8-9 km (26,200-29,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20-100 km SE. Strombolian activity continued and several lava flows continued to effuse onto the W, SW, and SE flanks. At 0559 on 19 October ash plumes observed in satellite images drifted 630 km SE at altitudes of 8-9 km (26,200-29,500 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red. Ash plume altitudes fluctuated between 7-8 km (23,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. later that day. A large amount of ash continued to drift 600 km SE. At 0100 on 21 October a sharp decrease in seismicity was detected and only fumarolic activity was observed. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


18 September-24 September 2013

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was detected during 13-20 September. A video camera recorded incandescence from the summit and the WSW flank at night, and gas-and-steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash. Strombolian the activity continued and a lava flow effused onto the W and SW flanks. A large thermal anomaly from the lava dome was detected daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 September-17 September 2013

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was detected during 6-13 September. A video camera recorded incandescence from the summit and the WSW flank at night, and gas-and-steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash. Strombolian activity continued and a lava flow effused onto the W and SW flanks. A large thermal anomaly from the lava dome was detected in satellite images. On 14 September, KVERT stated that lava flows on the NW, W, and SW flanks may soon interact with glaciers, potentially producing tall ash plumes from phreatic explosions. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


4 September-10 September 2013

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was detected during 30 August-6 September. A video camera recorded incandescence from the summit and WSW flank at night, and gas-and-steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash. Strombolian activity continued and a lava flow effused onto the SW flank. A large thermal anomaly from the lava dome was detected in satellite images.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


28 August-3 September 2013

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was detected during 23-30 August. A video camera recorded incandescence from the summit at night and gas-and-steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash. A large thermal anomaly from the lava dome was detected in satellite images. Strombolian activity that began on 15 August continued; a new lava flow effused onto the SW flank on 26 August, producing a thermal anomaly detected in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


21 August-27 August 2013

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was detected during 16-23 August. A video camera recorded incandescence from the summit at night, and gas-and-steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash rising to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. A thermal anomaly from the lava dome was detected in satellite images during 16-18 and 20-23 August; cloud cover obscured views on 19 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


14 August-20 August 2013

Based on seismic data from the Kamchatka Branch of Geophysical Services (KBGS; Russian Academy of Sciences), KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption from Kliuchevskoi began at 1830 on 15 August. Video images recorded incandescence from the crater that night, and gas-and-steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash rising as high as 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifting NE during 15-16 August. Satellite images detected a large, bright thermal anomaly during 15-16 August. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow, the second lowest of a four-color scale. Gas-and-steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. during 16-17 August. Incandescence from the crater at night and a thermal anomaly in satellite images continued to be reported during 17-19 August.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


13 March-19 March 2013

KVERT reported that activity at Kliuchevskoi decreased in late 2012, around the same time the Tolbachik eruption started. In mid-January 2013 seismic activity decreased and Strombolian activity ceased. Starting in February incandescence at the summit and thermal anomalies were not observed. Weak seismic activity continued. On 18 March the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green, the lowest level.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


23 January-29 January 2013

KVERT reported that during 18-25 January video footage and satellite imagery showed Strombolian explosions at Kliuchevskoi, along with crater incandescence and gas-and-steam emissions. Views from satellite were obscured by cloud cover. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


19 December-25 December 2012

KVERT reported that during 14-21 December video footage and satellite imagery showed Strombolian explosions at Kliuchevskoi, along with crater incandescence and gas-and-steam emissions. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images on 16 and 18 December; cloud cover obscured views on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


12 December-18 December 2012

KVERT reported that during 7-14 December video footage and satellite imagery showed Strombolian explosions at Kliuchevskoi, along with crater incandescence and gas-and-steam emissions. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images during 7-8, 10, and 12-13 December; cloud cover obscured views on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


5 December-11 December 2012

KVERT reported that during 30 November-7 December video footage and satellite imagery showed Strombolian explosions at Kliuchevskoi, along with crater incandescence and gas-and-steam emissions. A weak thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images during 1 and 4-6 December; cloud cover obscured views on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


28 November-4 December 2012

KVERT reported that during 23-30 November video footage and satellite imagery showed Strombolian explosions at Kliuchevskoi, along with crater incandescence and gas-and-steam emissions. A weak thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images during 23-26 November; cloud cover obscured views on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


17 October-23 October 2012

KVERT reported moderate seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi during 12-19 October. Strombolian activity was observed during 13-15 October; clouds prevented views on the other days. A weak thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery during 14-15 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


10 October-16 October 2012

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi had been gradually increasing since June; episodes of volcanic tremor were first detected on 21 June and continued through 14 October. A weak thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery during 1 September-14 October. Strombolian activity was observed at night during 14-15 October. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


2 November-8 November 2011

The Tokyo VAAC reported that a possible ash plume from Kliuchevskoi, drifting at an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l., was observed in satellite imagery. The VAAC noted that the ash plume may have been from Bezymianny.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 June-5 July 2011

Based on information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption from Kliuchevskoi on 3 July produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 June-7 June 2011

KVERT reported that during 27 May-3 June seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was detected. Moderate steam-and-gas activity was observed on 30 May and 1 June; cloud cover prevented observations on the other days of the week. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.

The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 6 June a possible eruption detected in satellite imagery produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The VAAC stated that the ash could have also originated at Bezymianny.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 May-31 May 2011

Based on video data and ground-based observations, KVERT reported that on 29 May an ash plume from Kliuchevskoi rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. No activity was noted on 30 May and the volcano was obscured by clouds the next day. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


30 March-5 April 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that a possible eruption from Kliuchevskoi on 30 March produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Subsequent images that day showed continuing ash emissions that later dissipated. The Aviation Color Code remained at Green.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 February-15 February 2011

Although moderate seismic activity was recorded at Kliuchevskoi during 4-11 February, KVERT reported that seismicity had essentially decreased. Gas-and-steam activity was observed during 4-7 February; clouds prevented observations on later days. Gas-and-steam plumes drifted 20 km NE on 5 and 7 February. Satellite imagery showed a weak thermal anomaly over the crater on 6 and 7 February. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


15 December-21 December 2010

KVERT reported that during 10-17 December seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi did not exceed background levels. Steam-and-gas emissions were observed during 10-13 December. Satellite imagery showed a weak thermal anomaly over the crater on 11 and 12 December. The Aviation Color Code level was lowered to Yellow.

The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 20 December a possible eruption detected in satellite imagery produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 December-14 December 2010

KVERT reported that during 3-10 December seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was slightly above background levels. Satellite imagery showed a weak thermal anomaly over the crater during 3 and 6-8 December. Gas-and-steam plumes sometimes containing ash were observed during 3-4 and 8-9 December. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


1 December-7 December 2010

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was slightly above background levels during 26-27 November, and did not exceed background levels during 28 November-3 December. Satellite imagery showed gas-and-ash plumes drifting 430 km N and NE during 26-29 November and a weak thermal anomaly over the crater on 26, 28, and 29 November. Ash plumes were seen rising to an altitude of 6.3 km (20,700 ft) a.s.l. on 26 and 29 November and 1 December. Ash fell in Kozyrevsk (about 50 km W) on 27 November and in Klyuchi (30 km NNE) on 28 November. Strombolian activity was observed on 1 and 2 December. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


24 November-30 November 2010

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi did not exceed background levels during 19-26 November. Strong fumarolic activity was observed daily and an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. on 24 November. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly over the crater during 19-21 November and a gas-and-steam plume that drifted 111 km NE on 24 November. The Aviation Color Code level was raised to Orange.

Based on information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 25 November an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Possible eruptions detected in satellite imagery on 27 and 29 November produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.8 km and 6.7 km (19,000 and 22,000 ft) a.s.l., respectively, and drifted NE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 November-23 November 2010

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 12-14 November and at background levels during 15-19 November. A weak thermal anomaly over the volcano was detected daily in satellite imagery. Fumarolic activity was observed during 16-18 November; cloud cover prevented observations on the other days. Satellite imagery also showed an ash plume that drifted 40 km NE on 13 November and a gas-and-steam plume that drifted 28 km NE the next day. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


10 November-16 November 2010

KVERT reported that during 8-10 November seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was at background levels. During 9-10 November strong fumarolic activity was seen and a weak thermal anomaly over the crater was observed in satellite imagery. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 13 November an eruption produced a plume that drifted NE. Later that day, images showed that the ash had dissipated. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Yellow.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 November-9 November 2010

KVERT reported that during 29 October-3 November seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was observed. Satellite imagery analyses showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano and ash plumes that drifted 480 km SE. Vulcanian activity produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. during 31 October and 1-4 November. Seismicity sharply decreased on 4 November, and only gas-and-steam activity was observed. On 9 November, KVERT reported that the eruption that began in August 2009 had finished on 4 November and that seismicity had continued to decrease. The Aviation Color Code level was lowered to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


27 October-2 November 2010

KVERT reported that during 22-29 October seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was observed. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano and two lava flows descending the W and SW flanks from the summit crater. Ash plumes also detected in imagery drifted more than 2,300 km E. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 8-9 km (26,200-29,500 ft) a.s.l. during 22-25 and 27 October. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Red. A news article from 29 October stated that ash from Kliuchevskoi and Shiveluch caused area flight diversions.

On 30 October explosive activity decreased along with the magnitude of volcanic tremor. Based on visual observations and analysis of satellite imagery, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5-5.5 km (16,400-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100 km SE. The Aviation Color Code level was lowered to Orange. The Tokyo VAAC reported that, based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from KVERT, eruptions on 31 October and 2 November, and a possible eruption on 1 November produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.2-6.7 km (17,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press


20 October-26 October 2010

KVERT reported that during 15-22 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and two lava flows from the summit crater traveled down the SW and W flanks. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano and ash plumes that drifted 420 km E and SE. Strombolian activity, observed every day, ejected material 250 m above the crater. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7.5 km (24,600 ft) a.s.l. during 20-21 October and to an altitude of 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. on the other days during 15-22 October. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

On 23 October, KVERT reported increased seismicity, characterized by an abrupt change in volcanic tremor, and explosive activity. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 8-9 km (26,200-29,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 300 km N. The Aviation Color Code level was raised to Red. The next day the magnitude of tremor decreased and gas-and-steam plumes rose to an altitude of 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. Gas-and-steam plumes possibly containing ash drifted SE. The Aviation Color Code level was lowered to Orange. On 25 October, the magnitude of volcanic tremor fluctuated. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 8-8.5 km (26,200-27,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The Aviation Color Code level was again raised to Red. The VAAC reported on 26 October that ash was observed in satellite imagery.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 October-19 October 2010

