Zhupanovsky

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  • 53.589°N
  • 159.15°E

  • 2899 m
    9509 ft

  • 300120
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Most Recent Weekly Report: 17 June-23 June 2015


KVERT reported that explosive activity at Zhupanovsky continued during 12-19 June. Weak steam-and-gas activity was observed on 14 June. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 16 June, as well as an ash cloud drifting 150 km W. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: September 2014 (BGVN 39:09)


Moderate explosions with ash plumes beginning October 2013
Download or Cite this Report

On 23 or 24 October 2013 Zhupanovsky erupted for the first time since the 1950’s. The report presents the eruptive activity of Zhupanovsky from 23 October 2013 through the end of December 2014. Data were summarized from reports of the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and various satellite remote sensors. In addition, observations of activity were recorded by KVERT scientists, park rangers, and aviation personnel. Zhupanovsky lacked in situ scientific monitoring instrumentation.

Zhupanovsky’s eruptions started on 23 October 2013 and paused during November 2013 through May 2014. The eruptions resumed in June 2014 and Zhupanovsky remained active through the rest of 2014.

Zhupanovsky lies in a volcanic region on the Kamchatka peninsula (figure 2). It is ~ 70 km N of the capital, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, a city of ~200,000 inhabitants.

Figure 2. (Inset) Map of Russia’s E region showing the Kamchatkan peninsula. (Main map) Zhupanovsky (red triangle) lies on the peninsula ~15 km from the Pacific coast shoreline. The city at the yellow dot is Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, ~70 km from the edge of Zhupanovsky. This is a Russian map of unknown authorship found online with additions by Bulletin editors.

 

There were two previous Bulletin reports on the volcano, both on fumarolic outgassing, seen during February 1990 (BGVN 15:03) and August 1993 (BGVN 18:08). As further background, Girina and others (2014) summarized Kamchatkan volcanism for the year 2013. There were 30 volcanoes active during the year; 3 of them (Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, and Karymsky) were continuously active.

October 2013 eruption. On 23 October 2013, KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly occurred over Zhupanovsky. The next day, a phreatic eruption began at about 0300 and generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 5 km. The ash plume, visible in satellite images, drifted 120 km SE and S. Ash deposits ~1 mm thick covered the Nalychevo Valley bordering the S of the massif. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.

On 26 October 2013, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS FEB RAS) scientists inspected the summit and found ~10 cm deep ash covered the crater area (figure 3). On 26 October, KVERT stated pilots and ground crew at Elizovo airport observed a gas-and-steam plume that may have contained ash. The plume rose to 1.5 km and drifted E. The airport, 22 km NNW from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, serves commercial airlines and Russian air force planes. On 27 October KVERT noted that strong fumarolic activity and gas emissions continued, but that the phreatic explosions likely had ceased. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow, and then lowered again to Green on 29 October.

Figure 3. (Top image) A picture of Zhupanovsky taken on 26 October 2013 below the crater looking ENE. (Bottom image) On the same day, a picture taken higher up on the ridge looking into the crater. Courtesy of KVERT. Captured by S. Samoilenko (Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Far Eastern Branch (IVS FEB RAS)).

 

On 5 November 2013, EO-1 satellite’s Advanced Land Imager (ALI) captured an ash plume emitted from Zhupanovsky (figure 4). Ash from the 26 October eruption was deposited in the crater area. Earth Observatory analysts interpreted the plume as containing erupted ash, which traveled SE. The plume in figure 4 appears low in density; however, reliable ash detection often requires analysis of spectral data.

Figure 4. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) remote sensor on EO-1 captured this image of Zhupanovsky on 5 November 2013. It shows ash deposited on snow and what was interpreted as a likely ongoing minor ash plume from the summit. In this natural-color image interpreted by NASA Earth Observatory analysts, snow on the high-elevation upper slopes appears white, ash deposits, dark, airborne ash, light gray, and small patches of bare rock, tan. The deep blue N of the crater is the shadow of the NE ridge of the Zhupanovsky massif. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory. Annotated by GVP from another version of this image previously captured, processed, and annotated by the NASA EO-1 team and NASA Earth Observatory’s Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon.

 

For about 7 months (from 7 November 2013 to 5 June 2014), there were no KVERT weekly reports or Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reports implying that Zhupanovsky had reverted to a non- eruptive state.

Eruption in 2014. On 6 June 2014, an eruption began that consisted of a series of explosions with numerous ash plumes. Throughout the rest of the year (and into 2015) Zhupanovsky remained eruptive. Of acute relevance to plume assessment towards aircraft safety, at least two plumes reached estimated altitudes near 10 km, many ash plumes extended over 100 km, and the longest one documented, near the end of November, rose to 6 km altitude and extended 422 km E to SE (table 1).

Table 1. Summary of ash plumes and other activity at Zhupanovsky registered during June-December 2014. Steaming and gas plumes were common but are often omitted here. NR means not reported; ACC means Aviation Color Code. Cloud cover prevented observations during many days. The data were taken from KVERT reports and Tokyo VAAC notices.