KVERT reported that during 8-15 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava from the summit crater flowed down the SW and W flanks. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. Strombolian activity was observed during 7-11 October. Daily gas-and-steam plumes rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l., but on 11 October the plumes rose to an altitude of 7.8 km (25,600 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes seen in satellite imagery drifted 90 km NE and E during 10 and 12-14 October. The Tokyo VAAC reported that ash was seen in satellite imagery on 16 October. The next day possible eruptions reported by KVERT, and seen in satellite imagery, produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.2-5.8 km (17,000-19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Ash seen in imagery on 18 October may have been from an eruption earlier that day. Ash again seen in satellite imagery from a possible eruption on 19 October rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 October-12 October 2010

KVERT reported that during 1-8 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava from the summit crater flowed down the SW flank. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. Strombolian activity was observed almost every day, and gas-and-ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6.3 km (20,700 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes seen in satellite imagery drifted 50 km SE during 5-6 October. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported ash drifting NE on 11 October. The next day an eruption seen in satellite imagery produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 10.1 km (33,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. A subsequent notice stated that ash had dissipated. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 September-5 October 2010

KVERT reported that during 24 September-1 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava from the summit crater flowed down the SW flank. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. Ash plumes were seen rising to altitudes of 6.5-7 km (21,300-23,000 ft) a.s.l. on 22 and 24 September, and Strombolian activity was observed during 23, 25, and 28-29 September. Ash plumes seen in satellite imagery drifted 185 km E on 22 and 28 September and 78 km W on 24 and 25 September. KVERT noted that eruptive activity from Kliuchevskoi had been continuous since 1 September 2009. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


22 September-28 September 2010

KVERT reported that during 17-24 September seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava from the summit crater flowed down the SW flank. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. Strombolian activity was observed during 17 and 20-21 September, and ash plumes were seen rising to altitudes of 6.5-7 km (21,300-23,000 ft) a.s.l. on 20 and 21 September. Satellite imagery showed ash plumes drifting about 60 km W on 19 September and about 240 km E on 20 and 21 September. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


15 September-21 September 2010

KVERT reported that during 10-17 September seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava flowed down the SW flank. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. During 9-15 September ash plumes rose to altitudes of 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 575 km S and SE based on analyses of satellite imagery and visual observations. Strombolian activity was seen on 11 September. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from KEMSD, the Tokyo VAAC reported that possible eruptions on 21 and 22 September produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.2-6.1 km (17,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 September-14 September 2010

KVERT reported that during 3-10 September seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava flowed down the SW and NW flanks. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. During 2-4 September ash plumes seen in satellite imagery drifted 150 km S and SW at an altitude of 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. Phreatic bursts on the SW flank were observed on 5 September and Strombolian activity was seen during 5-7 September. Seismic data suggested that during 5-6 September ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that a possible eruption on 12 September produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. On 13 September an ash plume rose to an altitude of 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE according to information sent from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP). Ash was seen in subsequent satellite images during 13-14 September. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 September-7 September 2010

KVERT reported that 27 August-3 September seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava flowed down the SW flank. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. On 27 August, activity increased; ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 120 km SE. Strombolian activity was observed during 27-30 August. Phreatic explosions occurred on the SW flank on 29 and 30 August. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. on 30 August and drifted 278 km SE.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported a possible eruption on 3 September. Subsequent images showed continuing emissions. Later that day a notice stated that ash had dissipated. Another possible eruption that day produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. During 4-7 September eruptions reported by KVERT and seen in satellite imagery produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.2-7 km (17,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, E, and SE. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 August-31 August 2010

KVERT reported that 20-27 August seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava flowed down the SW flank. Strombolian activity and gas-and-ash emissions were observed on 20 and 21 August. Cloud cover prevented observations the other days. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly from the volcano and ash plumes that drifted more than 200 km SE on 20 August. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from KEMSD, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption on 28 August produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 7.6-10.4 km (25,000-34,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Satellite imagery showed a possible eruption on 30 August. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 August-24 August 2010

KVERT reported that 13-20 August seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava flowed down the SW flank. Strombolian activity and gas-and-ash emissions were observed during 14-16 August. Cloud cover prevented observations the other days. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly from the volcano and ash plumes that drifted more than 325 km SE. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 August-17 August 2010

KVERT reported that during 6-13 August seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava flowed down the SW flank. Strombolian activity and gas-and-ash emissions were observed during 6 and 8-12 August. Cloud cover prevented observations the other days. Satellite imagery analysis showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly on the volcano. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported a possible eruption on 16 August. A subsequent notice stated that ash had dissipated. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 August-10 August 2010

KVERT reported that 30 July-6 August seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava flowed down the SSE flank. Strombolian activity and gas-and-ash emissions were observed during 29-30 July and 4-5 August. Cloud cover prevented observations the other days. Satellite imagery analysis showed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano and a gas-and-ash plume that drifted 65 km NW on 30 July. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


28 July-3 August 2010

KVERT reported that during 23-30 July seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava flowed down the SSE flank. Strombolian activity and gas-and-ash emissions were observed during 23-24 and 29 July. Cloud cover prevented observations the other days. Satellite imagery analysis showed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano and gas-and-ash plumes that drifted 145 km SW on 28 July. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


21 July-27 July 2010

KVERT reported that during 16-23 July seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was seen. Gas-and-steam activity was noted with ash plumes periodically rising to an altitude of 6.3 km (20,700 ft) a.s.l. Effusive lava flows descended the SSW flank. Satellite imagery analysis showed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano and ash plumes that drifted about 55-160 km SW, SE, and NE. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


14 July-20 July 2010

KVERT reported that during 9-16 July seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Satellite imagery analysis showed a large daily thermal anomaly over the volcano and a gas-and-ash plume that drifted 45 km NW on 14 July. Strombolian activity and gas-and-ash emissions were observed during 9, 12, and 14-15 July. Ash plumes occasionally rose to an altitude of 6.8 km (22,300 ft) a.s.l. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported a possible eruption on 17 July. Ash was seen in satellite imagery and then later dissipated. An eruption on 19 July and a possible eruption the next day produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.2-5.5 km (17,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and SE. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 July-13 July 2010

KVERT reported that during 2-9 July seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Satellite imagery analysis showed a large daily thermal anomaly over the volcano and a gas-and-steam plume that drifted 76 km S on 2 July. Ash plumes occasionally rose to an altitude of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l., and gas-and-steam activity was seen during 2-4 July. According to a news article, lava flowed from a fissure during 8-9 July. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Itar-Tass News


30 June-6 July 2010

KVERT reported that during 25 June-2 July seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was observed on 24 and 29 June. Ash plumes occasionally rose to an altitude of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery analysis revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano and an ash plume that drifted 32 km S on 1 July. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


23 June-29 June 2010

KVERT reported that during 18-25 June seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was sometimes observed. Ash plumes occasionally rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery analysis revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano and ash plumes that drifted 120 km in multiple directions during 19 and 22-23 June. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


16 June-22 June 2010

KVERT reported that during 11-18 June seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was observed. Ashfall was reported in Klyuchi, 30 km NNE on 11 June. Ash plumes occasionally rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. during 13-16 June. Satellite imagery analysis revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano and ash plumes that drifted 40 km SE on 13 and 15 June. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


9 June-15 June 2010

KVERT reported that during 4-11 June seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was seen. Gas-and-steam plumes, occasionally containing a small amount of ash, were also noted. On 5 June ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and ash plumes that drifted 60-190 km NE on 5 and 8 June. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


2 June-8 June 2010

KVERT reported that during 28 May-4 June seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was seen. Gas-and-steam plumes occasionally containing a small amount of ash were also noted. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and ash plumes that drifted 40 km NW on 28 and 31 May. On 1 June an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


26 May-1 June 2010

KVERT reported that during 21-28 May seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was seen. Gas-and-steam plumes occasionally containing a small amount of ash were also noted. During 23-26 May observed ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and ash plumes that drifted 185 km in multiple directions on 24 and 26 May. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


19 May-25 May 2010

KVERT reported that during 14-21 May seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was seen. Gas-and-steam plumes containing a small amount of ash were noted during 13-18 May. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and ash plumes that drifted 20-145 km E on most days. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


12 May-18 May 2010

KVERT reported that during 7-14 May seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was seen. Gas-and-steam plumes containing a small amount of ash were noted during 6 and 8-12 May. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and a gas-and-ash plume that drifted 21 km N on 7 May. Based on information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 18 May an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 May-11 May 2010

KVERT reported that during 30 April-7 May seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Ground observations were prevented due to meteorological cloud cover. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano. Ash plumes drifted 125 km N on 2 May and 70 km W at an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. on 3 May. Gas-and-steam plumes drifted 55 km W and SW both days. Based on information from KEMSD, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 10 May an eruption produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 April-4 May 2010

KVERT reported that during 22-30 April seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity was noted and lava continued to flow down the flanks. Gas-and-steam plumes containing small amounts of ash were seen on 22 April. Similar plumes rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (23,900 ft) a.s.l. during 25-27 April, and drifted W and SW. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano. An ash plume drifted about 65 km W on 24 April, and gas-and-steam plumes drifted 55 km W and SW during 24-27 April. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 3 May a possible eruption produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 April-27 April 2010

KVERT reported that during 16-23 April seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity was noted and lava continued to flow down the flanks. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to an altitude of 5.7 km (18,700 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and ash plumes that drifted about 45 km S on 18 April. Gas-and-steam plumes drifted 90-100 km E on 20 and 21 April. Based on information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 27 April an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 April-20 April 2010

KVERT reported that during 9-15 April seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 200 m above the crater and lava continued to flow down the flanks. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and gas-and-steam plumes that drifted about 85 km NE on 9 April. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


7 April-13 April 2010

KVERT reported that during 2-9 April seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 200 m above the crater and lava continued to flow down the flanks. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and gas-and-steam plumes that drifted 30-180 km NNE. On 7 April, gas-and-steam plumes containing small amounts of ash rose to an altitude of 6.3 km (20,700 ft) a.s.l. The next day, a diffuse ash plume drifted 55-60 km NE. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


31 March-6 April 2010

KVERT reported that during 26 March-2 April seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels, and gas-and-steam plumes containing small amounts of ash were sometimes seen rising to an altitude of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. Strombolian activity ejected material 300 m above the crater and lava continued to flow down the flanks. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and gas-and-steam plumes that drifted about 70 km E on 30 March. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


24 March-30 March 2010

KVERT reported that during 19-29 March seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity ejected material 100-300 m above the crater and lava continued to flow down the flanks. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and gas-and-steam plumes that drifted over 80 km E during 18-20 March. Ash plumes seen in satellite imagery drifted about 75 km NE on 21 and 24 March. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


17 March-23 March 2010

KVERT reported that during 12-19 March seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity ejected material 200 m above the crater and lava continued to flow down the flanks. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to altitudes of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. during 12 and 15-16 March. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. Based on information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 21 March an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 March-16 March 2010