Month Ash plume (masl) Ash plume drift Other information
6 Jun 6 km   ACC raised to Yellow
9 Jun 3-4 km 60 km E  
9 and 11 Jun NR 100 km E Gas-and-steam plumes
14-20 Jun 3-8.5 km 70 km SE, NW, NE Thermal anomalies. ACC raised to Orange.
20-26 Jun NR 55 km NW  
2, 5, 9, 10 Jul 6 km 450 km E, SE Gas-and-steam activity on 2 and 4 July, Ash plumes to 6 km on 9 July. An ash plume drift to 450 km SE on10 July.
15-21 Jul 3.3-6.5 km 370 km N, 70 km NE Thermal anomalies. Gas-and-steam plumes. During 16-18 several ash plumes were detected by satellite
25 Jul-1 Aug 4-8.5 km W, 150 km N On 27 July ash plume detected by satellite
6 Aug NR 260 km ENE  
8-13 Aug 3-4.9 km E, SE, NE, ESE up to 100 km Ash explosions twice/hr on 8 Aug. Ash plumes on 11-13 Aug.
15-21 Aug 3-4.5 km 51 km S, 110 km SSE Thermal anomaly
22-28 Aug 3.5-4.3 km 80 km SW Thermal anomaly
29 Aug-9 Sep 2.7-11.6 km NW, 85 km various Thermal anomalies. Ash fall on nearby areas
10-16 Sep 2.4-4 km 50-113 km S, E, 220 km SE Thermal anomalies
19-26 Sep 3.5-4 km 80 km SW, NE Thermal anomaly
26 Sep-3 Oct 4-4.5 km 205 km E  
3-10 Oct     Thermal anomalies
10-17 Oct 9 km 411 km NE Thermal anomaly. Activity much decreased. Overflight on 17 Oct revealed only gas-and-steam activity. ACC lowered to Yellow.
8 Nov 10 km 26 km SSW Strong explosion. ACC raised to Orange.
9-10 Nov 3-4 km 190-270 km SE  
14-21 Nov     Volcano either quiet or obscured by clouds.
23-27 Nov 7-8 km 350 km E, SE Strong explosions on 23 and 25 Nov. Thermal anomaly.
28 Nov-1 Dec 6 km 422 km E, SE Thermal anomaly
5-12 Dec     Volcano either quiet or obscured by clouds. Thermal anomaly
12-19 Dec NR 70 km SE Intense steam-and-gas emissions on 17 Dec.
19-26 Dec     Intense steam-and-gas emissions on 24 Dec.
27-31 Dec 6-9 km 75 km ENE  

 

The Tokyo VAAC monitors volcanoes the Kamchatkan peninsula, detecting and tracking ash plumes through satellite imagery. During 2014, Tokyo VAAC released 176 Zhupanovsky Volcanic Ash Advisories (VAAs), often several per day (up to 5 on some days). During 2014, VAAs discussing Zhupanovsky came out during a total of 54 days. The VAAs identify the satellite, the date and time, the eruption details, and the ash plume velocity. An online archival system on their website furnishes access to the VAAs, enabling retrospective analysis.

The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has remained in charge of the East Asia and the Northwest Pacific region since March 1997 in its role as the Tokyo VAAC. VAAs are updated as a minimum at six-hour intervals (normally at 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC) for as long as ash clouds are identified in satellite imagery. If notable changes occur in ash clouds, the VAA is updated as often as needed. In the event that ash cloud extension is identified in satellite imagery, VAG (Volcanic Ash Graphic) and VAGI (Volcanic Ash Graphic for Initial Distribution) information is also issued. VAAs and these related products are disseminated to airlines, aviation authorities, MWOs and other related organizations through airport branches of JMA and aviation authorities.

The Tokyo VAAC monitors volcanoes the Kamchatkan peninsula, detecting and tracking ash plumes through satellite imagery. During 2014, Tokyo VAAC released 176 Zhupanovsky Volcanic Ash Advisories (VAAs), often several per day (up to 5 on some days). During 2014, VAAs discussing Zhupanovsky came out during a total of 54 days. The VAAs identify the satellite, the date and time, the eruption details, and the ash plume velocity. An online archival system on their website furnishes access to the VAAs, enabling retrospective analysis.

The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has remained in charge of the East Asia and the Northwest Pacific region since March 1997 in its role as the Tokyo VAAC. VAAs are updated as a minimum at six-hour intervals (normally at 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC) for as long as ash clouds are identified in satellite imagery. If notable changes occur in ash clouds, the VAA is updated as often as needed. In the event that ash cloud extension is identified in satellite imagery, VAG (Volcanic Ash Graphic) and VAGI (Volcanic Ash Graphic for Initial Distribution) information is also issued. VAAs and these related products are disseminated to airlines, aviation authorities, MWOs and other related organizations through airport branches of JMA and aviation authorities.

The Tokyo VAAC archive listed Zhupanovsky VAAs with plume altitudes and movements (table 2).

Table 2. A compilation of the Tokyo VAAC’s archive of Volcanic Ash Advisories (VAAs) relating to Zhupanovsky ash plumes during 2014.

Date(Mo/Dy) Time(UTC) Altitude(km) Direction Movement(km/hr)
06/06 2218Z 6 E 80
06/09 0330Z 4 E 39
06/09 0330Z 3 SE 19
06/12 0901Z 2 SE 46
06/13 0531Z 2 SE 11
06/18 1842Z 3 NW 28
06/19 1843Z 9 NE 6
07/10 0012Z 6 E 48
07/16 0239Z 7 N 19
07/17 1205Z 3 NE 19
07/18 0552Z 4 NE N/A
07/21 0245Z 4 NE N/A
07/27 0600Z 9 N 28
07/30 0517Z 5 W 30
08/11 2125Z 1 SE 30
08/12 2201Z 3 NE N/A
08/13 0000Z 5 E 19
08/19 2012Z 5 S 46
08/20 0003Z 5 S 56
08/28 2356Z 8 SW 46
08/29 1251Z 5 S 37
08/30 0514Z 5 S 28
09/01 0554Z 4 N 28
09/02 0355Z 5 SW 19
09/03 0555Z 5 S 28
09/04 0346Z 3 SE
09/07 0155Z 12 SW 56
09/08 0600Z 8 SW 37
09/09 2138Z 3 SE 37
09/10 0000Z 3 S 37
09/11 1200Z 3 S 46
09/12 0605Z 3 SE 37
         
09/13 2355Z 4 E 37
09/16 0345Z 4 SSW 44
09/17 1211Z 3 W 28
09/23 2250Z 1 SW 11
09/24 0010Z 4 SW 19
09/28 0551Z 5 E 46
10/11 2143Z 8 NE 46
10/12 0101Z 9 NE 56
11/07 2355Z 12 NE 48
11/08 1200Z 7 SE 56
11/09 0600Z 4 SE 74
11/10 1800Z 3 SE 111
11/22 2356Z 8 E 56
11/25 1800Z 8 SE 28
11/26 2219Z 4 SE 39
11/27 1155Z 4 SE 37
11/28 0247Z 6 E 46
11/29 1451Z 4 E 37
11/30 1155Z 4 E 37
12/15 2242Z 4 ENE 19
12/28 2348Z 9 ENE 9
12/29 0555Z 9 NE 19

 

Some 2014 images. A Zhupanovsky eruption was captured by the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8 (figure 5). Several OLI images were acquired on 12 September 2014) and put together into the mosaic seen here. In addition to the eruption of Zhupanovsky on the image, four other Kamchatkan volcanoes were emitting plumes, and a forest fire was also burning (figure 5). This time interval is accounted for in table 1 with several small to moderate ash plumes and thermal anomalies during 10-16 September 2014. Table 2 tabulates a VAA issued on 12 September 2014 that documented an ash plume to ~3 km.

Figure 5. The Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager captured a consecutive series of images on 12 September 2014 that are mosaicked on this image. The mosaic was made from six images of smaller area. Zhupanovsky and four other volcanoes were emitting plumes. Smoke from a wildfire burned N of Sheveluch. About a year earlier, during 23-25 October 2013, Zhupanovsky deposited ~1 mm of ash in the Nalychevo Valley bordering the S ramparts of Zhupanovsky’s E-W ridge. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory (Image by Jesse Allen). Notated by Bulletin editors.

Figure 6 represents the next example of an image for Zhupanovsky, a photo of an erupting ash plume amid clear conditions on 28 November 2014. The photo’s author was Russian volcanologist A. Sokorenko. The photo’s caption noted explosive activity of Zhupanovsky on 28 November and calling attention to the ash coverage on the volcano’s slopes

Figure 6. A photo taken (at 0015 UTC) on 28 November 2014 showing Zhupanovsky’s ash covered slopes and an emerging ash plume. Copyrighted photo by A. Sokorenko, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS.

 

Reference. Girina, OA, Manevich, AG, Melnikov, DV, Demyanchuk, YV, and Petrova, E., 2014, Explosive Eruptions of Kamchatkan Volcanoes in 2013 and Danger to Aviation. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts, Vienna, Austria [May 2014], Vol. 16, p. 1468

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)(URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/index_eng.php); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)(URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/ ; Institute of Volcanology and Seismology Russian Academy of Sciences, Far Eastern Branch (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); S. Samoilenko (IVS FEB RAS), and Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, NASA Earth Observatory (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/ ).

Weekly Reports - Index


2015: January | February | March | April | May | June
2014: June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2013: October

Weekly Reports


17 June-23 June 2015

KVERT reported that explosive activity at Zhupanovsky continued during 12-19 June. Weak steam-and-gas activity was observed on 14 June. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 16 June, as well as an ash cloud drifting 150 km W. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


10 June-16 June 2015

KVERT reported that explosive activity at Zhupanovsky continued during 5-12 June; ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6 km (a.s.l.) during 7-9 June. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 8-9 June, and ash clouds drifting 250 km SE on 9 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


3 June-9 June 2015

On 9 June KVERT reported that the moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued; a webcam and satellite images showed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 30 km S. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


20 May-26 May 2015

On 16 May KVERT reported that the explosive eruption that began at Zhupanovsky on 6 June 2014 ended at the beginning of April 2015. The last ash plume occurred on 3 April, although weak thermal anomalies continued to be detected. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. On 20 May an ash plume drifted 470 km E.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


13 May-19 May 2015

KVERT reported that weak activity continued at Zhupanovsky during 8-15 May. Satellite images detected a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano on 14 May; cloud cover prevented observations on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


6 May-12 May 2015

KVERT reported that moderate activity continued at Zhupanovsky during 1-8 May. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 3 and 5 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


29 April-5 May 2015

KVERT reported that moderate activity continued at Zhupanovsky during 24 April-1 May. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 25 and 28 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


22 April-28 April 2015

KVERT reported that strong gas-and-steam activity was observed at Zhupanovsky during 10-17 April. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was observed in satellite images during 16-17 and 23 April; cloud cover obscured views during 18-22 and 24 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


8 April-14 April 2015

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 3-10 April. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 25 km SE on 3 April and a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 9 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


1 April-7 April 2015

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 27 March-3 April. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 26 and 30 March, and 2 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


25 March-31 March 2015

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 20-27 March. Based on observers and webcam recordings, explosions produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. on 25 March and drifted more than 100 km ENE. A daily thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


18 March-24 March 2015

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 13-20 March. A webcam recorded incandescence from the crater on 15 March. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 350 km NE and S at an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. on 12 and 15 March. A thermal anomaly was also detected during 14-17 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 March-17 March 2015

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 6-13 March. Two strong explosions on 7 and 8 March generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 333 km E on 7 and 10 March, and 232 km NE on 8 March. A thermal anomaly was also detected during 7-10 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


4 March-10 March 2015

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 27 February-6 March. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 27 February, and 1 and 4 March. Ash clouds rose to altitudes of 3-8 km (10,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 400 km E. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


25 February-3 March 2015

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 20-27 February. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 20-22 and 25-26 February. Ash clouds rose to altitudes of 3-3.5 km (10,000-11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 250 km E and SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


18 February-24 February 2015

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 13-20 February. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 14-15 and 18 February. Ash clouds rose to altitudes of 3-3.5 km (10,000-11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 200 km W during 15-16 February and SE during 17-19 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 February-17 February 2015

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 6-13 February. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. Ash clouds rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 65 km W on 6 and 9 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


4 February-10 February 2015

KVERT reported that a moderate eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 30 January-6 February. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


28 January-3 February 2015

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 23-30 January. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 160 km SW and SE at altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. during 22 and 25-26 January, and a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 23 and 25-27 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