KVERT reported that during 5-12 March seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity ejected material 300 m above the crater. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to altitudes of 5-6.8 km (16,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and were occasionally seen on satellite imagery drifting 80 km E. On 4 March new lava flows traveled down the S and NE flanks. A satellite image from 9 March showed that the S-flank lava flow was about 1.3 km long. Phreatic explosions sometimes occurred from the fronts of the lava flows. Satellite imagery also revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


3 March-9 March 2010

KVERT reported that during 26 February-5 March seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the NW flank. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 300 m above the crater, and phreatic explosions occurred from the fronts of the lava flows. Steam-and-gas plumes rose to an altitude of 6.8 km (22,300 ft) a.s.l. most days, and on 3 March one drifted 50 km NE. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


24 February-2 March 2010

KVERT reported that during 19-26 February seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the NW flank. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 300 m above the crater, and phreatic explosions occurred from the fronts of the lava flows. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano and gas-and-steam plumes that drifted 90 km NNW on 23 February and 25 km ESE the next day. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


17 February-23 February 2010

KVERT reported that during 12-19 February seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the NW flank. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 200 m above the crater, and phreatic explosions occurred from the front of the lava flow. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano and gas-and-steam plumes that drifted over 240 km NE. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


10 February-16 February 2010

KVERT reported that during 5-12 February seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the NW flank. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 300 m above the crater. Steam plumes rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. on 8, 9, and 10 February, and were seen on satellite imagery drifting 65 km NE. Satellite imagery also revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange. Based on information from KVERT and analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 13 February an ash plume rose to an altitude of 6.4 km (21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 February-9 February 2010

KVERT reported that during 29 January-5 February seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the NW flank. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 300 m above the crater, and phreatic explosions occurred from the front of the lava flow. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. On 30 and 31 January, gas-and-steam plumes rose to an altitude of 6.2 km (20,300 ft) a.s.l. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


27 January-2 February 2010

KVERT reported that during 22-29 January seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the NW flank. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 200 m above the crater, and phreatic explosions occurred from the front of the lava flow. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. Ashfall was reported in Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE, on 22 January. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


20 January-26 January 2010

KVERT reported that during 15-22 January seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the NW flank. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 300 m above the crater. Phreatic explosions from the front of the lava flow ejected material that rose to altitudes of 4.5-8 km (14,800-26,200 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery also revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. Based on information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP) and analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 22-23 January ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7-10.1 km (23,000-33,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 January-19 January 2010

KVERT reported that during 8-15 January seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the NW flank. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material above the crater. Phreatic explosions were seen from the front of the lava flow, which was about 1.2 km in length. Satellite imagery also revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. During 12-14 January, gas-and-steam plumes rose to an altitude of 6.8 km (22,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. Based on information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 18 January an ash plume rose to an altitude of 9 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 January-12 January 2010

KVERT reported that during 1-8 January seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the ESE flank. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 500 m above the crater. A new lava flow seen on the NW flank likely began during 2-3 January. On 5 January two lava flows, on the ESE flank and NW flanks, were seen in satellite imagery. Satellite imagery also revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


30 December-5 January 2010

KVERT reported that during 24-31 December seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the ESE flank. Strombolian activity ejected material 500 m above the crater. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


23 December-29 December 2009

KVERT reported that during 18-25 December seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the ESE flank. Strombolian activity ejected material 300 m above the crater. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


16 December-22 December 2009

KVERT reported that during 11-21 December seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


9 December-15 December 2009

KVERT reported that during 4-11 December seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the ESE flank. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 200-300 m above the crater. Gas-and-steam plumes containing small amounts of ash rose to an altitude of 6.3 km (20,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E during 5-9 December. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


2 December-8 December 2009

KVERT reported that during 27 November-4 December seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the ESE flank. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 300 m above the crater. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


25 November-1 December 2009

KVERT reported that during 20-27 November seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the ESE flank. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 300 m above the crater during 21-25 November. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


18 November-24 November 2009

KVERT reported that during 13-20 November seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 200 m above the crater during 13-15 November. On 14 November, a new lava flow traveled 500 m down the ESE flank. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 November-17 November 2009

KVERT reported that during 6-13 November seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 300 m above the crater on 5, 7, and 10 November. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


4 November-10 November 2009

KVERT reported that during 30 October-6 November seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 300 m above the crater and fumarolic activity was occasionally noted. Satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


28 October-3 November 2009

KVERT reported that during 23-30 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels; tremor increased on 26 October. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 200 m above the crater and fumarolic activity was occasionally noted. Satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


21 October-27 October 2009

KVERT reported that during 16-23 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. During 16 and 18-22 October, Strombolian activity ejected tephra 500 m above the crater and fumarolic plumes were noted. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


14 October-20 October 2009

KVERT reported that during 9-16 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and weak tremor was detected. Satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. On 11 October, Strombolian activity ejected tephra 200 m above the crater. Fumarolic plumes containing small amounts of ash rose to an altitude of 5.7 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


7 October-13 October 2009

KVERT reported that during 2-9 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels; many earthquakes and weak tremor were detected. Satellite imagery revealed a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano. During 2-3 October, Strombolian eruptions sent tephra 70-100 m above the crater and fumarolic activity was noted. On 7 October a fumarolic plume containing some ash rose to an altitude of 5.7 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. The Level of Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


30 September-6 October 2009

KVERT reported that during 25 September-2 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was slightly above background levels and weak tremor was detected. Satellite imagery revealed a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 70-100 m above the crater during 28-30 September. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


16 September-22 September 2009

KVERT reported that although seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi did not exceed background levels during 11-18 September, weak tremor was detected. Satellite imagery revealed a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano from 13 to 17 September. Strombolian activity that ejected tephra 70 m above the crater was seen at night on 16 and 17 September. The Level of Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


12 August-18 August 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from KEMSD, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 17 August an eruption from Kliuchevskoi produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 July-4 August 2009

On 2 August, KVERT reported that seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi had gradually increased since 30 July, and continuous seismic tremor was detected. A strong thermal anomaly was seen in satellite imagery at night. The Level of Concern Color Code was raised to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


10 June-16 June 2009

On 11 June, KVERT reported that seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi had remained at background levels since 12 May. Weak intermittent volcanic tremor and fumarolic activity continued to be detected. The Level of Concern Color was lowered to Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


15 April-21 April 2009

KVERT reported that seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was slightly above background levels on 11 April and at background levels the other days during 12-17 April. Satellite imagery revealed gas-and-ash plumes that drifted 90 km NE on 9 and 10 April, and a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano on 14 April. Fumarolic activity was seen on 15 and 16 April. The Level of Concern Color remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


8 April-14 April 2009

KVERT reported that fumarolic activity from Kliuchevskoi was observed during 3-10 April. Satellite imagery indicated a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 5 and 6 April, and weak volcanic tremor was detected during 5-8 April. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that a possible eruption on 9 April produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Imagery later indicated that any ash that may have been present had dissipated. On 11 April, imagery again indicated a possible eruption; any resultant ash plumes had dissipated by a few hours later. The Level of Concern Color remained at Yellow.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 January-3 February 2009

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was at background levels during 22-24 and 28 January, and above background levels during 25-27 January. Diffuse steam-and-gas plumes were noted. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a weak daily thermal anomaly in the crater. The Level of Concern Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


21 January-27 January 2009

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 15-18 and 26-27 January and at background levels during 19-21 January. Diffuse steam-and-gas plumes were noted. The magnitude of volcanic tremor rapidly decreased during 16-21 January. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a weak daily thermal anomaly in the crater. The Level of Concern Color Code was lowered to Yellow. Strombolian activity in the summit crater was noted on 26 January. Ash plumes were seen drifting NE and E at altitudes of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. during 26-27 January, and were detected on satellite imagery drifting 80 km E at an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. on 27 January. The Level of Concern Color Code was raised to Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 January-20 January 2009

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 9-16 January. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to an altitude of 6.8 km (22,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 50 km S and E. Strombolian activity was noted on 9 and 10 January. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly in the crater and gas-and-steam plumes that drifted 70 km W on 12 January. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


7 January-13 January 2009

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 1-9 January. Strombolian activity and lava effusion on the NW flank continued. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly in the crater. Ashfall was reported in Kozyrevsk village (about 50 km W) on 1 January. Ash plumes drifted 60 km N on 1 January and 35 km SW on 2 January.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


31 December-6 January 2009

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels 26 December-2 January. Strombolian activity was noted on 25 and 27 December, and lava effusion on the NW flank continued. On 25 December gas-and-steam plumes containing ash rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly in the crater. Ash plumes drifted 250 km NE during 25-26 December. On 27 December ashfall was reported in Kozyrevsk village. The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 2 January ash plumes were continuously observed on satellite imagery.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 December-30 December 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 19-26 December. Gas-and-steam plumes containing ash rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. during 20-24 December. Lava effusion on the NW flank continued and Strombolian activity was noted during 21-25 December. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly in the crater. Ash plumes drifted 270 km E and NE during 20-25 December.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


17 December-23 December 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 12-19 December. Strombolian activity was noted on 12, 13, 14, and 16 December, and lava effusion on the NW flank continued. Gas-and-steam plumes containing ash rose to an altitude of 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. during 12-14 and 18 December. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly in the crater. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4-8 km (13,100-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 500 km E, NE, and SE during 12-14 and 16-18 December.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 21 December a possible eruption produced a plume to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted N. Ash emissions continued the next day. An eruption on 23 December produced an ash plume to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 December-16 December 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 5-12 December. Strombolian activity ejected bombs 500 m above the crater and lava effusion on the NW flank continued. Phreatic bursts occurred where the lava flow front contacted the Erman Glacier. On 6 and 9 December, ashfall was reported in Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly in the crater. Gas-and-steam plumes containing small amounts of ash rose to altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 300 km E. During 8-10 December, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7.5-8 km (24,600-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 700 km E. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange.

Based on information from KVERT and analysis of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 13-15 December eruptions ash produced plumes to altitudes of 5.2-8.2 km (17,000-27,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted E and NE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 December-9 December 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 28 November-10 December; Strombolian activity ejected bombs 500 m above the crater and lava effusion on the NW flank continued. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly in the crater. During 27-29 November, and 2 and 4 December, gas-and-steam plumes with little ash content rose to altitudes of 6-6.2 km (19,700-20,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 40-115 km NE, E, SE, and SW. During 4-5 December, the ash content in plumes increased. On 8 December, phreatic bursts occurred where the lava flow front contacted the Erman Glacier. On 9 December, a 50-km-wide ash plume drifted about 550 km ENE. The Level of Concern Color Code was raised to Red. KVERT warned that the activity was dangerous for international and low-flying aircraft. On 10 December, the Level of Concern Color Code was lowered back to Orange because explosive activity decreased. A gas-and-steam plume with a small amount of ash drifted NE.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


26 November-2 December 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 21-28 November; Strombolian activity and lava effusion continued. On 21 November, a lava flow traveled 1.5-1.8 km down the NW flank. Gas-and-steam plumes drifted 80 km NW on 24 November and 20-40 km SE during 25-26 November. Gas-and-steam plumes containing slight amounts of ash rose to altitudes of 5.3-5.5 km (17,400-18,000 ft) a.s.l. during 26-27 November. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly in the crater during 21-28 November. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


19 November-25 November 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 14-21 November and Strombolian activity continued. Video and visual observations showed that during 13-17 November gas-and-steam plumes containing a small amount of ash rose to an altitude of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. On 17 November, "bursting" sounds from the volcano were heard in Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly in the crater during 14-21 November. On 22 November a lava flow traveled 1.5-1.8 km down the NW flank. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange. [Correction: a lava flow traveled down the NW flank on 21 November.]