21 January-27 January 2015

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 16-23 January. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 17-20 January, and ash plumes drifting 300 km SW and E during 17-21 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


14 January-20 January 2015

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 9-16 January. Pilots observed ash clouds rising to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. on 11 January. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 40 km SW during 11-12 January, and a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 12 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


7 January-13 January 2015

KVERT reported that a moderate eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 2-9 January. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 50 km E on 6 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


31 December-6 January 2015

KVERT reported that an eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 27 December-4 January. Local airline pilots observed explosions and ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 6-9 km (19,700-29,500 ft) a.s.l. on 29 December. That same day ash plumes were observed in satellite images drifting 75 km ENE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


24 December-30 December 2014

KVERT reported that an eruption at Zhupanovsky likely continued during 19-26 December. Intense steam-and-gas emissions were observed on 24 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


17 December-23 December 2014

KVERT reported that an eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 12-19 December. Satellite images detected an ash plume drifting 70 km SE on 15 December and intense steam-and-gas emissions on 17 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


10 December-16 December 2014

KVERT reported that an eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 5-12 December. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly on 9 December; the volcano was either quiet or obscured by clouds on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


3 December-9 December 2014

KVERT reported that ash explosions at Zhupanovsky continued during 25 November-1 December. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 422 km E and SE during 28 November-1 December. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly during 28-29 November; the volcano was either quiet or obscured by clouds on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


26 November-2 December 2014

KVERT reported that strong explosions at Zhupanovsky were detected at 0206 on 23 November and 1214 on 25 November. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7-8 km (23,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 350 km E on 22 November and SE during 25-27 November. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 22, 25, and 27 November; cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


19 November-25 November 2014

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky likely continued during 14-21 November. Satellite images showed that the volcano was either quiet or obscured by clouds. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


12 November-18 November 2014

KVERT reported that moderate explosive eruptions at Zhupanovsky likely continued during 7-14 November. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 270 km SE during 7-10 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


5 November-11 November 2014

KVERT reported that a strong explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky occurred at 0955 on 8 November, generating an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 26 km SSW. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. On 9 November ash plumes detected in satellite images rose to altitudes of 3-4 km (9,800-13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 190-250 km SE.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


29 October-4 November 2014

KVERT reported that the eruption at Zhupanovsky had likely finished in mid-October; satellite images last detected an explosion on 11 October and a thermal anomaly on 12 October. Volcanologists conducting an overflight on 17 October observed only gas-and-steam activity from the active crater. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


22 October-28 October 2014

KVERT reported that an eruption at Zhupanovsky likely continued during 17-24 October. Satellite images were obscured by clouds. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


15 October-21 October 2014

KVERT reported that an explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 10-17 October. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly on the volcano during 10-12 October, and ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 9 km (29,500 ft) a.s.l. on 11 October and drifted 411 km NE during 11-12 October. Cloud cover prevented satellite views of the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


8 October-14 October 2014

KVERT reported that an explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 3-10 October. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly on 3 and 9 October; cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


1 October-7 October 2014

KVERT reported that an explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 26 September-3 October. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly on 27 September, and ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4-4.5 km (13,000-14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 205 km E on 28 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


24 September-30 September 2014

KVERT reported that an explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 19-26 September. Ground-based observers noted ash plumes drifting SW to Avachinsky Bay during 23-24 September. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly during 18 and 23-24 September, as well as ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 80 km SW and NE during 23-24 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


17 September-23 September 2014

KVERT reported that an explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 12-19 September. Volcanologists in Nalychevo Valley observed short-duration explosions on 13 September which generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly and ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 220 km SE and S during 13-14 and 16 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


10 September-16 September 2014

KVERT reported ashfall from Zhupanovsky in the area of IVS FEB RAS (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky) during 1100-1300 on 7-8 September. The moderate explosive eruption continued and Alert Level Orange was maintained through the week of 12 September. According to visual data, ash plumes extended about 50 and 70 km S and SE of the volcano on 10 and 11 September, respectively. Persistent thermal anomalies were detected from the summit area based on satellite images during 4-5 and 10-11 September.

Satellite data showed ash plumes up to 3.5-4.0 km (11,500-13,100 ft) a.s.l. mainly during 9-11 September, and ash plumes drifted about 1,113 km SE and S.

According to the Tokyo VAAC, ash plumes were detected by satellite images during 10-16 September with the exception of 15 September. Plume heights were 2,400-3,700 m (8,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l..

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 September-9 September 2014

According to KVERT, the moderate explosive eruption of Zhupanovsky continued and Alert Level Orange was maintained through 8 September. On 1 September visual data detected an ash plume to an altitude of 3,500 m (11,500 ft) a.s.l. drifting NW of the volcano. Satellite data showed ash plumes at 3,500-4,000 m (11,500-13,100 ft) a.s.l. that extended about 85 km in various directions on 28 and 30 August and 1-4 September. Persistent thermal anomalies were detected from the summit area based on satellite images.

KVERT reported three ash plumes drifting SW on 7 September. The plumes were 10 km, 38 km, and 72 km long at 2,500-3,000 m (8,200-9,840 ft) a.s.l. On 8 September, satellite images revealed an ash plume extending 52 km SW from the volcano.

According to the Tokyo VAAC, ash plumes and possible ash plumes were detected by satellite images during 29 August-9 September with the exception of 5 and 6 September. Plume heights were 2,700-11,600 m (9,000-38,000 ft) a.s.l..