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


12 November-18 November 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 7-13 November. Video and visual observations showed that during 8 and 10-12 November gas-and-steam plumes that contained a small amount of ash rose to an altitude of 5.1 km (16,700 ft) a.s.l. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly in the crater. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


5 November-11 November 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 31 October-7 November. Video and visual observations showed that during 31 October, and 1-2 and 5-6 November, gas-and-steam plumes that contained a small amount of ash rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,100 ft) a.s.l. On 3 and 4 November, "bursting" sounds from the volcano were heard in Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly in the crater. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


29 October-4 November 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 24-31 October. Video and visual observations showed fumarolic activity during 24-25 and 28-30 October. "Bursting" sounds from the volcano were heard in Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly in the crater. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


22 October-28 October 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 17-24 October. Fumarolic activity was noted during 17-19 and 22-23 October by video and visual observations. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly in the crater. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


15 October-21 October 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 10-17 October. Fumarolic activity was noted during 10-11 and 13-16 October. Observers in Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE, reported nighttime incandescence in the crater on 13 and 14 October. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a thermal anomaly in the crater during 10-11 and 13-15 October. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


8 October-14 October 2008

KVERT reported that fumarolic activity from Kliuchevskoi was seen during 2-6 and 8-9 October. During approximately 4-9 October analysis of satellite imagery revealed a thermal anomaly in the crater; seismic activity was above background levels. On 8 October after KVERT staff detected Strombolian activity in the summit crater the level of Concern Color Code was raised to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


6 August-12 August 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi had slowly increased since June and was slightly above background levels during 1-8 August. Observations of satellite imagery revealed that the size and intensity of a thermal anomaly in the crater increased. On 8 August, the level of Concern Color Code was raised to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


15 August-21 August 2007

On 17 August, KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was at background levels during the past five weeks, and ash plumes had not been noted for the last four weeks. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly on 11 August. The Level of Concern Color Code was lowered from Yellow to Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


18 July-24 July 2007

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was at background levels during 13-20 July. Based on observations of satellite imagery, ash plumes drifted E on 13 July and a thermal anomaly in the crater was noted during 13-20 July. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E during 13-15 July, according to video and visual observations. Gas-and-steam plumes were observed on 12, 16, and 18 July. The Level of Concern Color Code was lowered from Orange to Yellow due to a decrease in seismicity and an absence of ash plumes during 17-20 July.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 July-17 July 2007

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi had decreased, but remained above background levels during 6-13 July. Ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery drifting NE and NW during 5-11 July. Plumes rose to estimated altitudes of 5-6.5 km (16,400-21,300 ft) a.s.l. based on atmospheric profiles. Based on video data, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. during 9-11 July. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


4 July-10 July 2007

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi had decreased, but remained above background levels during 29 June-6 July. Based on seismic interpretation, ash plumes possibly rose to altitudes of 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l. On 4 July, the Level of Concern Color Code was lowered from Red to Orange. During 2-5 July, ash plumes rose to estimated altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-20,000 ft) a.s.l. based on atmospheric profiles. Plumes were visible on satellite imagery drifting NNW, W, and SE.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


27 June-3 July 2007

KVERT reported that during 22-29 June, seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued above background levels. Based on atmospheric profiles, ash plumes rose to estimated altitudes of 4.5-9.5 km (14,800-31,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions during 21-24 and 28 June. A thermal anomaly continued to be detected in the crater on satellite imagery during 22-23 and 26-27 June. On 28 June, seismicity increased and indicated that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 9 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. The Level of Concern Color Code was raised to Red.

Ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery drifting E more than 2,000 km on 29 June and drifting SW more than 900 km on 30 June. Based on video and visual observations, ash plumes rose to an altitude greater than 10 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W on 30 June. Ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery drifting E. On 1 July, plumes drifted N.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


20 June-26 June 2007

KVERT reported that during 15-22 June, seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. Based on video and visual observations, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE on 15 June. Clouds inhibited observations on other days. Plumes were seen drifting N, W, and S on satellite imagery during 15-22 June.

A large ash cloud, about 300 km in diameter, was observed near Yelizovo airport during 20-21 June. Based on atmospheric profiles, the plumes rose to estimated altitudes of 6.5-9.5 km (21,300-31,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

On 25 June, KVERT reported that seismic activity decreased during 22-24 June. Ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery drifting multiple directions. The plumes rose to estimated altitudes of 5.5-6.5 km (18,000-21,300 ft) a.s.l. based on atmospheric profiles. A thermal anomaly continued to be detected in the crater. The Level of Concern Color Code was lowered to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


13 June-19 June 2007

KVERT reported that during 8-15 June, seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. Strombolian and Vulcanian activity at the summit crater, lava flows, and phreatic bursts at the SE flank of the volcano were observed on 8 and 13 June. Based on video and visual observations, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. during 8-10 and 13 June and drifted E, SE, and NW. Ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery drifting multiple directions during 8-15 June.

KVERT reported that seismicity increased on 19 June at 1010. Beginning at 0400 on 20 June, ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery, drifting W. Based on atmospheric profiles, plume altitudes rose to an altitude of 6.5-7.5 km (21,300-24,600 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported from Kozyrevsk village. The Level of Concern Color Code was raised to Red.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


6 June-12 June 2007

KVERT reported that during 1-8 June, seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. Video and visual observations during 1-4 June indicated Strombolian and Vulcanian eruptions at the summit crater. Lava flows generated phreatic bursts from places where hot lava interacted with ice on the NW and SE flanks. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE during 1-6 June. Plumes were seen on satellite imagery drifting E and S during 1-8 June. Based on information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW on 12 June. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 May-5 June 2007

KVERT reported on 1 June that the Level of Concern Color Code for Kliuchevskoi was lowered from Red to Orange. During 25 May-1 June, seismic activity continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. According to video data and visual observations on 27 and 31 May, there was Strombolian and Vulcanian activity at the summit crater, lava flows, and phreatic bursts on the NW flank from where lava interacted with ice. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5-7 km (16,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. during 29-31 May and drifted in multiple directions. Strong phreatic bursts were seen from the front of a new lava flow from on the E flank on 31 May.

Based on information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash emissions produced plumes on 2 and 5 June to an altitude of about 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery. During 3-4 June, ash plumes to altitudes of 5.2-7 km (17,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. were possibly identified on satellite imagery.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 May-29 May 2007

KVERT reported that during 18-25 May, seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. On 18 May, ashfall was reported from the town of Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE. According to video data and visual observations, Vulcanian activity at the summit crater and phreatic bursts on the NW flank of the volcano were observed during 22-24 May. Ash plumes rose to 5-8 km (16,000-25,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Plumes were visible on satellite imagery drifting N, NE, and SE during the reporting period. Clouds inhibited observation on other days. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Red.

Based on satellite image observations and information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash emissions produced possible plumes on 26 May to an altitude of 6.4 km (21,000 ft) a.s.l. and on 27 May to an altitude of 10.1 km (33,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted E, S, SW, and W. Ash plumes were also observed on satellite imagery during 28-29 May drifting S, SW, and W.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 May-22 May 2007

KVERT reported that during 11-22 May, seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. According to video data and visual observations, Vulcanian activity at the terminal crater and phreatic bursts at the NW flank of the volcano were observed on 11 and 16 May. Also on 11 and 16 May, ash plumes rose to 9.7 km (31,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE, respectively. Clouds inhibited observation on other days. Ashfall was reported from the town of Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE, during 11-12 and 16-17 May. KVERT raised the Level of Concern Color Code from Orange to Red on 17 May.

On 18 May, KVERT reported that deposits from a mudflow filled the Krivaya river. During 18-22 May, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 8.5 km (27,900 ft) a.s.l. Based on observations from satellite imagery, ash plumes drifted N, NE, NW, and E during 11-22 May.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


9 May-15 May 2007

KVERT reported that during 4-11 May, seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. Lava flows continued to advance on the NW flank. Phreatic activity and ash plumes from lava-flow fronts were noted. Gas-and-steam plumes containing ash rose to altitudes of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N during 4-7 May. Ash plumes were seen on satellite imagery drifting NE, NW, W, and E during the reporting period. Ashfall was reported on 4 May and explosions were heard during 3-6 May in the town of Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE. Based on information from KEMSD and satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 11 May ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. On 12 May, the Anchorage VAAC reported that ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery. On 15 May, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption plume was possibly seen on satellite imagery to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. drifting N. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 May-8 May 2007

Based on observations and video data, KVERT reported that Strombolian activity occurred at Kliuchevskoi during 27 April-4 May. Seismic activity continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. Mudflows and lava flows continued to advance on the NW flank. Phreatic activity and ash plumes from lava-flow fronts were noted. Gas-and-steam plumes containing ash rose to altitudes of 6.2 km (20,400 ft) a.s.l. during the reporting period and were visible on satellite imagery drifting S and SE. Based on information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.2 (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE on 3 May. According to a news article, an ash plume rose to altitudes of 5.3-5.5 km (17,400-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE on 7 May. Ashfall was reported from the town of Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Itar-Tass News


25 April-1 May 2007

During 20-27 April, KVERT reported that Strombolian activity occurred at Kliuchevskoi, based on observations and video data. Seismic activity continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. Mudflows and lava flows continued to advance on the NW flank. Phreatic activity and ash plumes from lava-flow fronts were noted. Gas-and-steam plumes containing ash rose to altitudes of 7.2 km (23,600 ft) a.s.l. and were visible on satellite imagery drifting E and SE. Based on satellite imagery and information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.2 (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E during 25-26 April. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 April-24 April 2007

During 13-20 April, Strombolian activity occurred at Kliuchevskoi, based on observations and video data. Seismic activity continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. Fumarolic activity intensified during 15 and 17-18 April. Gas-and-steam plumes possibly containing small amounts of ash rose to altitudes of 6.3-7.2 km (20,700-23,600 ft) a.s.l. during 15 and 17-18 April and drifted in multiple directions. Based on pilot reports, satellite imagery, and observations in the Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Flight Information Region (FIR), the Tokyo VAAC reported several E-drifting ash plumes. They rose to altitudes of 5.2 (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and 8.8 km (29,000 ft) on 18 and 22 April, respectively. On 24 April, KVERT reported mudflows and phreatic activity at lava flow fronts on the NW flank. Resultant ash plumes rose from the lava flow fronts to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 April-17 April 2007

Seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued above background levels during 10-13 April. Based on observations and video data, lava flowed down the NW flank and Strombolian activity occurred at the crater. Everyday during 10-13 April a gas-and-steam plume possibly containing a small amount of ash rose to an altitude of 6.3 km (20,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. A thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery during 10-12 April. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


4 April-10 April 2007

Seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued at above background levels during 4-10 April. A gas-and-steam plume with a small amount of ash rose to an altitude of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW during 4-8 April. Strombolian activity was seen at the crater during 4-9 April. Based on observations and video data, lava was observed flowing down the NW flank on 9 April. A thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery during 2-10 April. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


28 March-3 April 2007

Based on observation and video data, lava from Kliuchevskoi flowed down the NW flank on 29 March. On 31 March, lava bombs from Strombolian activity were projected about 100-200 m above the crater. According to a news article, lava flows are interacting with snow and ice and producing vapor plumes.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), RIA Novosti


21 March-27 March 2007

Strombolian activity from Kliuchevskoi was observed during 16-18 February and 21-22 March. Lava bombs were ejected about 50-100 m above the crater. Clouds inhibited visual observations during most of February and March, but a thermal anomaly was detected on satellite imagery each day.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


21 February-27 February 2007

Seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued at above background levels during 16-22 February. Based on observation and video data, gas-and-steam plumes rose to an altitude of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. These plumes possibly contained some ash. A thermal anomaly at the summit was seen on satellite imagery during 16-19 and 21 February. Based on information from KEMSD and satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruption plumes possibly reached altitudes of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E during 22-23 February.

According to a news article, ash particles up to 2 mm in diameter fell on the village of Klyuchi, about 40 km N on 26 February.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), RIA Novosti


14 February-20 February 2007

Increased summit activity at Kliuchevskoi on 15 February led KVERT to raise the Concern Color Code from Yellow to Orange. Ash explosions and incandescence at the summit were observed. Strombolian explosions expelled bombs about 300 m above the crater. Based on video data and observations, gas-and-steam plumes with small amounts of ash rose to altitudes of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. A thermal anomaly at the summit was seen on satellite imagery.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


13 December-19 December 2006

On 19 December, KVERT reported that the Level of Concern Color Code for Kliuchevskoi was raised from Green to Yellow due to a slight increase in seismicity above background levels. Moderate fumarolic activity was noted from the crater. A thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery on 14, 15, and 18 December.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


2 November-8 November 2005

Seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was at background levels during the previous 3 weeks and no activity was observed on satellite imagery. Since there were no indications that an eruption was imminent at Kliuchevskoi, KVERT reduced the Concern Color Code from Yellow to Green on 4 November.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


14 September-20 September 2005

An increase in seismicity at Kliuchevskoi during 9-16 September led KVERT to raise the Concern Color Code from Green to Yellow. The amplitude of volcanic tremor at the volcano increased. Weak gas-and-steam emissions and a thermal anomaly were visible on satellite imagery during the week.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


10 August-16 August 2005

Seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi decreased to background levels during 5-12 August, so KVERT reduced the Concern Color Code from Yellow to Green (the lowest level). Only weak fumarolic activity was observed at the volcano.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


3 August-9 August 2005

Seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi decreased to the background levels. Fumarolic activity was observed the week of 3-9 August.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


27 July-2 August 2005

A decrease in volcanic tremor at Kliuchevskoi during the end of the week of 22-29 July led KVERT to reduce the Concern Color Code from Orange to Yellow. On 22 July, weak ash-and-gas plumes rose to ~100 m above the crater (16,200 ft a.s.l.).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


20 July-26 July 2005

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 15-22 July, with spasmodic volcanic tremor and shallow earthquakes occurring. A gas-and-steam plume rose ~5.5 km above the crater (~33,900 ft a.s.l.) on 19 July. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


13 July-19 July 2005

Seismicity increased to above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 8-15 July. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to low levels above the volcano during 8, and 10-13 July. KVERT raised the Concern Color Code from Yellow to Orange around 15 July.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 May-17 May 2005

Seismic activity was slightly above background levels until 7 May and at background levels on 8-9 May. Weak gas-and-steam plumes were seen rising up to 100 m above the crater and extended E on 6 May and for 5 km to the SE on 7 May. Clouds obscured the volcano at other times. A weak thermal anomaly was detected in satellite data during 6-9 May. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


13 April-19 April 2005

Seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi decreased during 8-15 April, but remained above background levels. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to low levels above the crater. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


6 April-12 April 2005

Seismic activity was above background levels during 1-8 April, with a large number of shallow earthquakes occurring. Ash-and-gas plumes rose to 1 km above the crater (19,100 ft. a.s.l.). Eruptive and seismic activity decreased significantly on 7 April. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


30 March-5 April 2005

Seismic activity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 25 March to 1 April. Ash-and-gas plumes rose 2.5-3 km above the crater (24,100-25,700 ft a.s.l.). Incandescence was observed above the summit crater on 28 March. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


23 March-29 March 2005

On 24 March KVERT raised the Concern Color Code at Kliuchevskoi to Red (the highest level) due to an increase in seismic and volcanic activity. According to visual and video data, a gas-and-steam plume containing ash rose to ~7.5 km (24,600 ft) a.s.l. on 22 March, and ~8.5 km (~27,900 ft) a.s.l. on 23 March, extending NW. Ash fell in the town of Kluchi during 23-24 March. According to data from AMC Yelizovo, an ash plume that rose to ~7 km (~23,000 ft.) a.s.l. and extended 70-80 km (44-50 mi) to the NW was observed by pilots on 23 March.

During about 27-28 March seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi decreased, leading KVERT to reduce the Concern Color Code to Orange. According to visual and video data, a gas-and-steam plume containing some ash rose ~200 m above the crater (~16,500 ft a.s.l.) and extended W during 27-28 March.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


16 March-22 March 2005

Eruptive activity continued at Kliuchevskoi during 11-18 March. Strombolian explosions occurred intermittently from a cinder cone in the summit crater. Lava flows extended from this cinder cone down the NW flank of the volcano. Occasional vigorous explosions from the summit crater and along the path of the lava flow produced ash plumes that reached as high as 7-8 km (23,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted many tens or hundreds of kilometers downwind.

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during the report period. Ash-and-gas plumes rose to 3.2 km above the crater (~26,300 ft a.s.l.) on 11-12 March. Ash fell in the town of Kozyrevsk on 11 March. Strombolian bursts rose 500-1,000 m (1,600- 3,300 ft) above the summit crater. On 15 March two lava flows were observed on the NW slope of the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


2 March-8 March 2005

Moderate seismic and volcanic activity continued at Kliuchevskoi during 24 February to 4 March. On 24 February a lava flow continued to travel down the Krestovsky channel on the volcano's NW flank. Strombolian activity occurred during the report period, with plumes rising to ~1 km above the volcano. Ash fell in the village of Icha on 26 February, and in Kozyrevsk on 1 March. Ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery on several days. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


16 February-22 February 2005

During 11-18 February, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with a large number of shallow earthquakes occurring daily. Ash plumes rose ~3 km above the volcano's crater during 12-14 February. Phreatic bursts, which occurred when lava flows contacted a glacier, were seen on 12 and 13 February. During 12-16 February, volcanic bombs were hurled 300-500 m above the crater, Strombolian activity occurred in the crater, and lava traveled into Krestovsky channel on the volcano's NW flank. During a flight on 16 February, a mudflow was seen extending 27 km. According to a news report, a lava flow from Kliuchevskoi melted a large section of Ehrman glacier. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


9 February-15 February 2005

During 4-11 February, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi and ash plumes rose above the volcano. On 6, 8, and 9 February, ash plumes rose ~2.5 km above the volcano's crater. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to ~3 km during 6-9 February. A cinder cone was noted in the volcano's crater on 6 February. Fresh ash deposits were seen on the SW flank of Ushkovsky volcano (NW of Kliuchevskoi) on 7 February, and in the town of Kluchi on 9 February.

During 31 January to 9 February, Strombolian activity occurred in the terminal crater of Kliuchevskoi and a lava flow traveled into Krestovsky channel on the volcano's NW flank. Phreatic bursts occurred in this channel when a lava flow contacted glaciers during 6-9 February. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


2 February-8 February 2005

On 1 February around 1000, a mudflow traveled ~6 km down Kliuchevskoi's NW flank into the Kruten'kaya River. The mudflow reached a height of a few meters and trees were covered with mud to about 1.5 m. Large blocks and trees were carried by the flow. A possible lava flow traveled down Krestovsky channel on the volcano's flank on 31 January.

During 28 January to 4 February, seismicity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels, with a large number of shallow earthquakes occurring daily. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to ~1 km above the volcano's crater and drifted SW on 29 January and NW on January 31. A small amount of ash fell in Klyuchi on 31 January. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


26 January-1 February 2005

Strombolian activity occurred at Kliuchevskoi during 20-23 and 27 January. Explosions sent volcanic bombs 50-300 m above the crater on several nights. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to a maximum height of 1.5 km above the crater. On 21 January a gas-and-steam plume with small amounts of ash extended as far as 23 km NE of the volcano. During 21-28 January seismicity was above background levels, with a large number of shallow earthquakes recorded daily. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


19 January-25 January 2005

During 14-21 January, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi and the total number of shallow earthquakes continued to increase. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to ~800 m above the lava dome. Incandescence was visible in the volcano's crater during several nights. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


12 January-18 January 2005

KVERT raised the Concern Color Code at Kliuchevskoi from Green to Yellow on 14 January as seismic activity at the volcano increased. On 12 January, around 21 shallow earthquakes of M=1.0-1.7 and weak volcanic tremor were recorded. According to visual observations, weak gas-and-steam plumes were noted during 6-8 and 12 January. The plumes extended E from the volcano on 7 January and SW for 5 km from the volcano on 12 January.