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


27 August-2 September 2014

KVERT reported that during 22-28 August the moderate explosive eruption continued at Zhupanovsky. On 28 August ash plumes rose to 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 80 km SW. During 25-27 August satellite data showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano, but clouds prevented observations the other days of the week. The Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


20 August-26 August 2014

KVERT reported that during 15-21 August that moderate explosive eruption continued at Zhupanovsky. Satellite data showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 16-17 August. On 18 and 15 August the volcano was obscured by clouds. The Tokyo VAAC reported ash plumes rose to 3-4.5 km (10,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SSE. On August 19 KVERT reported that satellite data showed ash plumes drifted 51 km S of the volcano and on August 20 that ash plumes rose to 3 km (9800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km SSE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 August-19 August 2014

KVERT reported that during 8-14 August the moderate explosive eruption continued at Zhupanovsky. On 8 August staff of Volcanoes of Kamchatka Natural Park observed ash explosions twice an hour, with ash plumes rising up to 4 km (13,100 ft)a.s.l. drifting E. On 8 and 11-13 August satellite data showed that ash plumes rose to 4-4.5 km (13,100-14,800 ft)a.s.l. and drifted 80-100 km SE and NE Other days satellite data showed the volcano was obscured by clouds. On 12-13 August the Tokyo VAAC reported ash plumes to 3-4.9 km (10,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l that drifted SE, NE, and ESE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 August-12 August 2014

KVERT reported that during 1-7 August that the moderate explosive eruption continues at Zhupanovsky. On 6 August, KVERT reported an ash plume drifting 260 km ENE of the volcano. Most days satellite data showed the volcano was obscured by clouds.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


30 July-5 August 2014

KVERT reported that during 25 July-1 August the moderate explosive eruption continues at Zhupanovsky. On 27 July, satellite data showed ash plumes rose to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and extended 150 km N. The volcano was obscured by clouds 25 July-1 August. On 30 July Tokyo VAAC reported an ash plume rose 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 July-29 July 2014

KVERT reported that during 19-25 July the moderate explosive eruption continued at Zhupanovsky. On 18 and 21 July satellite data showed ash plumes that rose to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and extended about 30 and 70 km NE, respectively. A thermal anomaly was observed over the volcano on 19 and 21 July. Tokyo VAAC reported an ash plume on 27 July that rose to 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 July-22 July 2014

KVERT reported that on 15 July moderate gas-and-steam activity was observed at Zhupanovsky. On 16-17 July satellite data showed ash plumes that rose to 6-6.5 km (19,700-21,300 ft) a.s.l. and extended about 370 km N. A thermal anomaly was observed over the volcano on 16 July. The Tokyo VAAC reported ash plumes during 16-18 and 21 July drifting N and NE. Plume altitudes were in the range of 3.3-8.5 km (11,000-28,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 July-15 July 2014

KVERT reported that during 2, 5, and 9 July, moderate gas-and-steam activity was observed at Zhupanovsky. An ash plume up to 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. was observed on 9 July. Satellite data showed an ash plume extending up to 450 km E and SE of the volcano during 9-10 July. The Aviation Color Code was maintained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


25 June-1 July 2014

KVERT reported that during 20-26 June, moderate gas-and-steam activity was observed at Zhupanovsky. Satellite data showed ash plumes drifting 55 km NW from the volcano. During June 27-28 cloud cover prevented views from satellite. The Aviation Color Code is Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


18 June-24 June 2014

KVERT reported that, during 14-19 June, satellite images over Zhupanovsky detected gas-and-steam plumes with discrete ash plumes up to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. drifting up to 70 km SE and NW from the volcano. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly on 14-15 and 17-19 June. The Aviation Color Code was raised from Yellow to Orange.

Tokyo VAAC reported ash plumes during 18-20 June drifting NW and later NE. Plume heights were in range of 3,000-8,500 m (9,800-28,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 June-17 June 2014

KVERT reported that satellite images over Zhupanovsky detected gas-and-steam plumes drifting 100 km E on 9 and 11 June. Snow in the region was covered by ash. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


4 June-10 June 2014

KVERT reported that an eruption at Zhupanovsky began on 6 June, producing an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,900 ft) a.s.l., as suggested by Tokyo VAAC and UHPP notices. Cloud cover prevented views from satellite. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow. Satellite images on 9 June showed ash plumes rising to altitudes of 3-4 km (9,800-13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 60 km E.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


23 October-29 October 2013

KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Zhupanovsky was detected on 23 October. The next day a phreatic eruption began at about 0300 and generated an ash plume that rose 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. The ash plume was visible in satellite images drifting 40 km SE and S. Ash deposits about 10 cm thick were visible at the summit of the central part of the volcano, and deposits about 1 mm thick covered the Nalychevo Valley. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. Ash plumes at 1635 and 2218 rose to altitudes of 2.5-3 km (8,200-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 120 km ESE and 25 km S, respectively. At 1134 on 25 October an ash plume rose 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20 km NE. On 27 October KVERT noted that strong fumarolic activity and gas emissions continued, but that the phreatic explosions likely had ceased. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow, and then lowered again to Green on 29 October.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


Bulletin Reports - Index


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

03/1990 (BGVN 15:03) Four vigorous fumaroles

08/1993 (BGVN 18:08) Fumarolic emissions from active crater

09/2014 (BGVN 39:09) Moderate explosions with ash plumes beginning October 2013




Bulletin Reports

Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


03/1990 (BGVN 15:03) Four vigorous fumaroles
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On 2 February, fumarolic activity was noted in two vents inside the active crater and two vents to the W (figure 1).

Figure 1. Active fumarolic vents at Zhupanovsky, looking roughly E on 2 February 1990. Courtesy of B. Ivanov.

Information Contacts: B. Ivanov, IV.

08/1993 (BGVN 18:08) Fumarolic emissions from active crater
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An overflight by members of SVE on 24 August 1993 revealed that significant fumarolic activity was present in the summit area. Fumarolic emissions were coming from the active crater, as well as from other parts of the summit ridge W of the second cone's crater. Yellow sulfur deposits were visible at several locations.

Information Contacts: H. Gaudru, SVE, Switzerland.

09/2014 (BGVN 39:09) Moderate explosions with ash plumes beginning October 2013
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On 23 or 24 October 2013 Zhupanovsky erupted for the first time since the 1950’s. The report presents the eruptive activity of Zhupanovsky from 23 October 2013 through the end of December 2014. Data were summarized from reports of the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and various satellite remote sensors. In addition, observations of activity were recorded by KVERT scientists, park rangers, and aviation personnel. Zhupanovsky lacked in situ scientific monitoring instrumentation.