KVERT again raised the Concern Color Code from Yellow to Orange as seismic activity increased significantly. During 13-14 January, 15 shallow earthquakes of M > 1.25 were recorded, along with an increase in the amplitude of volcanic tremor. Visual observations on 14 January noted a weak gas-and-steam plume that extended N from the volcano. Satellite data showed a bright thermal anomaly over the summit on 15 January.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


24 November-30 November 2004

Around 26 November, the Concern Color Code at Kluichevskoi was reduced from Yellow to Green, the lowest level. During 19-26 November, seismicity was at background levels. Gas-and-steam plumes were seen up to 5 km a.s.l. on 24 November and weak fumarolic activity was observed on several days.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


15 September-21 September 2004

Seismic activity was at background levels this week. About 102 earthquakes (M 1.0-2.3) at a depth up to 30 km were recorded this week. A strong ash-and-gas plume rose up to 7 km a.s.l. on 15 September. Weak fumarolic activity was observed the next day. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


3 March-9 March 2004

KVERT reduced the Concern Color Code at Kliuchevskoi from Orange to Yellow during 27 February to 5 March. Seismicity was slightly above background levels during 26-27 February and at background levels the rest of the week. Several shallow earthquakes up to M 2.2 were recorded, along with spasmodic tremor. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to low levels.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


25 February-2 March 2004

Seismicity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 20-27 February, with ~160 M 1.25-1.75 earthquakes and 12 M 1.25-2.25 earthquakes occurring at depths of 3-7 km beneath the volcano. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to ~700 m above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


18 February-24 February 2004

During 13-20 February seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with 135 earthquakes of M 1.25-1.7 and 1-6 earthquakes up to M 1.85 occurring daily at depths of 3-6 km beneath the volcano. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to ~1 km above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 February-17 February 2004

During 6-13 February, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with ~225 shallow M 1.25-2 earthquakes recorded during the week. The amount of spasmodic tremor decreased during the report period. In addition, gas-and-steam plumes rose ~700 m above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


4 February-10 February 2004

During 30 January to 6 February, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with ~430 strong shallow earthquakes recorded during the week and gas-and-steam plumes rising to low levels. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


28 January-3 February 2004

During 23-30 January, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with ~130 shallow M 1.9-2.3 earthquakes and a large number of weaker events occurring. Probable Strombolian activity was seen at the volcano on the evenings of 24 and 26 January. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to ~3 km above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


21 January-27 January 2004

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 16-23 January, with ~130 shallow M 1.9-2.3 earthquakes and a large number of weaker events recorded. Ash explosions produced low-level plumes on 15 January that drifted NW. According to the Tokyo VAAC, an eruption on 24 January produced an ash plume to ~2.7 km a.s.l. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


14 January-20 January 2004

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 9-16 January, with ~175 shallow M 1.9-2.5 earthquakes and a large number of weaker events recorded. Ash explosions rose 0.5-1 km above the volcano during 11-13 January. Strombolian activity was observed at the central crater during 11-12 January. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


7 January-13 January 2004

During 2-9 January, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with ~115 shallow M1.9-2.3 earthquakes and a large number of weaker events recorded. On 2 January an ash explosion rose slightly above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


31 December-6 January 2004

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 26 December to 2 January, with ~33 shallow M 1.9-2.2 earthquakes and a large number of weaker events recorded. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to low levels above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


24 December-30 December 2003

During 19-26 December, seismicity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels, with the occurrence of ~135 large shallow earthquakes between M 1.9-2.3 and a large number of weaker events. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to low levels above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


17 December-23 December 2003

At Kliuchevskoi seismicity was above background levels during 12-19 December, with ~150 shallow M 1.75-2.25 earthquakes occurring along with a large number of weaker events. Strombolian activity was noted on the nights of 11 and 13 December. Gas-and-steam plumes, possibly containing small amounts of ash, rose to low levels above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


3 December-9 December 2003

Seismicity remained above background levels at Kliuchevskoi with ~130 M 2-2.5 and many smaller earthquakes recorded during 28 November to 5 December. Strombolian activity was observed on the nights of 27 and 29 November and on 29 November a gas-and-steam plume with some ash was emitted. On 2 December a gas-and-steam plume rose to 1 km above the crater and extended to over 20 km E. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


26 November-2 December 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 21 to 28 November, with 80 shallow M 2-2.5 earthquakes and a large number of weak shallow events recorded. Strombolian activity was seen on the night of 21 November. Gas-and-steam plumes containing some ash rose to low levels above the crater on 23-24 November. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


19 November-25 November 2003

Strombolian activity was observed at Kliuchevskoi on 14-15 November. During 14-15 and 18 November, gas-and-ash plumes rose to ~2.5 km above the crater and extended more than 10 km W, E, and NE. During 15-20 November, seismic activity continued to be above background levels with 75 shallow M 1.9-2.5 earthquakes and many small, shallow earthquakes recorded. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


12 November-18 November 2003

During 7-14 November, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with the occurrence of 43 large shallow earthquakes (M 1.9-2.5), a large number of weak shallow earthquakes, and spasmodic tremor. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to ~2.5 km above the crater. Strombolian activity was visible at the volcano's central crater during the evening of 9-10 November. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


5 November-11 November 2003

A 7 November report noted continued unrest, with recent (late October) activity including unusual numbers and kinds of earthquakes. During the week ending 7 November tremor took place and earthquakes remained elevated. A 9 November satellite observation revealed an ash and steam plume to ~7 km a.s.l. and extending ~100 km from the summit.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


29 October-4 November 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 24-31 October, with one to five earthquakes (M 1.6-2.3) occurring per day at depths around 30 km. Several large shallow earthquakes (M 1.7-2.6), and weaker earthquakes occurred. Gas plumes rose to ~700 m above the volcano. Incandescence was seen in the crater during 23-24 October. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


22 October-28 October 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 17-24 October, with one to five M 1.7-2.1 earthquakes occurring per day at depths around 30 km. Four larger (M 2.1-2.5) earthquakes occurred, as well as a large number of weak shallow ones. Gas-and steam plumes were emitted during the week. On 18 October pilots saw an ash plume at a height of ~6.8 km a.s.l., extending more than 10 km NNE. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


15 October-21 October 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 11-17 October, with one to six magnitude 1.6-2.1 earthquakes per day at depths of ~30 km. Nine shallow M 1.7-2.2 earthquakes were recorded along with many smaller ones. On 9, 10, and 11 October, gas-and-steam plumes with little ash rose to 0.5-1.5 km above the volcano's crater and extended more than 10 km E. Similar plumes on 12 and 16 October extended more than 46 km and 50 km to the E and NE, respectively. Strombolian activity was observed on the night of 10-11 October. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


8 October-14 October 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 3-10 October, with up to 30 M 1.7-2.2 earthquakes occurring at depths around 30 km. Gas-and-steam plumes, with little ash, rose 1-3 km above the volcano's crater and extended more than 10 km, mainly E. Strombolian activity at the volcano's center crater was visible during several evenings. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 October-7 October 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 26 September to 3 October. Each day, 2-6 earthquakes (M 1.7-2) occurred at depths around 30 km. During the report period, ash-and-gas plumes rose to ~1 km above the volcano and extended as far as 100 km. During the evenings of 25 and 30 September, and 2 October, Strombolian activity was visible in the volcano's central crater. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


24 September-30 September 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 19-26 September, with 1-3 earthquakes (M 1.7-2.2) at depths around 30 km. A gas-and-steam plume rose to ~700 m above the crater on 24 September. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


17 September-23 September 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 12-19 September, with 2-6 earthquakes between M 1.7 and 2.2 occurring. Ash-and-gas plumes rose to 100 m above the crater and drifted W. The volcano's western flank was covered by fresh ash. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


10 September-16 September 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 5-12 September, when 2-9 earthquakes with magnitudes less than 2.1 occurred per day at depths of ~30 km. During the week, ash-and-gas, and gas-and-steam plumes were seen. The highest rising ash-and-gas plume reached ~1.5 km above the volcano on 10 September. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


3 September-9 September 2003

During 29 August to 5 September, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with 4-7 earthquakes less than M 2.2 occurring per day. at depths around 30 km On 29 August gas-and-steam plumes with minor amounts of ash rose to 1 km above the crater. On the evening of 4 September incandescence was visible in the center of the crater. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


27 August-2 September 2003

During 22-29 August, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with 3-8 earthquakes per day of magnitude less than 2.2 occurring at depths around 30 km. On 26 August at 2300 Strombolian activity was seen in the volcano's center crater. Volcanic bombs were hurled to ~200 m above the crater. There were 5-minute intervals between explosions. During 27-28 August, gas-and-steam plumes with minor amounts of ash rose 1.5-2 km above the volcano's crater and drifted SW. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Associated Press


20 August-26 August 2003

During 15-22 August, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi. Up to 15 earthquakes were recorded per day at depths around 30 km. Spasmodic tremor was also recorded. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to 700 m above the volcano, weak fumarolic activity was recorded, and a thermal anomaly was visible on satellite imagery. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


13 August-19 August 2003

Seismicity was above background levels during 7-15 August at Kliuchevskoi, with 37-60 earthquakes recorded during 7-9 August with magnitudes up to 2.3. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to 800 m above the volcano and extended ~15 km S. A thermal anomaly was visible on satellite imagery. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


6 August-12 August 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 1-8 August. During 1-6 August, up to 18 earthquakes occurred per day with magnitudes less than 2.1 at depths around 3 km. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to 2 km above the crater. Thermal anomalies were seen on satellite imagery on several days. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


30 July-5 August 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 24 July to 1 August. During 24-28 July, 14-17 earthquakes with magnitudes less than 2.1 occurred each day. The number of earthquakes decreased to 9 on 29 July, and 7 on 30 July. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to a maximum height of ~700 m above the crater. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


23 July-29 July 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with 6-17 M 1.8-2.4 earthquakes occurring each day at depths of ~30 km and at shallower levels. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to a maximum height of ~1 km above the crater. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


16 July-22 July 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 11-18 July. Several earthquakes occurred each day with magnitudes of 1.3-2.2 at depths around 30 km and at shallower levels. Explosions sent ash clouds to a height of ~1 km above the volcano and during 12-16 July ash clouds reached ~2 km above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


9 July-15 July 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 4-12 July. Several earthquakes with magnitudes of 1.5-2.2 occurred at depths around 30 km and at shallower levels. The amount of spasmodic tremor decreased by the end of the report week. Ash explosions reached ~1 km above the volcano each day of the report week, except 6 July. On 4 July ash from an explosion reached ~2 km above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


2 July-8 July 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 27 June-4 July, with earthquakes occurring at depths around 30 km and at shallower levels. The character of seismicity indicated that weak gas-and-ash explosions possibly occurred. Spasmodic tremor was recorded the entire week. On 2 July ash plumes rose to 1 km above the volcano and drifted ESE. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


25 June-1 July 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 20-27 June, with earthquakes occurring at depths around 30 km and at shallower levels. The character of seismicity indicated that weak gas-and-ash explosions possibly occurred. Spasmodic tremor was recorded the entire week. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 50-700 m above the volcano. On 23 June a thermal anomaly and possible ash deposits on the volcano's SE flank were seen on satellite imagery. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


18 June-24 June 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 13-20 June, with the level of spasmodic tremor remaining near the level of the previous week. Earthquakes continued to be registered at depths around 30 km and at shallower levels. The character of seismicity indicated that weak gas-and-ash explosions possibly occurred. On 14,16, and 17 June explosions produced ash-poor plumes 50-500 m above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 June-17 June 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 6-13 June. After some diminishing, the level of continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor returned to the same level as the previous week. Earthquakes continued to be registered at depths around 30 km and at shallower levels. The character of seismicity indicated that weak gas-and-ash explosions possibly occurred. A thermal anomaly and an ash-poor plume were visible on satellite imagery. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