Zhupanovsky’s eruptions started on 23 October 2013 and paused during November 2013 through May 2014. The eruptions resumed in June 2014 and Zhupanovsky remained active through the rest of 2014.

Zhupanovsky lies in a volcanic region on the Kamchatka peninsula (figure 2). It is ~ 70 km N of the capital, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, a city of ~200,000 inhabitants.

Figure 2. (Inset) Map of Russia’s E region showing the Kamchatkan peninsula. (Main map) Zhupanovsky (red triangle) lies on the peninsula ~15 km from the Pacific coast shoreline. The city at the yellow dot is Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, ~70 km from the edge of Zhupanovsky. This is a Russian map of unknown authorship found online with additions by Bulletin editors.

 

There were two previous Bulletin reports on the volcano, both on fumarolic outgassing, seen during February 1990 (BGVN 15:03) and August 1993 (BGVN 18:08). As further background, Girina and others (2014) summarized Kamchatkan volcanism for the year 2013. There were 30 volcanoes active during the year; 3 of them (Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, and Karymsky) were continuously active.

October 2013 eruption. On 23 October 2013, KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly occurred over Zhupanovsky. The next day, a phreatic eruption began at about 0300 and generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 5 km. The ash plume, visible in satellite images, drifted 120 km SE and S. Ash deposits ~1 mm thick covered the Nalychevo Valley bordering the S of the massif. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.

On 26 October 2013, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS FEB RAS) scientists inspected the summit and found ~10 cm deep ash covered the crater area (figure 3). On 26 October, KVERT stated pilots and ground crew at Elizovo airport observed a gas-and-steam plume that may have contained ash. The plume rose to 1.5 km and drifted E. The airport, 22 km NNW from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, serves commercial airlines and Russian air force planes. On 27 October KVERT noted that strong fumarolic activity and gas emissions continued, but that the phreatic explosions likely had ceased. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow, and then lowered again to Green on 29 October.

Figure 3. (Top image) A picture of Zhupanovsky taken on 26 October 2013 below the crater looking ENE. (Bottom image) On the same day, a picture taken higher up on the ridge looking into the crater. Courtesy of KVERT. Captured by S. Samoilenko (Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Far Eastern Branch (IVS FEB RAS)).

 

On 5 November 2013, EO-1 satellite’s Advanced Land Imager (ALI) captured an ash plume emitted from Zhupanovsky (figure 4). Ash from the 26 October eruption was deposited in the crater area. Earth Observatory analysts interpreted the plume as containing erupted ash, which traveled SE. The plume in figure 4 appears low in density; however, reliable ash detection often requires analysis of spectral data.

Figure 4. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) remote sensor on EO-1 captured this image of Zhupanovsky on 5 November 2013. It shows ash deposited on snow and what was interpreted as a likely ongoing minor ash plume from the summit. In this natural-color image interpreted by NASA Earth Observatory analysts, snow on the high-elevation upper slopes appears white, ash deposits, dark, airborne ash, light gray, and small patches of bare rock, tan. The deep blue N of the crater is the shadow of the NE ridge of the Zhupanovsky massif. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory. Annotated by GVP from another version of this image previously captured, processed, and annotated by the NASA EO-1 team and NASA Earth Observatory’s Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon.

 

For about 7 months (from 7 November 2013 to 5 June 2014), there were no KVERT weekly reports or Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reports implying that Zhupanovsky had reverted to a non- eruptive state.

Eruption in 2014. On 6 June 2014, an eruption began that consisted of a series of explosions with numerous ash plumes. Throughout the rest of the year (and into 2015) Zhupanovsky remained eruptive. Of acute relevance to plume assessment towards aircraft safety, at least two plumes reached estimated altitudes near 10 km, many ash plumes extended over 100 km, and the longest one documented, near the end of November, rose to 6 km altitude and extended 422 km E to SE (table 1).

Table 1. Summary of ash plumes and other activity at Zhupanovsky registered during June-December 2014. Steaming and gas plumes were common but are often omitted here. NR means not reported; ACC means Aviation Color Code. Cloud cover prevented observations during many days. The data were taken from KVERT reports and Tokyo VAAC notices.

Month Ash plume (masl) Ash plume drift Other information
6 Jun 6 km   ACC raised to Yellow
9 Jun 3-4 km 60 km E  
9 and 11 Jun NR 100 km E Gas-and-steam plumes
14-20 Jun 3-8.5 km 70 km SE, NW, NE Thermal anomalies. ACC raised to Orange.
20-26 Jun NR 55 km NW  
2, 5, 9, 10 Jul 6 km 450 km E, SE Gas-and-steam activity on 2 and 4 July, Ash plumes to 6 km on 9 July. An ash plume drift to 450 km SE on10 July.
15-21 Jul 3.3-6.5 km 370 km N, 70 km NE Thermal anomalies. Gas-and-steam plumes. During 16-18 several ash plumes were detected by satellite
25 Jul-1 Aug 4-8.5 km W, 150 km N On 27 July ash plume detected by satellite
6 Aug NR 260 km ENE  
8-13 Aug 3-4.9 km E, SE, NE, ESE up to 100 km Ash explosions twice/hr on 8 Aug. Ash plumes on 11-13 Aug.
15-21 Aug 3-4.5 km 51 km S, 110 km SSE Thermal anomaly
22-28 Aug 3.5-4.3 km 80 km SW Thermal anomaly
29 Aug-9 Sep 2.7-11.6 km NW, 85 km various Thermal anomalies. Ash fall on nearby areas
10-16 Sep 2.4-4 km 50-113 km S, E, 220 km SE Thermal anomalies
19-26 Sep 3.5-4 km 80 km SW, NE Thermal anomaly
26 Sep-3 Oct 4-4.5 km 205 km E  
3-10 Oct     Thermal anomalies
10-17 Oct 9 km 411 km NE Thermal anomaly. Activity much decreased. Overflight on 17 Oct revealed only gas-and-steam activity. ACC lowered to Yellow.
8 Nov 10 km 26 km SSW Strong explosion. ACC raised to Orange.
9-10 Nov 3-4 km 190-270 km SE  
14-21 Nov     Volcano either quiet or obscured by clouds.
23-27 Nov 7-8 km 350 km E, SE Strong explosions on 23 and 25 Nov. Thermal anomaly.
28 Nov-1 Dec 6 km 422 km E, SE Thermal anomaly
5-12 Dec     Volcano either quiet or obscured by clouds. Thermal anomaly
12-19 Dec NR 70 km SE Intense steam-and-gas emissions on 17 Dec.
19-26 Dec     Intense steam-and-gas emissions on 24 Dec.
27-31 Dec 6-9 km 75 km ENE  