4 June-10 June 2003

During 30 May to 6 June, seismicity remained above background levels at Kliuchevskoi. The amount of spasmodic volcanic tremor continued to grow slowly and consistently. Earthquakes continued to be registered at depths around 30 km and at shallower levels. The character of seismicity indicated that weak gas-and-ash explosions possibly occurred. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


28 May-3 June 2003

Volcanic unrest continued at Kliuchevskoi during 23-30 May. Seismicity was above background levels and the amount of continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor slightly increased. Shallow earthquakes and others at depths around 30 km continued to occur. Gas-and-steam plumes were occasionally visible, but the volcano was obscured by clouds most of the report week. On 30 May at 0030 observers in the town of Klyuchi saw pulsing glow above the volcano's crater. Light bursts occurred every 1-10 minutes, but volcanic bomb traces were absent. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Pravda News


21 May-27 May 2003

Volcanic unrest continued at Kliuchevskoi during 16-23 May. Seismicity was above background levels, with five M 2-2.1 earthquakes occurring at depths around 30 km during 15-21 May. Continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor occurred during the report period. Gas-and-steam plumes rose above the crater to low levels. On 18 May during 0000-0500, incandescence was visible above the volcano's crater from the town of Klyuchi. This is the first such observation since 1994. Thermal anomalies were visible on satellite imagery during 15-22 May. On 17 May ash deposits were visible on the volcano's E and SE flanks. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


14 May-20 May 2003

Several explosions occurred at Kliuchevskoi during 9-16 May, and seismicity was above background levels. On 14 May KVERT raised the Concern Color Code to Orange from Yellow. An eruption on 14 May at 1120 produced the week's highest rising ash cloud (~8.5 km a.s.l.). During the report period, instruments recorded 26 to 59 earthquakes per day. They were greater than M 1.25 and at depths of ~30 km. A large number of weak shallow earthquakes and tremor also occurred.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Pravda News


30 April-6 May 2003

KVERT reported above-background seismicity at Kliuchevskoi during the week ending 1 May. Specifically, there were 25 earthquakes over M 1.25 at ~30 km depth, and 19 earthquakes over M 1.25 at shallower depths, including some within the edifice. In addition, during the same week instruments registered numerous weak, shallow earthquakes, and continuous spasmodic tremor. Residents in the city of Klyuchi saw various gas-and-steam plumes rising to these heights above the crater: on 25 April up to 300 m; and several other late April plumes up to ~ 2 km. The plume of 28 April extended over 5 km to the SE. Videos suggested that plumes escaping the crater in the early morning hours of 2 May could have contained ash.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


23 April-29 April 2003

A KVERT report on Kliuchevskoi issued on 25 April stated that above-background seismicity, including abundant tremor, prevailed during the week. This report also revealed that the ash explosions of 17-18 April had sent material 1-2 km above the crater. Modest thermal anomalies registered in satellite data for 18-19 April and plumes around that time extended E for 20-200 km. The respective ash-bearing plumes of 20 and 23 April traveled over 10 km NE and 20 km SW. As of 25 April the Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


16 April-22 April 2003

A moderate vulcanian eruption of Kliuchevskoi began 15 April; it continued through at least 16 April. The eruption was preceded by above-background seismicity, and on 15 April there were ~70 earthquakes per day at ~30-km depth. Instruments registered continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor (up to 4.0 µm/second) and numerous weak shallow earthquakes. According to observers in Klyuchi, on 15 April a series of ash plumes rose up to 300 m above the crater and extended for 10 km. According to satellite data, on 16 April a thin, 175-km-long plume headed E. Observations on 17 April disclosed a zone of ash deposits extending ESE for 20 km from the crater. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


9 April-15 April 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 4-11 April, with 10-15 earthquakes occurring per day at depths of ~30 km. Continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor and a large number of weak shallow earthquakes were recorded. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to low levels above the crater and fumarolic activity was observed on 7 April. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


2 April-8 April 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 28 March to 4 April, with 24-63 earthquakes occurring per day at depths of ~30 km. Continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor was recorded and a large number of weak shallow earthquakes were registered. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to low levels above the crater. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


26 March-1 April 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 21-28 March. During 20-24 March, 6-9 earthquakes occurred at depths of ~30 km. Later seismicity increased, with 26 and 41 earthqakes recorded on 25 and 26 March, respectively. The amount of continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor increased in comparison to the previous week. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to low levels above Kliuchevskoi's crater. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


19 March-25 March 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 14-21 March, with 7-9 earthquakes occurring at depths of ~30 km. Continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor was recorded. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 700-1,500 m above Kliuchevskoi's crater on 18-19 March. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


26 February-4 March 2003

Seismicity at Kliuchevskoi was slightly above background levels during 21-28 February, with 10-14 earthquakes occurring per day at depths of ~30 km. Continuous, spasmodic volcanic tremor was recorded all week. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to low levels and possible ash deposits on the volcano's SE summit were visible on satellite imagery. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


19 February-25 February 2003

Seismicity was above background levels during 13-15 February at Kliuchevskoi, and slightly above background levels during 16-19 February. From 14 to 81 earthquakes occurred each day at depths of ~30 km. Continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor was registered during the report week, and gas-and-steam plumes rose to 1 km above the crater. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


12 February-18 February 2003

Seismicity was slightly above background levels during 7-14 February at Kliuchevskoi, with 17-30 earthquakes occurring each day at depths of ~30 km. Continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor was registered during the report week, and gas-and-steam plumes rose to 1.5 km above the crater. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


5 February-11 February 2003

Seismicity was slightly above background levels during 31 January to 7 February at Kliuchevskoi, with 16-39 earthquakes occurring each day, at depths of ~30 km. Continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor was registered during the report week, and gas-and-steam plumes rose to 1.3 km above the crater. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


15 January-21 January 2003

Seismicity was slightly above background levels during 10-17 January at Kliuchevskoi, with 12-28 earthquakes occurring each day during 10-12 January and 33-35 earthquakes during 13-15 January. Intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor was registered during the report week, and gas-and-steam plumes rose to 300 m above the crater. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


8 January-14 January 2003

Seismicity was slightly above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 6-9 January, with 10-23 earthquakes recorded per day. Steam-and-gas plumes were seen rising to 1 km above the crater. Thermal anomalies were visible on satellite imagery. A probable mudflow, seen on the volcano's SE slope on 7 January, may have emerged after a short explosion to the SE or E, or after powerfulfumarolic activity in the crater. The Concern Color Code was reduced from Orange to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


31 December-6 January 2003

Seismicity was slightly above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 26 December to 3 January, with 3-11 earthquakes occurring per day. On 5 January a faint thermal anomaly, and probable mud flow down the volcano's SSE slope were visible on satellite imagery. According to KVERT, the thermal anomaly and mud flow indicate that a lava flow may have begun to travel down the SSE slope. During 4-6 January, seismicity was slightly above background levels. The Concern Color Code was raised on 6 January from Yellow to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


24 December-30 December 2002

A gas-and-ash explosion at Kluichevskoi on 24 December led KVERT to increase the Concern Color Code from Yellow to Orange. Seismicity was above background levels during 19-25 December, with 6-9 earthquakes recorded each day at ~30-km depth. Intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor was also recorded. On 19, 21, and 23 December gas-and-steam plumes rose 1-2 km above the crater. Visual observations and video data from the town of Klyuchi revealed that a plume from a gas-and-ash explosion on 24 December at 1210 rose 4 km above the crater and drifted WSW. By the 27th the Concern Color Code had been reduced back to Yellow.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 December-24 December 2002

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 13-20 December. Seismographs recorded 6-12 earthquakes per day during the report period at depths of ~ 30 km. In addition, intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor was recorded. Gas-and-steam plumes rose ~1.5 km above the crater and extended E and SE. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 December-17 December 2002

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 6-13 December. Seismographs recorded 12-24 earthquakes per day during the report period at depths of ~ 30 km. In addition, intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor was recorded. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 1.5 km above the crater and extended N and NE. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


4 December-10 December 2002

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 29 November to 6 December. Up to 33 earthquakes occurred per day during 28 November to 4 December at a depth of ~ 30 km. In addition, intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor occurred during the report week. On 3 December a gas-and-steam plume rose ~1.3 km above the crater and drifted N and NE. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


27 November-3 December 2002

Seismicity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 21-24 November, and at background levels during 25-27 November. Each day during the report week 7 to 11 earthquakes occurred at a depth of ~30 km. Gas-and-steam plumes were observed rising to ~2 km above the crater and drifting N and NW. On 24 November weak ashfall was observed around Bylinkina's crater on the volcano's NE slope. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


20 November-26 November 2002

Seismicity remained above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 15-22 November. The number of deep earthquakes decreased from 26 to 9 during 14-17 November, and remained at nine during the 17th to 20th. Gas-and-steam plumes were seen rising to 1-2 km above the crater and drifting to the W. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


13 November-19 November 2002

KVERT raised the Concern Color Code at Kliuchevskoi from Green to Yellow during 8-15 November. According to data from KMSD GS RAS, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during the report week. During 8-10 November, five to nine earthquakes occurred per day, and during 11-13 November 33-56 earthquakes occurred per day. Intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor slowly decreased during 8-12 November. A gas-and-steam plume was seen rising 100-900 m above the crater and extended more than 10 km to the E and SE.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


19 June-25 June 2002

Shallow seismic activity declined during 14-21 June at Kliuchevskoi, but 10-15 earthquakes ~30 km beneath the volcano occurred daily, and weak spasmodic tremor continued to be registered during the week. By the end of the week, shallow seismic events occurred again. Low-level gas-and-steam clouds rose above the volcano on several days. No thermal anomalies or plumes were visible on satellite imagery. KVERT decreased the Concern Color Code at Kliuchevskoi from Yellow ("volcano is restless") to Green ("volcano is in quiet, "dormant" state").

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


12 June-18 June 2002

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during most of 7-14 June. On 11 June a ~30-minute-long series of earthquakes (ML less than or equal to 2.8) occurred in the volcano's edifice. Continuous spasmodic tremor continued to be recorded during the week and 22-48 earthquakes occurred per day ~30 km below the volcano. Based on visual and seismic data there was no evidence of recent explosive activity at the volcano. No thermal anomalies or ash plumes were observed on satellite imagery. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Yellow ("volcano is restless").

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


5 June-11 June 2002

During most of the week of 31 May-7 June seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, and continuous spasmodic tremor was registered. On 31 May a series of earthquakes less than or equal to ML (local magnitude) 2.3 were registered in the volcano's edifice, and about 20 ~30-km-deep earthquakes occurred per day under the volcano. On 5 June at 1820 volcanic tremor began to gradually diminish and by the end of the week shallow seismic activity had decreased. Low-level gas-and-steam plumes rose above the crater and no thermal anomalies or plumes were observed on satellite imagery. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Yellow ("volcano is restless").