 

The Tokyo VAAC monitors volcanoes the Kamchatkan peninsula, detecting and tracking ash plumes through satellite imagery. During 2014, Tokyo VAAC released 176 Zhupanovsky Volcanic Ash Advisories (VAAs), often several per day (up to 5 on some days). During 2014, VAAs discussing Zhupanovsky came out during a total of 54 days. The VAAs identify the satellite, the date and time, the eruption details, and the ash plume velocity. An online archival system on their website furnishes access to the VAAs, enabling retrospective analysis.

The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has remained in charge of the East Asia and the Northwest Pacific region since March 1997 in its role as the Tokyo VAAC. VAAs are updated as a minimum at six-hour intervals (normally at 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC) for as long as ash clouds are identified in satellite imagery. If notable changes occur in ash clouds, the VAA is updated as often as needed. In the event that ash cloud extension is identified in satellite imagery, VAG (Volcanic Ash Graphic) and VAGI (Volcanic Ash Graphic for Initial Distribution) information is also issued. VAAs and these related products are disseminated to airlines, aviation authorities, MWOs and other related organizations through airport branches of JMA and aviation authorities.

The Tokyo VAAC monitors volcanoes the Kamchatkan peninsula, detecting and tracking ash plumes through satellite imagery. During 2014, Tokyo VAAC released 176 Zhupanovsky Volcanic Ash Advisories (VAAs), often several per day (up to 5 on some days). During 2014, VAAs discussing Zhupanovsky came out during a total of 54 days. The VAAs identify the satellite, the date and time, the eruption details, and the ash plume velocity. An online archival system on their website furnishes access to the VAAs, enabling retrospective analysis.

The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has remained in charge of the East Asia and the Northwest Pacific region since March 1997 in its role as the Tokyo VAAC. VAAs are updated as a minimum at six-hour intervals (normally at 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC) for as long as ash clouds are identified in satellite imagery. If notable changes occur in ash clouds, the VAA is updated as often as needed. In the event that ash cloud extension is identified in satellite imagery, VAG (Volcanic Ash Graphic) and VAGI (Volcanic Ash Graphic for Initial Distribution) information is also issued. VAAs and these related products are disseminated to airlines, aviation authorities, MWOs and other related organizations through airport branches of JMA and aviation authorities.

The Tokyo VAAC archive listed Zhupanovsky VAAs with plume altitudes and movements (table 2).

Table 2. A compilation of the Tokyo VAAC’s archive of Volcanic Ash Advisories (VAAs) relating to Zhupanovsky ash plumes during 2014.

Date(Mo/Dy) Time(UTC) Altitude(km) Direction Movement(km/hr)
06/06 2218Z 6 E 80
06/09 0330Z 4 E 39
06/09 0330Z 3 SE 19
06/12 0901Z 2 SE 46
06/13 0531Z 2 SE 11
06/18 1842Z 3 NW 28
06/19 1843Z 9 NE 6
07/10 0012Z 6 E 48
07/16 0239Z 7 N 19
07/17 1205Z 3 NE 19
07/18 0552Z 4 NE N/A
07/21 0245Z 4 NE N/A
07/27 0600Z 9 N 28
07/30 0517Z 5 W 30
08/11 2125Z 1 SE 30
08/12 2201Z 3 NE N/A
08/13 0000Z 5 E 19
08/19 2012Z 5 S 46
08/20 0003Z 5 S 56
08/28 2356Z 8 SW 46
08/29 1251Z 5 S 37
08/30 0514Z 5 S 28
09/01 0554Z 4 N 28
09/02 0355Z 5 SW 19
09/03 0555Z 5 S 28
09/04 0346Z 3 SE
09/07 0155Z 12 SW 56
09/08 0600Z 8 SW 37
09/09 2138Z 3 SE 37
09/10 0000Z 3 S 37
09/11 1200Z 3 S 46
09/12 0605Z 3 SE 37
         
09/13 2355Z 4 E 37
09/16 0345Z 4 SSW 44
09/17 1211Z 3 W 28
09/23 2250Z 1 SW 11
09/24 0010Z 4 SW 19
09/28 0551Z 5 E 46
10/11 2143Z 8 NE 46
10/12 0101Z 9 NE 56
11/07 2355Z 12 NE 48
11/08 1200Z 7 SE 56
11/09 0600Z 4 SE 74
11/10 1800Z 3 SE 111
11/22 2356Z 8 E 56
11/25 1800Z 8 SE 28
11/26 2219Z 4 SE 39
11/27 1155Z 4 SE 37
11/28 0247Z 6 E 46
11/29 1451Z 4 E 37
11/30 1155Z 4 E 37
12/15 2242Z 4 ENE 19
12/28 2348Z 9 ENE 9
12/29 0555Z 9 NE 19

 

Some 2014 images. A Zhupanovsky eruption was captured by the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8 (figure 5). Several OLI images were acquired on 12 September 2014) and put together into the mosaic seen here. In addition to the eruption of Zhupanovsky on the image, four other Kamchatkan volcanoes were emitting plumes, and a forest fire was also burning (figure 5). This time interval is accounted for in table 1 with several small to moderate ash plumes and thermal anomalies during 10-16 September 2014. Table 2 tabulates a VAA issued on 12 September 2014 that documented an ash plume to ~3 km.

Figure 5. The Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager captured a consecutive series of images on 12 September 2014 that are mosaicked on this image. The mosaic was made from six images of smaller area. Zhupanovsky and four other volcanoes were emitting plumes. Smoke from a wildfire burned N of Sheveluch. About a year earlier, during 23-25 October 2013, Zhupanovsky deposited ~1 mm of ash in the Nalychevo Valley bordering the S ramparts of Zhupanovsky’s E-W ridge. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory (Image by Jesse Allen). Notated by Bulletin editors.

Figure 6 represents the next example of an image for Zhupanovsky, a photo of an erupting ash plume amid clear conditions on 28 November 2014. The photo’s author was Russian volcanologist A. Sokorenko. The photo’s caption noted explosive activity of Zhupanovsky on 28 November and calling attention to the ash coverage on the volcano’s slopes

Figure 6. A photo taken (at 0015 UTC) on 28 November 2014 showing Zhupanovsky’s ash covered slopes and an emerging ash plume. Copyrighted photo by A. Sokorenko, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS.

 

Reference. Girina, OA, Manevich, AG, Melnikov, DV, Demyanchuk, YV, and Petrova, E., 2014, Explosive Eruptions of Kamchatkan Volcanoes in 2013 and Danger to Aviation. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts, Vienna, Austria [May 2014], Vol. 16, p. 1468

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)(URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/index_eng.php); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)(URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/ ; Institute of Volcanology and Seismology Russian Academy of Sciences, Far Eastern Branch (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); S. Samoilenko (IVS FEB RAS), and Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, NASA Earth Observatory (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/ ).

Geological Background


The Zhupanovsky volcanic massif consists of four overlapping stratovolcanoes along a WNW-trending ridge. The elongated volcanic complex was constructed within a Pliocene-early Pleistocene caldera whose rim is exposed only on the eastern side. Three of the stratovolcanoes were built during the Pleistocene, the fourth is Holocene in age and was the source of all of Zhupanovsky's historical eruptions. An early Holocene stage of frequent moderate and weak eruptions from 7000 to 5000 years before present (BP) was succeeded by a period of infrequent larger eruptions that produced pyroclastic flows. The last major eruption took place about 800-900 years BP. Historical eruptions have consisted of relatively minor explosions from the third cone.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2014 Jun 6 2015 Apr 3 (continuing) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
2013 Oct 23 2013 Oct 26 ± 1 days Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1959 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1956 Dec 27 1957 Jun Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Middle crater, east crater
1940 Jan 1940 Feb Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1929 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1925 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1882 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1776 Oct Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1000 ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
0050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
0220 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
3050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
5050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Zhupanovskaia, Sopka | Vahilskaia, Sopka | Vakhilskaya | Shupanowskij | Choupanov | Vakhul'skaya Sopka

Photo Gallery


During an eruption in January 1991, a lava dome filled the summit crater of Avachinsky and produced these dark lava flows that spilled over the south rim and traveled 1.5 km down the SSE flank. The modern cone of Avachinsky was constructed within a large horseshoe-shaped caldera, whose rims form the prominent ridge at the right and the more subdued ridge at the left. The breached caldera was formed by collapse of the volcano during the Pleistocene. The complex Zhupanovsky stratovolcano forms the center horizon to the NE.

Photo by Oleg Volynets, 1991 (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
Vigorous steam plumes rise from fumaroles on the summit ridge of Zhupanovsky volcano in February 1990. This view from the west shows plumes rising from the flanks of the historically active crater (bottom) and from the ridge above it, which forms the 2nd of Zhupanovsky's four stratovolcanoes. The peak at the top of the photo is the 2958-m-high summit of Zhupanovsky.

Photo by B.V. Ivanov, 1990 (Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Petropavlovsk).
All four stratovolcanoes forming the WNW-trending Zhupanovsky volcanic massif are seen in this view from the west. The upper peak marks the 2958-m-high summit of the complex, and the ridge below and to the right is the second stratovolcano. Steam rises from the historically active crater at the left center, which caps the third stratovolcano, the only one that was constructed during the Holocene. Historical eruptions have consisted of relatively minor explosions from this crater. The fourth cone (lower left) is the westernmost and lowest.

Photo by Oleg Volynets (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
A 200-250 m wide crater occupied the summit of Karymsky volcano following a long-term eruption during 1970-82. This early 1990's photo looks into the crater from the NE. Several other prominent central Kamchatka volcanoes form the snow-capped alignment of volcanoes in the background. Zhupanovsky volcano, at the extreme left, is composed of four overlapping stratovolcanoes constructed along an WNW-ESE line. Sharp-peaked Koryaksky volcano is at the left center, and the broad Dzensursky massif to its right.

Photo by Dan Miller (U.S. Geological Survey).

References


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Fedotov S A, Masurenkov Y P (eds), 1991. Active Volcanoes of Kamchatka. Moscow: Nauka Pub, 2 volumes.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Kozhemyaka N N, 1995. Active volcanoes of Kamchatka: types and growth time of cones, total volumes of erupted material, productivity, and composition of rocks. Volc Seism, 16: 581-594 (English translation).

Luchitsky I V (ed), 1974. History of the Development of Relief of Siberia and the Far East. Kamchatka, Kurile and Komander Islands. Moscow: Nauka Pub, 439 p (in Russian).

Vlasov G M, 1967. Kamchatka, Kuril, and Komandorskiye Islands: geological description. In: {Geol of the USSR}, Moscow, 31: 1-827.

Vlodavetz V I, Piip B I, 1959. Kamchatka and Continental Areas of Asia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 8: 1-110.

Volcano Types

Compound
Caldera
Lava dome(s)
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Dacite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
0
153
267,080

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Zhupanovsky Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.