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


29 May-4 June 2002

An increase in volcanic tremor at Kliuchevskoi led KVERT to raise the Concern Color Code from Green ("volcano is in quiet, "dormant" state") to Yellow ("volcano is restless") on 31 May. During most of the report week (24-31 May) seismicity was near background levels. Weak shallow earthquakes, other earthquakes ~30 km under the volcano, and episodes of weak spasmodic tremor were registered. On 24 and 27 May gas-and-steam plumes rose 100 m above the crater. Spasmodic volcanic tremor began to increase on 30 May at 0810, declined at 1000, and began to increase again around 2200. Tremor was still recorded on 31 May. No thermal anomalies or plumes were observed on satellite imagery.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


27 February-5 March 2002

The Tokyo VAAC received reports that Kliuchevskoi began erupting on 27 February at 1455. Reportedly, an ash cloud was produced to a height of ~6.4 km a.s.l. and drifted to the NE. No ash was visible on satellite imagery. According to reports KVERT received from the Research Laboratory of Seismic and Volcanic Activity in Kamchatka, there was neither a seismic signal detected at Kliuchevskoi on 27 February at 1455 nor an ash plume visible on video footage.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 November-27 November 2001

A gradual decrease in seismicity under Kliuchevskoi during 16-23 November led KVERT to reduce the Concern Color Code from Yellow to Green. The tallest gas-and-steam plume of the reporting interval was produced on 19 November. The plume rose 700 m above the dome and extended SE for more than 10 km.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


14 November-20 November 2001

An increase in seismicity at Kliuchevskoi during 13 November to at least 16 November led KVERT to raise the Concern Color Code from Green to Yellow. On 13 November at 1619 seismicity sharply increased from background levels when a swarm of shallow earthquakes began; these had magnitudes less than or equal to 3. During 13-15 November more than 150 earthquakes occurred with magnitudes less than or equal to 1.7. Prior to the seismicity increase, on 9 November a steam plume rose 600 m above the crater and during 11-13 November gas-and-steam plumes rose 50-100 m above the crater.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


28 March-3 April 2001

The KVERT reported that during the beginning of the report period (23-30 March), seismic activity was above background levels with spasmodic tremor and shallow earthquakes registered, but gradually decreased towards the end of the week. The KVERT lowered the Level of Concern Color Code from Yellow to Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


21 March-27 March 2001

The KVERT reported that during 16-22 March seismic activity was above background levels, with interrupted spasmodic tremor and shallow earthquakes registered. On 18-19 March a gas and steam plume rose 50-100 m above the volcano. On 22 March the volcano was quiet. On other days, the volcano was obscured by clouds. The level of Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


14 March-20 March 2001

The KVERT reported that during 9-15 March seismic activity was above background levels, with interrupted spasmodic tremor and shallow earthquakes registered. Between 1925 and 1940 on 15 March, an intense series of shallow earthquakes were registered. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 2 km above the volcano on 12 and 14 March, and others reached 100-250 m above the volcano on 9, 11, and 13 March. The Concern Color Code remained at Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


7 March-13 March 2001

The KVERT reported that during 2-8 March seismicity was at background levels, with weak spasmodic tremor occasionally registered. On 4 March a gas-and-steam plume rose 600-1,000 m above the volcano and extended more than 10 km to the NE. As reported by the Tokyo VAAC, GMS-5 imagery showed that the plume rose to a height of ~9.5 km a.s.l. The Concern Color Code remained at Green.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 February-6 March 2001

Based on satellite imagery and pilot reports, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption may have occurred at Kliuchevskoi. The ash cloud produced from the eruption rose to a height of ~9.5 km and was visible on GMS-5 imagery at 1532 on 4 March. By 1832 the same day the ash cloud was no longer visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 Aug 15 2013 Aug 19 (continuing) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2012 Sep 1 (?) 2013 Jan 28 ± 3 days Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 2011 Nov 2 ] [ 2011 Nov 2 ] Uncertain 1  
2011 Mar 30 2011 Jul 3 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2009 Aug 1 (?) 2010 Dec 20 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2008 Oct 8 2009 Apr 16 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2007 Feb 15 2007 Jul 15 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2005 Jan 20 (in or before) 2005 Apr 7 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2004 Sep 15 2004 Sep 15 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2002 Nov 24 2004 Apr 8 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2002 Apr 9 2002 Jun 9 (in or before) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2000 Jul 28 2000 Sep 22 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2000 Feb 3 2000 Feb 8 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1999 Feb 5 1999 Jul 12 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1998 Jul 23 1998 Sep 2 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1997 Sep 7 1997 Sep 26 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1996 Nov 14 1997 Mar 20 ± 12 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1994 Sep 8 1995 Jan 14 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1992 Sep 12 1993 Sep 12 ± 1 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1992 Jan 25 1992 May 25 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1991 Apr 8 1991 Jun 24 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1986 Nov 27 1990 Sep Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Summit, SE, SW, NE and east flanks
1986 Jun 8 1986 Jul 11 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1985 Aug 16 1986 Jan 21 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and NW flank (3100 m)
1984 Mar 10 1985 Jan 28 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1982 Oct 7 1983 Jun 27 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit and east flank (2875 m)
1982 Mar 24 1982 May 2 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 1981 Dec 21 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1981 Jan 25 1981 Aug 4 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1977 Aug 2 1980 Mar 12 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, NE flank (1700 m)
1974 Apr 8 1974 Dec (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and SW flank (3400-3600 m)
1971 Nov 1973 Dec Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1971 Jun 1971 Jul Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1970 May 26 1970 Dec 27 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1969 Sep 1969 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1968 Jul 3 1968 Jul 3 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1967 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1965 Aug 1966 Dec 26 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, NE flank (Piip Crater)
1963 Nov 13 1964 Dec (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1960 Dec 1963 Mar 22 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1959 Jan 3 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1958 May 18 1958 Aug 18 (in or after) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations East part of summit crater
1957 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1956 Jan 1956 Aug 2 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit and SE flank (1500 m)
1954 May 28 1954 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1953 Jun 7 1953 Jun 25 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit, NE flank (Belyankin Crater)
1951 Nov 19 1951 Nov 30 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit, NE flank (Bylinkina, 950 m)
1949 May Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1948 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1946 Oct 23 1946 Nov 22 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SE flank (Apakhonchich, ca. 1600 m)
1945 Jun 19 1945 Jul 7 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SE flank (Yubileinoye, 1000-1450 m)
1944 Dec 9 1945 Jan 20 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1937 Apr 3 1939 Mar Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, east flank (Bilyukai)
1935 Apr 21 1936 Nov 4 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1932 Jan 25 1932 Dec 26 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NE flank (Kirgurich, Tuyla, Biokos)
1931 Aug 1931 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1931 Mar 25 1931 Mar 27 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1929 Jun 1929 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1926 Mar 23 1926 Apr 7 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1925 Apr 4 1925 Oct 10 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1923 Aug 1923 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1922 May Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1915 Jan Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1913 Jan Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1911 Nov Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1910 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1909 Jun Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1907 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit and east flank
1904 Jan 31 ± 30 days 1904 Jun 14 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1898 Feb 20 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1896 Dec 1897 Nov Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1890 Apr Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1883 Jul 1883 Aug Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1882 Sep Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1879 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1878 Sep Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1877 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1865 Sep Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1853 Oct 1854 Feb 17 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1852 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1852 Feb 1852 Mar Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1848 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1840 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1829 Sep 9 Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1819 1822 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1813 Feb Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1812 Sep Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1807 Feb 1 ± 30 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1791 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1791 Apr Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1789 Dec 1 1790 Feb Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1788 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1788 Feb Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1787 Sep Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1785 Nov Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1772 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1770 May Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1767 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1762 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1740 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1737 Sep 25 (?) 1737 Nov 4 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1727 1731 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1720 1721 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1697 1698 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
0550 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
3950 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Adushkin V V Zykov Y N, Fedotov S A, 1995. Mechanism of volcanic slope failure. Assessment of potential collapse and debris avalanches at Klyuchevskoi volcano. Volc Seism, 16: 667-684 (English translation).

Basharina L A, 1965. Gases of Kamchatka volcanoes. Bull Volc, 28: 95-106.

Braitseva O A, Melekestsev I V, Ponomareva V V, Sulerzhitsky L D, 1995. Ages of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region, Russia. Bull Volc, 57: 383-402.

Delemen I F, 1995. Gravitational instability mechanisms in volcanic cones (with reference to Klyuchevskoi volcano). Volc Seism, 16: 649-666 (English translation).

Fedotov S A, Andreev V N, Bogoyavlenskaya G E, Dvigalo V N, Khrenov A P, Zharinov N A, 1990. Main eruptions of Kamchatka volcanoes in 1985-1990. IAVCEI 1990 Internatl Volc Cong, Mainz, Abs, (unpaginated).

Fedotov S A, Masurenkov Y P (eds), 1991. Active Volcanoes of Kamchatka. Moscow: Nauka Pub, 2 volumes.

Gorshkov G S, Kirsanov I T, 1968. Eruption of Piip Crater (Kamchatka). Bull Volc, 32: 269-282.

Hantke G, 1953. Ubersicht uber die Vulkanische Tatigkeit 1948-1950. Bull Volc, 14: 151-180.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Ivanov B V, Gavrilenko G M, Dvigalo V N, Ovsyannikov A A, Ozerov A Y, Razina A A, Tokarev P I, Khrenov A P, Chirkov A M, 1984. Activity of volcanoes in Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands in 1983. Volc Seism, 1984(6): 114-121 (English translation 1988, 6: 959-972).

Khrenov A P, Ozerov A Y, Litasov N E, Slezin Y B, Murav'ev Y D, Zharinov N A, 1985. Parasitic eruption of Klyuchevskoi volcano (Preskazannyi eruption, 1983). Volc Seism, 1985(1): 3-20 (English translation 1988, 7: 1-24).

Kozhemyaka N N, 1995. Active volcanoes of Kamchatka: types and growth time of cones, total volumes of erupted material, productivity, and composition of rocks. Volc Seism, 16: 581-594 (English translation).

Lamb H H, 1970. Volcanic dust in the atmosphere; with a chronology and assessment of its meteorological significance. Phil Trans Roy Soc London, Ser A, 266: 425-533.

Leonov V L, 1995. Lineaments, tectonic fractures, and mechanical behavior of Klyuchevskoi volcano. Volc Seism, 16: 627-648 (English translation).

Melekestsev I V, Braitseva O A, Ponomareva V V, 1989. Prediction of volcanic hazards on the basis of the study of dynamics of volcanic activity, Kamchatka. In: Latter J H (ed), {Volcanic Hazards - Assessment and Monitoring}, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, p 10-35.

Rose S, Ramsey M, 2009. The 2005 eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano: chronology and processes derived from ASTER spaceborne and field-based data. J Volc Geotherm Res, 184: 367-380.

Steinberg G S, 1981. Kliuchevskoy volcano eruption of 1980 and eruption cyclicity. Volcano News, 8: 2-3.

Vlodavetz V I, Piip B I, 1959. Kamchatka and Continental Areas of Asia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 8: 1-110.

Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. Kliuchevskoi rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred at Kliuchevskoi during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.